Gabriel Goodman became the Dean of Westminster on 23 September 1561 and the re-founder of Ruthin School, in Ruthin, Denbighshire. In 1568 he translated the “First Epistle to the Corinthians" for the “Bishops' Bible” and assisted Dr William Morgan with his translation of the Bible into Welsh, he is mentioned on the monument to William Morgan. Gabriel Goodman, the second son of Edward Goodman, a wealthy merchant in Ruthin, was born at Nantclwyd y Dre, Ruthin in 1528. Little is known of his early years, but a nineteenth-century biography suggests that he was taught at home by one of the priests of the dissolved collegiate church at Ruthin. Goodman matriculated to the University of Cambridge from Jesus College in 1546, he graduated BA in 1549 or 1550, M. A. from Christ's College in 1553. He returned to Jesus College as a fellow in 1554, he proceeded under special dispensation to a D. D. from St John's College in 1564. He became chaplain to Sir William Cecil Lord Burghley, tutor to William's eldest son Thomas Cecil, Earl of Exeter.
In 1559 Goodman was made a prebendary of St Paul's Cathedral to which he added a prebend of Westminster Collegiate Church in May 1560. The old Westminster Abbey had been dissolved and the monks dispersed or pensioned. Queen Elizabeth I reinstituted the establishment as a collegiate church with Dr Bill as Dean and Gabriel Goodman as twelfth prebendary. Sometime in 1561 Goodman was promoted to the position of Dean and in January 1562 he was concerned in "a memorable convocation of the clergy of the Province of Canterbury wherein the matters of Church were to be debated and settled for the future regular service of God and establishment of orthodox Doctrine"; the convocation's deliberation culminated in the Thirty-Nine Articles of which Goodman was a signatory. When William Morgan was supervising the printing of the Welsh Bible he stayed with Goodman at the Deanery. Dean Goodman was well versed in several languages and was considered for seven bishoprics but, for reasons which are not clear, Goodman's attempts to secure a diocese were unsuccessful.
Notwithstanding the support of Matthew Parker, Archbishop of Canterbury, Goodman failed to gain the see of Norwich in 1575, Rochester in 1581, Chichester in 1585 and Chester in 1596. In 1574 Goodman returned to his home-town of Ruthin. In addition to signing a petition to the Countess of Warwick to arrange a new charter for the borough, Goodman had built a new School-house to the north of St Peter's Church. Whilst there is evidence to suggest that Ruthin School had continued to function after the dissolution of the collegiate church in or about 1535, it is not clear where the school was held, it therefore appears that Goodman had the new building constructed to provide a permanent home for his old school. Over the next decades Goodman endeavoured to secure Ruthin School's future. On 23 February 1591 Goodman presented the lands and incomes of the churches of Ruthin and Llanrhydd, in perpetuity, to the President and the Warden of Ruthin and in May 1599 he returned home "to perfect that work begun of the school".
Gabriel Goodman was buried in Westminster Abbey. A memorial monument was installed in the Ambulatory Chapel of St Benedict with a Latin inscription translating as: In 1583 and 1598 Goodman gave two bells inscibed “Campanis Patrem Laudate Sonantibus Cultum. Gabriel Goodman Decanus 1598" to Westminster Abbey. In his will Goodman left his library of religious books in the “…. Special care of the President and Warden” …will see that there will be no lack of preaching in St Peter's Church of Ruthin, or any other in that Deanery where they may do good”. Goodman's motto was Dei Gratia Sum Quod Sum “By the Grace of God I am What I am”, it appears on the front gable of a row of houses called Providence Place in Woking, Surrey
Joseph Armitage Robinson, KCVO, FBA, DD was a priest in the Church of England and scholar. He was successively Dean of Westminster and of Wells. Robinson was born the son of a poor vicar in Keynsham, was educated at Liverpool College and Christ's College, Cambridge of which he became a Fellow, he was ordained deacon in the Diocese of Ely in 1881, priest in 1882, when he was Fellow. After a BA degree in 1881, he received his MA degree in 1884, was made Bachelor of Divinity in 1891, Doctor of Divinity in 1896, his first ecclesiastical posting was a Domestic Chaplain to Joseph Lightfoot, Bishop of Durham from 1883 to 1884, following which he was curate of Great St. Mary, Cambridge until 1886 a Cambridge Whitehall preacher from 1886 to 1888; that year he was appointed examining chaplain to the Bishop of Bath and Wells and Vicar of All Saints' Church, Cambridge where he stayed from 1888 until 1892. He was a Dean of Christ′s College, Cambridge from 1884 to 1890. In 1893 he was appointed Norrisian professor of Divinity at Cambridge university, serving as such until 1899, during which he was a Prebendary of Wells Cathedral.
He served as rector of St Margaret's, Westminster 1899–1900, was appointed a Canon of Westminster in 1899, serving until his appointment as dean. In January 1902 he was appointed a Chaplain-in-Ordinary to King Edward VII; the Dean of Westminster, George Granville Bradley, was ill throughout most of 1902, but wanted to stay in the position until the coronation of the King in August. He resigned the following month, the King appointed Robinson Dean of Westminster in early October 1902, in which position he served until he was appointed Dean of Wells in 1911, it has been suggested that the move to Wells was arranged to avoid friction in the run-up to the coronation of George V. Robinson was Lord High Almoner from 1906 to 1933; as Dean of Wells Robinson enjoyed close links with Downside Abbey. He critically explored the origins of the Glastonbury legends to which the Glastonbury Festival had revived attention. A renowned scholar in patristics, Armitage Robinson was a participant in the bilateral Anglican-Roman Catholic Malines Conversations.
He held honorary doctorates from Halle. He was appointed Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order in 1932, died on 7 May 1933. Encyclopaedia Biblica, 1903. St. Paul's Epistle to the Ephesians, A revised text and translation with exposition and notes London 1903, Second Edition 1904; the Lausiac History of Palladius,Cambridge 1904. The Lausiac History of Palladius, 1918; the Demonstration of the Apostolic Preaching, 1920 The Saxon Bishops of Wells, London, 1919. Somerset Historical Essays, Oxford,1921; the Times of St. Dunstan, Oxford, 1923. Two Glastonbury Legends: King Arthur and Joseph of Arimathaea, Cambridge 1926. Reprinted in 2010 by Kessinger Publishing, LLC. ISBN 978-1-169-68948-0 Taylor, T. F.. J. Armitage Robinson. Cambridge: James Clarke. Pp. 144 pp. ISBN 0-227-67913-X. OCLC 25632121. Creed, John Martin. Joseph Armitage Robinson, 1858–1933. From the proceedings of the British Academy. Volume XX. London: Milford. Pp. 14 p. 27 cm. OCLC 24684382. Canadian Press. "Dr. Robinson Dead; the New York Times.
P. 17. Retrieved 2008-07-21. Taylor, T. F.. "Robinson, Joseph Armitage". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/35797. Retrieved 4 November 2009
William Buckland DD, FRS was an English theologian who became Dean of Westminster. He was a geologist and palaeontologist, he wrote the first full account of a fossil dinosaur. His work proved that Kirkdale Cave had been a prehistoric hyena den, for which he was awarded the Copley Medal, it was praised as an example of. He pioneered the use of fossilised faeces in reconstructing ecosystems. Buckland followed the Gap Theory in interpreting the biblical account of Genesis as two separated episodes of creation, it had emerged as a way to reconcile the scriptural account with discoveries in geology suggesting the earth was old. Early in his career Buckland believed he had found evidence of the biblical flood, but saw that the glaciation theory of Louis Agassiz gave a better explanation, played a significant role in promoting it. Buckland was born at Axminster in Devon and, as a child, would accompany his father, the Rector of Templeton and Trusham, on his walks where interest in road improvements led to collecting fossil shells, including ammonites, from the Jurassic-era lias rocks exposed in local quarries.
He was educated first at Blundell's School, Devon, at Winchester College, from where he won a scholarship to Corpus Christi College, matriculating in 1801, graduating BA in 1805. He attended lectures of John Kidd on mineralogy and chemistry, developed an interest in geology, carried out field research on strata during his vacations, he went on to obtain his MA degree in 1808, became a Fellow of Corpus Christi in 1809, was ordained as a priest. He continued to make frequent geological excursions, on horseback, to various parts of England, Scotland and Wales. In 1813, Buckland was appointed reader in mineralogy, in succession to John Kidd, giving lively and popular lectures with increasing emphasis on geology and palaeontology; as an unofficial curator of the Ashmolean Museum, he built up collections, touring Europe and coming into contact with scholars including Georges Cuvier. In 1818, Buckland was elected a fellow of the Royal Society; that year he persuaded the Prince Regent to endow an additional Readership, this time in Geology and he became the first holder of the new appointment, delivering his inaugural address on 15 May 1819.
This was published in 1820 as Vindiciæ Geologiæ. At a time when others were coming under the opposing influence of James Hutton's theory of uniformitarianism, Buckland developed a new hypothesis that the word "beginning" in Genesis meant an undefined period between the origin of the earth and the creation of its current inhabitants, during which a long series of extinctions and successive creations of new kinds of plants and animals had occurred. Thus, his catastrophism theory incorporated a version of Old Earth Gap creationism. Buckland believed in a global deluge during the time of Noah but was not a supporter of flood geology as he believed that only a small amount of the strata could have been formed in the single year occupied by the deluge. From his investigations of fossil bones at Kirkdale Cave, in Yorkshire, he concluded that the cave had been inhabited by hyaenas in antediluvian times, that the fossils were the remains of these hyaenas and the animals they had eaten, rather than being remains of animals that had perished in the Flood and carried from the tropics by the surging waters, as he and others had at first thought.
In 1822 he wrote: It must appear probable, from the facts above described from the comminuted state and gnawed condition of the bones, that the cave in Kirkdale was, during a long succession of years, inhabited as a den of hyaenas, that they dragged into its recesses the other animal bodies whose remains are found mixed indiscriminately with their own: this conjecture is rendered certain by the discovery I made, of many small balls of the solid calcareous excrement of an animal that had fed on bones... It was at first sight recognised by the keeper of the Menagerie at Exter Change, as resembling, in both form and appearance, the faeces of the spotted or cape hyaena, which he stated to be greedy of bones beyond all other beasts in his care. While criticised by some, Buckland's analysis of Kirkland Cave and other bone caves was seen as a model for how careful analysis could be used to reconstruct the Earth's past, the Royal Society awarded Buckland the Copley Medal in 1822 for his paper on Kirkdale Cave.
At the presentation the society's president, Humphry Davy, said: by these inquiries, a distinct epoch has, as it were, been established in the history of the revolutions of our globe: a point fixed from which our researches may be pursued through the immensity of ages, the records of animate nature, as it were, carried back to the time of the creation. While Buckland's analysis convinced him that the bones found in Kirkdale Cave had not been washed into the cave by a global flood, he still believed the thin layer of mud that covered the remains of the hyaena den had been deposited in the subsequent'Universal Deluge', he developed these ideas into his great scientific work Reliquiæ Diluvianæ, or, Observations on the Organic Remains attesting the Action of a Universal Deluge, published in 1823 and became a best seller. However, over the next decade as geology continued to progress Buckland changed his mind. In his famous Bridgewater Treatise, published in 1836, he acknowledged that the biblical account of Noah's flood could
The Lord Steward or Lord Steward of the Household, in England, is an important official of the Royal Household. He is always a peer; until 1924, he was always a member of the Government. Until 1782, the office carried Cabinet rank; the Lord Steward receives his appointment from the Sovereign in person and bears a white staff as the emblem and warrant of his authority. He is the first dignitary of the court. In the House of Lords Precedence Act 1539, an Act of Parliament for placing of the lords, he is described as the grand master or lord steward of the king's most honourable household, he presided at the Board of Green Cloth, until the Board of Green Cloth disappeared in the reform of local government licensing in 2004, brought about by the Licensing Act 2003. In his department are the Treasurer of the Household and Comptroller of the Household, who rank next to him; these officials were peers or the sons of peers and Privy Councillors. They sat at the Board of Green Cloth, carry white staves, belong to the ministry.
The offices are now held by Government whips in the House of Commons. The duties which in theory belong to the Lord Steward and Comptroller of the Household are in practice performed by the Master of the Household, a permanent officer and resides in the palace. However, by the Coroners Act 1988, the Lord Steward still appoints the Coroner of the Queen's Household; the Master of the Household is a white-staff officer and was a member of the Board of Green Cloth but not of the ministry, among other things he presided at the daily dinners of the suite in waiting on the sovereign. He is not named in the Black Book of Edward IV or in the Statutes of Henry VIII and is entered as master of the household and clerk of the green cloth in the Household Book of Queen Elizabeth, but he has superseded the lord steward of the household, as the lord steward of the household at one time superseded the Lord High Steward of England. In the Lord Steward's department were the officials of the Board of Green Cloth, the Coroner, Paymaster of the Household, the officers of the Royal Almonry.
Other offices in the department were those of the Cofferer of the Household, the Treasurer of the Chamber, the Paymaster of Pensions, but these, with six clerks of the Board of Green Cloth, were abolished in 1782. The Lord Steward had three courts besides the Board of Green Cloth under him—the Lord Steward's Court, superseded in 1541 by the Marshalsea Court, the Palace Court; the Lord Steward or his deputies administered the oaths to the members of the House of Commons. In certain cases the lords with white staves are the proper persons to bear communications between the Sovereign and the Houses of Parliament. Sir Thomas Rempston 1399–1401 Thomas Percy, 1st Earl of Worcester 1401–1402 William Heron, Lord Say 1402–1404 Sir Thomas Erpingham 1404 Sir John Stanley 1405–1412 Sir Thomas Erpingham 1413–1417 Sir Walter Hungerford 1413–1421 Robert Babthorp 1421–1424 Sir Walter Hungerford 1424–1426 Sir John Tiptoft 1426–1432 Robert Babthorp 1432–1433 William de la Pole, 1st Marquess of Suffolk 1433–1446 Ralph Boteler, 1st Baron Sudeley 1447–1457 John Beauchamp, 1st Baron Beauchamp 1457–1461 William Neville, 1st Earl of Kent 1461–1463 John Tiptoft, 1st Earl of Worcester 1463–1467 Henry Bourchier, 1st Earl of Essex 1467–1470 Thomas Stanley, 1st Earl of Derby 1471–?1485 The Lord FitzWalter 1485–aft.
1486 The Lord Willoughby de Broke 1488–1502 The Earl of Shrewsbury 1502–1538 The Earl of Sussex 1538–1540? The Duke of Suffolk 1541–1544 The Lord St John 1544–1551 The Duke of Northumberland 1551–1553 The Earl of Arundel 1553–1568 The Earl of Pembroke 1568–1570 no Lord Steward appointed 1570–1588 The Earl of Leicester 1587–1588 no Lord Steward appointed 1588–1603 The Earl of Nottingham 1603–1618 The Duke of Richmond 1618–1623 The Marquess of Hamilton 1623–1625 The Earl of Pembroke 1625–1630 none 1630–1640 The Earl of Arundel and Surrey 1640–1644 The Duke of Richmond 1644–1655 none 1655–1660 The Duke of Ormonde 1660–1688 The Duke of Devonshire 1689–1707 The Duke of Devonshire 1707–1710 The Duke of Buckingham and Normanby 1710–1711 The Earl Poulett 1711–1714 The Duke of Devonshire 1714–1716 The Duke of Kent 1716–1718 The Duke of Argyll 1718–1725 The Duke of Dorset 1725–1730 The Earl of Chesterfield 1730–1733 The Duke of Devonshire 1733–1737 The Duke of Dorset 1737–1744 The Duke of Devonshire 1744–1749 The Duke of Marlborough 1749–1755 The Duke of Rutland 1755–1761 The Earl Talbot 1761–1782 The Earl of Carlisle 1782–1783 The Duke of Rutland 1783 The Earl of Dartmouth 1783 The Duke of Chandos 1783–1789 The Duke of Dorset 1789–1799 The Earl of Leicester 1799–1802 The Earl of Dartmouth 1802–1804 The Earl of Aylesford 1804–1812 The Marquess of Cholmondeley 1812–1821 The Marquess Conyngham 1821–1830 The Duke of Buckingham and Chandos 1830 The Marquess Wellesley 1830–1833 The Duke of Argyll 1833–1834 The Earl of Wilton 1835 The Duke of Argyll 1835–1839 The Earl of Erroll 1839–1841 The Earl of Liverpool 1841–1846 The Earl Fortescue 1846–1850 The Marquess of Westminster 1850–1852 The Duke of Montrose 1852–1853 The Duke of Norfolk 1853–1854 The Earl Spencer 1854–1857 The Earl of St Germans 1857–1858 The Marquess of Exeter 1858–1859 The Earl of St Germans 1859–1866 The Earl of Bessborough 1866 The Duke of Marlborough 1866–1867 The Earl of Tankerville 1867–1868 The Earl of Bessborough 1868–1874 The Earl Beauchamp 1874–1880 The Earl Sydney 1880–1885 The Earl of Mount Edgcumbe 1885–1886 The Earl Sydney 1886 The Earl of Mount Edgcumbe 1886–1892 The Marquess of Breadalbane 1892–1895 The Earl of Pembroke 1895–1905 The Earl of Liverpool 1905–1907 The Earl Beauchamp 1907–1910 The Earl
Samuel Wilberforce, FRS was an English bishop in the Church of England, third son of William Wilberforce. Known as "Soapy Sam", Wilberforce was one of the greatest public speakers of his day; the nickname derives from a comment by Benjamin Disraeli that the bishop's manner was "unctuous, saponaceous". He is best remembered today for his opposition to Charles Darwin's theory of evolution at a debate in 1860. Wilberforce was born at London, he was the son of William Wilberforce, a major campaigner against the slave trade and slavery, Barbara Spooner. He was the younger brother of Robert Isaac Wilberforce. In 1823 he entered Oxford. In the United Debating Society, which afterwards developed into the Union, he distinguished himself as a zealous advocate of liberalism; the set of friends with whom he chiefly associated at Oxford—among them William Ewart Gladstone and Henry Manning—were sometimes named, on account of their exceptionally decorous conduct, the "Bethel Union". He graduated in 1826, taking a first-class degree in a second in classics.
He spent the autumn of 1827 touring the continent. After his marriage on 11 June 1828 to Emily Sargent, daughter of John Sargent, he was in December ordained to the Church of England and appointed curate-in-charge at Checkendon, near Henley-on-Thames. In 1830, Wilberforce was presented by Charles Sumner, Bishop of Winchester, to the rectory of St. Mary's Church, Brighstone, in the Isle of Wight. In this comparatively retired sphere he soon found scope for that manifold activity which so prominently characterized his subsequent career. In 1831 he published a tract on tithes, "to correct the prejudices of the lower order of farmers," and in the following year a collection of hymns for use in his parish, which had a large general circulation. At the close of 1837 he published the Letters and Journals of Henry Martyn, the Anglican missionary in India and Persia. Although a High Churchman, Wilberforce held aloof from the Oxford Movement and in 1838 his divergence from the Tractarian writers became so marked that John Henry Newman declined further contributions from him to the British Critic, not deeming it advisable that they should longer "co-operate closely".
In 1838 Wilberforce published, with his elder brother Robert Wilberforce, the Life of his father and, two years his father's Correspondence. In 1839 he published Eucharistica, to which he wrote an introduction and other Sunday Stories, a volume of University Sermons, in the following year Rocky Island and other Parables. In November 1839 he was installed archdeacon of Surrey, in August 1840 was collated canon of Winchester and in October he accepted the rectory of Alverstoke. In 1841, he was chosen as the Bampton lecturer and was shortly afterwards made chaplain to Prince Albert, an appointment he owed to the impression produced by a speech at an anti-slavery meeting some months previously. In October 1843, he was appointed by the Archbishop of York to be sub-almoner to the Queen. In 1844 his A History of the Protestant Episcopal Church in America appeared. In March 1845 he accepted the position of Dean of Westminster and, in October the same year, was appointed as the Bishop of Oxford; as such, he was ex officio the Chancellor of the Order of the Garter.
The bishop in 1847, upon the suggestion of John Henry Newman, became involved in the Hampden controversy, signed the remonstrance of the thirteen bishops to Lord John Russell against Hampden's appointment to the bishopric of Hereford. He endeavoured to obtain satisfactory assurances from Hampden; the publication of a papal bull in 1850 establishing a Roman hierarchy in England brought the High Church party, of whom Wilberforce was the most prominent member, into temporary disrepute. The secession to the Church of Rome of his brother-in-law, afterwards Cardinal Manning, of his brothers, as well as his only daughter and his son-in-law, Mr and Mrs J. H. Pye, brought him under further suspicion, his revival of the powers of Convocation lessened his influence at court, his diary reveals a tender and devout private life, overlooked by those who have only considered the versatile facility and persuasive expediency that marked the successful public career of the bishop, earned him the sobriquet of "Soapy Sam", though this may have been a reference to his characteristic hand-washing gesture, captured in the Vanity Fair cartoon by'Ape'.
In the House of Lords he took a prominent part in the discussion of social and ecclesiastical questions. He has been styled the "bishop of society"; the great bent of his energies was ceaselessly directed to the better organization of his diocese and to the furtherance of schemes for increasing the influence and efficiency of the church. In 1854, he opened a theological college at Cuddesdon, now known as Ripon College Cuddesdon, afterwards the subject of some controversy on account of its alleged Romanist tendencies, he took part in the famous 1860 debate concerning evolution at a meeting of the British Association on 30 June. Richard Owen and Thomas Henry Huxle
Poets' Corner is the name traditionally given to a section of the South Transept of Westminster Abbey because of the high number of poets and writers buried and commemorated there. The first poet interred in Poets' Corner was Geoffrey Chaucer. Over the centuries, a tradition has grown up of interring or memorialising people there in recognition of their contribution to British culture. In the overwhelming majority of cases, the honour is awarded to writers. In 2009 the founders of the Royal Ballet were commemorated in a memorial floor stone and on 25 September 2010 the writer Elizabeth Gaskell was celebrated with the dedication of a panel in the memorial window. On 6 December 2011, former Poet Laureate Ted Hughes was commemorated with a floor stone. On 22 November 2013, the fiftieth anniversary of his death, writer C. S. Lewis was commemorated with a memorial floor stone; the poet Philip Larkin was commemorated with a floor stone dedicated on 2 December 2016. The first poet interred in Poets' Corner, Geoffrey Chaucer, owed his 1400 burial in the Abbey more to his position as Clerk of Works of the Palace of Westminster than to his fame as a writer.
The erection of his magnificent tomb by Nicholas Brigham in 1556 and the nearby burial of Edmund Spenser in 1599 began a tradition that still continues. The area houses the tombs of several Canons and Deans of the Abbey, as well as the grave of Thomas Parr who, it is said, died at the age of 152 in 1635 after having seen ten sovereigns on the throne. Burial or commemoration in the Abbey does not always occur soon after the time of death. Lord Byron, for example, whose poetry was admired but who maintained a scandalous lifestyle, died in 1824 but was not given a memorial until 1969. William Shakespeare, buried at Stratford-upon-Avon in 1616, was not honoured with a monument until 1740 when one designed by William Kent was constructed in Poets' Corner Samuel Horsley, Dean of Westminster in 1796, was said to have tartly refused the request for actress Kitty Clive to be buried in the Abbey: if we do not draw some line in this theatrical ambition to mortuary fame, we shall soon make Westminster Abbey little better than a Gothic Green Room!
Not all poets appreciated memorialisation and Samuel Wesley's epitaph for Samuel Butler, who died in poverty, continued Butler's satiric tone: While Butler, needy wretch, was yet alive, No generous patron would a dinner give. The poet's fate is here in emblem shown, He ask'd for bread, he received a stone; some of those buried in Poets' Corner had memorials erected to them over or near their grave, either around the time of their death or later. In some cases, such as Joseph Addison, the burial took place elsewhere in Westminster Abbey, with a memorial erected in Poets' Corner. In some cases a full burial of a body took place, in other cases the body was cremated and the ashes buried. There are cases where there was support for a particular individual to be buried in Poets' Corner, but the decision was made to bury them elsewhere in the Abbey, such as Edward Bulwer-Lytton. Other notable poets and writers, such as Aphra Behn, are buried elsewhere in the Abbey. At least two of the memorials were moved to a location elsewhere in the Abbey due to the discovery of old paintings on the wall behind them.
The memorials can take several forms. Some are stone slabs set in the floor with a name and inscription carved on them, while others are more elaborate and carved stone monuments, or hanging stone tablets, or memorial busts; some are commemorated in groups, such as the joint memorial for the Brontë sisters, the sixteen First World War poets inscribed on a stone floor slab and unveiled in 1985, the four founders of the Royal Ballet, commemorated together in 2009. The grave of Ben Jonson is in the north aisle of the nave, it has the inscription "O Rare Ben Johnson" on the slab above it. It has been suggested that this could be read "Orare Ben Johnson", which would indicate a deathbed return to Catholicism, but the carving shows a distinct space between "O" and "rare"; the fact that he was buried in an upright grave could be an indication of his reduced circumstances at the time of his death but it has been suggested that Jonson asked for a grave 18 inches square from the monarch and received an upright grave to fit in the requested space.
As well as the gravestone in the north aisle of the nave, a wall tablet commemorating Jonson was erected in Poets' Corner. As floor and wall space began to run out, the decision was taken to install a stained glass memorial window, it is here that new names are added in the form of inscribed panes of glass. There is room for 20 names, there are six names on this window, with a new entry unveiled on 25 September 2010; the memorial in Poets' Corner, Westminster Abbey, to 16 Great War poets is a slate stone slab with the names of the poets inscribed on it. It was unveiled on the 67th anniversary of the Armistice. An additional inscription quotes Owen's "Preface": The stone slab floor memorial to the four founders of the Royal Ballet was dedicated on 17 November 2009. Poets and writers commemorated elsewhere in Westminster Abbey, but not in Poets' Corner proper. Information about the last resting places
Westminster School is an independent day and boarding school in London, located within the precincts of Westminster Abbey. With origins before the 12th century, the educational tradition of Westminster dates back as far as 960, in line with the Abbey's history. Boys are admitted to the Under School to the senior school at age thirteen; the school has around 750 pupils. The school motto, Dat Deus Incrementum, is taken from the New Testament 1 Corinthians 3:6, it is one of the original nine public schools of England as defined by the Clarendon Commission of 1861. Charging up to £7,800 per term for day pupils and £11,264 for boarders in 2014/15, Westminster is the 13th most expensive HMC day school and 10th most expensive HMC boarding school in the UK. Westminster School is the most prestigious academic secondary school in the UK, having achieved the highest percentage of students accepted by Oxbridge colleges over the period 2002–2006, has been ranked as the best boy's school in the country in terms of GCSE results in 2017.
The earliest records of a school at Westminster date back to the 1370s and are held in Westminster Abbey's Muniment Room, with parts of the buildings now used by the school dating back to the 10th century Anglo-Saxon Abbey at Westminster. In their annual accounts the school cites their origin as lying in a decree of Pope Alexander III in 1179 though the evidence for this is unclear. In 1540, Henry VIII ordered the dissolution of the monasteries in England, including that of the powerful Abbots of Westminster, but ensured the School's survival by his royal charter; the Royal College of St. Peter carried on with forty "King's Scholars" financed from the royal purse. By this point Westminster School had become a public school. During Mary I's brief reign the Abbey was reinstated as a Roman Catholic monastery, but the school continued. Elizabeth I refounded the school in 1560, with new statutes to select 40 Queen's Scholars from boys who had attended the school for a year. Queen Elizabeth visited her scholars, although she never signed the statutes nor endowed her scholarships, 1560 is now taken as the date that the school was "founded".
Elizabeth I appointed William Camden as headmaster, he is the only layman known to have held the position until 1937. It was Dr Busby, himself an Old Westminster, who established the reputation of the school for several hundred years, as much by his classical learning as for his ruthless discipline by the birch, immortalised in Pope's Dunciad. Busby prayed publicly Up School for the safety of the Crown, on the day of Charles I's execution, locked the boys inside to prevent their going to watch the spectacle a few hundred yards away. Regardless of politics, he thrashed Puritan boys alike without fear or favour. Busby took part in Oliver Cromwell's funeral procession in 1658, when a Westminster schoolboy, Robert Uvedale, succeeded in snatching the "Majesty Scutcheon" draped on the coffin. Busby remained in office throughout the Civil War and the Commonwealth, when the school was governed by Parliamentary Commissioners, well into the Restoration. In 1679, a group of scholars killed a bailiff, ostensibly in defence of the Abbey's traditional right of sanctuary, but because the man was trying to arrest a consort of the boys.
Dr Busby obtained a royal pardon for his scholars from Charles II and added the cost to the school bills. Until the 19th century, the curriculum was predominantly made up of Latin and Greek, all taught Up School; the Westminster boys were uncontrolled outside school hours and notoriously unruly about town, but the proximity of the school to the Palace of Westminster meant that politicians were well aware of the boys' exploits. After the Public Schools Act 1868, in response to the Clarendon Commission on the financial and other malpractices at nine pre-eminent public schools, the school began to approach its modern form, it was separated from the Abbey, although the organisations remain close and the Dean of Westminster Abbey is ex officio the Chairman of the Governors. There followed a scandalous public and parliamentary dispute lasting a further 25 years, to settle the transfer of the properties from the Canons of the Abbey to the school. School statutes have been made by Order in Council of Queen Elizabeth II.
The Dean of Christ Church and the Master of Trinity College, are ex officio members of the school's governing body. Unusually among public schools, Westminster did not adopt most of the broader changes associated with the Victorian ethos of Thomas Arnold, such as the emphasis on team over individual spirit, the school retained much of its distinctive character. Despite many pressures, including evacuation and the destruction of the school roof during the Blitz, the school refused to move out of the city, unlike other schools such as Charterhouse and St. Paul's, remains in its central London location. Westminster Under School was formed in 1943 in the evacuated school buildings in Westminster, as a distinct preparatory school for day pupils between the ages of eight to 13. Only the separation is new: for example, in the 18th century, Edward Gibbon attended Westminster from the age of 11 and Jeremy Bentham from the age of eight; the Under School has since moved to Vincent Square. Its current Master is Mark O'Donnell