Westmoreland County Community College
Westmoreland County Community College was founded in 1970 and is located in Youngwood, Pennsylvania, USA. Westmoreland was founded during an era of community college proliferation within the state, its location on the suburban fringe was designed to attract students from both the Westmoreland County suburbs of Pittsburgh and the Monongahela Valley a still booming industrial center. The college has extended its outreach to provide services to students from Fayette and Indiana Counties. Westmoreland County Community College, founded in 1970, first offered evening classes at Jeannette High School in 1971. By the fall of 1972, the college took up a permanent residence in a former Westinghouse plant in Youngwood, PA establishing a permanent facility and expanding into day classes. In the four decades since, Westmoreland's original campus has expanded to four buildings and the college has opened additional centers in other areas: the Murrysville Education Center in Export, Fayette County Education Center in Uniontown, Indiana County Center in Indiana, Latrobe Education Center, New Kensington Education Center and Public Safety Training Center in Smithton.
Throughout all the growth, Westmoreland maintains the lowest tuition among all Pennsylvania colleges. Westmoreland offers 64 associate degree programs, 13 diploma options and 49 certificate programs to prepare students for careers or transfer to baccalaureate degree programs at a four-year institution; the college offers Continuing Education courses for adults, displaced workers, non-traditional students and college for kids. Starting with a single building, now known as Founders Hall, Westmoreland County Community College now comprises four buildings on its main campus in Youngwood, PA. Westmoreland's original building, it now houses academic and administrative office, laboratories, the library, 300-seat amphitheater and a tutoring and learning center, it contains the bookstore, student center, cafeteria and a licensed day care center. A gymnasium, indoor running track, a combination aerobic/fitness center provide fitness options for students and faculty. Commissioners Hall houses additional academic and administrative offices, laboratories, a culinary arts complex and a dining facility.
Science hall consists of classrooms and laboratories for the physical science and horticulture departments, a dental hygiene clinic, a greenhouse, an art gallery. The facility contains a 420-seat theater; the Business and Industry Center contains administrative offices for Continuing Education and workforce development along with classrooms and labs for engineering science and industrial technology programs such as robotics and welding. It holds offices for PA CareerLink-Westmoreland and the Workforce Investment Board. Constructed in 1992, the baseball field, softball field and multipurpose field are used for intercollegiate competitions, intramural sporting activities and noncredit programming. Westmoreland County Community College maintains education centers that serve all of Westmoreland and Indiana counties; each center offers evening classes as well as online courses. Student services such as counseling and financial aid are available at scheduled times. Located in Export, this center houses traditional classrooms, a distance learning classroom and science laboratories, workforce development training and a student lounge.
This center contains traditional classrooms, distance learning classroom, computer classrooms/labs, electronic classrooms, a natural science classroom/lab and student lounge areas. Founded in 2009, this center is located in downtown New Kensington, it contains traditional classrooms, a distance learning classroom, computer classrooms/labs, a science lab and a student lounge. The New Kensington Education Center is home to PA CareerLink - Alle-Kiski, which provides services to the unemployed. Completed in 2003 with an addition in 2018, this training center is located in South Huntington Township. Designed for firefighter and emergency services personnel, it features a class A live burn building, outdoor firing range, rubble pile and a classroom/administration building. Housed in the Fayette County Community Action Agency Inc. Campus in Uniontown, this center features traditional classrooms, a computer classroom, a videoconferencing classroom and administrative offices. Located in Indiania near the Jimmy Stewart Airport, the center contains a computer lab, nursing lab, six classrooms, an office and a student lounge.
Located in New Stanton in the former Sony Technology Center. The Advanced Technology Center offers training for students and incumbent workers in: •Applied Industrial Technology •Mechatronics •Energy technologies •Design technologies •Machining and Fabrication •Additive Manufacturing •Welding •STEM Richard Rosendale CMC Herman Mihalich
Westmoreland, New Hampshire
Westmoreland is a town in Cheshire County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 1,874 at the 2010 census. Westmoreland is an agricultural town, with much arable farmland. Once known as Great Meadow, this town was first granted in 1735 by Governor Jonathan Belcher of Massachusetts as Number 2, second in a line of Connecticut River fort towns designed to protect the colonies from Indian attack; this part of the river was a favorite Indian campsite, the settlers who came beginning in 1741 were several times victims of attack. When the border between Massachusetts and the Province of New Hampshire was fixed, the town was regranted in 1752 by Governor Benning Wentworth as Westmoreland, named for John Fane, 7th Earl of Westmorland; the Park Hill Meetinghouse, built in 1762, has a Paul Revere bell. Considered one of the most beautiful churches in New England, it was moved to its present site by oxen in 1779, renovated in 1826. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 36.9 square miles, of which 35.9 sq mi is land and 1.0 sq mi, or 2.71%, is water.
Westmoreland is bounded on the west by the Connecticut River. Hyland Hill, elevation 1,510 feet above sea level and the highest point in town, is on the eastern border and although it is now private land, it is a local hiking and hunting destination. Westmoreland is served by state routes 12 and 63; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,747 people, 576 households, 445 families residing in the town. The population density was 48.7 people per square mile. There were 618 housing units at an average density of 17.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.82% White, 0.34% African American, 0.29% Native American, 0.80% Asian, 0.34% from other races, 0.40% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.92% of the population. There were 576 households out of which 31.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 69.6% were married couples living together, 3.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.7% were non-families. 17.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 2.92. In the town, the population was spread out with 19.9% under the age of 18, 6.6% from 18 to 24, 26.8% from 25 to 44, 27.4% from 45 to 64, 19.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.6 males. The median income for a household in the town was $55,875, the median income for a family was $62,857. Males had a median income of $40,515 versus $28,456 for females; the per capita income for the town was $24,488. About 0.4% of families and 2.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including none of those under age 18 and 5.4% of those age 65 or over. Clinton Babbitt, US congressman Goldsmith Bailey, US congressman Nathaniel S. Benton, Secretary of State and state senator from New York Joseph Buffum, Jr. US congressman and judge Martin Butterfield, US congressman Levi K. Fuller, 44th governor of Vermont John M. Goodenow, US congressman Ernest Hebert, author Thomas B.
Marsh, religious leader Robert Olmstead, author Everett Warner and print-maker Town of Westmoreland official website Westmoreland Public Library Westmoreland Park Hill Meeting House & Historical Society New Hampshire Economic and Labor Market Information Bureau Profile
Westmoreland County, Virginia
Westmoreland County is a county located in the Northern Neck of the Commonwealth of Virginia. At the 2010 census, the population was 17,454, its county seat is Montross. As established by the Virginia colony's House of Burgesses, it was separated out of Northumberland County in 1653, the territory of Westmoreland County encompassed much of what became the various counties and cities of Northern Virginia, including the city of Alexandria, Arlington County, Fairfax County, Prince William County; these were part of Westmoreland until 1664. Westmoreland County was the birthplace of George Washington, the first President of the United States; the county was the place of residence for Colonel Nicholas Spencer, who patented the land at Mount Vernon in 1674 with his friend Lt. Col. John Washington, ancestor of George Washington. Spencer, who served as President of the Council and acting Governor of the Colony of Virginia, was the cousin of, agent for, the Barons Colepeper, proprietors of the Northern Neck.
Spencer lived at his plantation, which his descendants sold to Robert Carter I. Robert Carter's grandson, Robert Carter III, voluntarily freed 500 slaves from Nomini Hall beginning in 1791 and settled many on lands he gave them, his manumission is the largest known release of slaves in North America prior to the American Civil War and the largest number manumitted by an individual in the U. S. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 253 square miles, of which 229 square miles is land and 24 square miles is water; the county is located on the Northern Neck and is part of the Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace AVA winemaking appellation. Charles County, Maryland - north St. Mary's County, Maryland - northeast Northumberland County, Virginia - southeast Richmond County, Virginia - south Essex County, Virginia - southwest King George County, Virginia - northwest George Washington Birthplace National Monument Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge Mothershead unit At the 2000 census, there were 16,718 people, 6,846 households and 4,689 families residing in the county.
The population density was 73/sq mi. There were 9,286 housing units at an average density of 40/sq mi; the racial makeup of the county was 65.41% White, 30.89% Black or African American, 0.28% Native American, 0.36% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 1.75% from other races, 1.29% from two or more races. 3.46% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 6,846 households of which 25.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.70% were married couples living together, 13.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.50% were non-families. 26.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.91. 23.00% of the population were under the age of 18, 6.30% from 18 to 24, 23.90% from 25 to 44, 27.80% from 45 to 64, 19.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.90 males.
The median household income was $35,797 and the median family income was $41,357. Males had a median income of $31,333 and females $22,221; the per capita income was $19,473. About 11.20% of families and 14.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.10% of those under age 18 and 12.50% of those age 65 or over. The county's economy is based on agriculture. Tourism is another significant economic driver, related to historical sites such as George Washington Birthplace National Monument and Robert E. Lee's birthplace, Stratford Hall Plantation, the Westmoreland County Museum as well as gambling activities available in Colonial Beach; the county is an extended exurb of Washington, D. C.. Northern Neck Coca-Cola Bottling Inc. and the weekly Westmoreland News are located in Montross. George Washington, the first president of the United States John Washington, great-grandfather of George Washington Bushrod Washington, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court and first president of the American Colonization Society, nephew of George Washington and inheritor of Mount Vernon James Monroe, the fifth president of the United States Robert E. Lee, a general best known for fighting on behalf of the Confederate Army in the American Civil War Richard Henry Lee, a signatory of the United States Declaration of Independence, United States Senator, the sixth president of the United States in Congress Assembled Francis Lightfoot Lee, a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence Richard "Squire" Lee Thomas Brown, the second governor of Florida Nicholas Spencer, acting governor of Virginia, co-patentee of Mount Vernon estate Thomas Lee, a leading political figure in colonial Virginia Thomas Sandford, American Revolutionary War soldier, Kentucky legislator, Member of the Eighth and Ninth U.
S. Congress. Sloan Wilson, the author of The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit Rob Wittman, United States Congressman Thomas Marshall Grandfather of Chief Justice John Marshall Walter Balderson, Emmy Award-winning video engineer John dos Passos, the author of the U. S. A. trilogy and other works Colonial Beach Montross Westmoreland County is a notable bellwether for U. S. Presidential politics, having voted for the winner in eve
Westmoreland is a town in Sumner County, Tennessee. The population was 2,093 at the 2000 census and 2,206 at the 2010 census; the town name originates from the historic English county Westmorland, now part of Cumbria. Westmoreland is located at 36°33′41″N 86°14′50″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 3.8 square miles, of which 3.8 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,093 people, 804 households, 561 families residing in the town; the population density was 547.5 people per square mile. There were 874 housing units at an average density of 228.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.85% White, 0.55% African American, 0.24% Native American, 0.05% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.29% from other races, 0.48% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.13% of the population. There were 804 households out of which 34.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.4% were married couples living together, 11.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.2% were non-families.
27.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.01. In the town, the population was spread out with 25.3% under the age of 18, 8.3% from 18 to 24, 26.9% from 25 to 44, 22.5% from 45 to 64, 17.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 80.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 77.4 males. The median income for a household in the town was $28,958, the median income for a family was $36,944. Males had a median income of $25,795 versus $19,366 for females; the per capita income for the town was $13,185. About 8.7% of families and 13.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.7% of those under age 18 and 17.6% of those age 65 or over. Town website
Westmorland is a city in Imperial County, California. Westmorland is located 8.5 miles southwest of Calipatria. The population was 2,225 at the 2010 census, up from 2,131 in 2000, it is part of the El Centro Metropolitan Area. The mayor of Westmorland is Andrew Gallegos. Westmorland is on State Route 86, upgraded to a new six-lane highway to reduce its infamous auto accident and fatality risk, while it connects with Brawley, El Centro and Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico; the post office called Westmoreland, opened in 1909. It was renamed to Westmorland in 1936. Westmorland incorporated in 1934. From the 1920s through the 1950s Westmorland was the site of illegal gaming establishments and many brothels, but these were destroyed in an attempt to improve the town's image. Westmorland has dealt with the image of high poverty rates, prior to the 1990s North American Free Trade Agreement economic boom, a nearly dormant farm food shipping industry. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.4 square miles, all land.
Westmorland sits behind a number of active faults. Seismic activity has been recorded several times during the 20th century, with tremors occurring in 1907, 1916, 1925, 1940, 1948, 1965 and 1979; the 1987 Superstition Hills event caused serious damage in the Imperial Valley. The 2010 United States Census reported that Westmorland had a population of 2,225; the population density was 3,769.7 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Westmorland was 1,038 White, 21 African American, 38 Native American, 11 Asian, 0 Pacific Islander, 1,042 from other races, 75 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1,938 persons; the Census reported that 2,225 people lived in households, 0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 631 households, out of which 336 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 299 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 174 had a female householder with no husband present, 61 had a male householder with no wife present.
There were 61 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 4 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 89 households were made up of individuals and 42 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.53. There were 534 families; the population was spread out with 765 people under the age of 18, 234 people aged 18 to 24, 527 people aged 25 to 44, 449 people aged 45 to 64, 250 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.9 males. There were 678 housing units at an average density of 1,148.7 per square mile, of which 631 were occupied, of which 299 were owner-occupied, 332 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.6%. 1,066 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 1,159 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,131 people, 625 households, 501 families residing in the city; the population density was 5,263.6 people per square mile.
There were 667 housing units at an average density of 1,647.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 55.8% White, 1.0% Black or African American, 0.7% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 39.4% from other races, 2.7% from two or more races. 82.2% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 625 households out of which 47.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.0% were married couples living together, 19.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 19.7% were non-families. 17.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.4 and the average family size was 3.9. In the city, the population was spread out with 35.8% under the age of 18, 10.5% from 18 to 24, 26.5% from 25 to 44, 17.7% from 45 to 64, 9.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.3 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $23,365, the median income for a family was $26,667. Males had a median income of $27,500 versus $19,107 for females; the per capita income for the city was $8,941. About 27.3% of families and 27.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 37.9% of those under age 18 and 14.6% of those age 65 or over. In the state legislature, Westmorland is in the 40th Senate District, represented by Democrat Ben Hueso, the 56th Assembly District, represented by Democrat Eduardo Garcia. Federally, Westmorland is in California's 51st congressional district, represented by Democrat Juan Vargas. Westmorland children are part of the Westmorland Elementary School District, while high-school age students are members of the neighboring Brawley Union High School District. Westmorland has one of the smallest police departments in California, with a chief and five full-time officers with only five patrol cars; the Imperial County Fire Department provides paramedic services.
San Diego–Imperial, California El Centro Metropolitan Area Official website
Westmoreland is the westernmost parish in Jamaica, located on the south side of the island. It is situated to the south of Hanover, the southwest of Saint James, the northwest of Saint Elizabeth, in the county of Cornwall; the chief town and capital is Savanna-la-Mar. Negril, a famous tourist destination, is situated in the parish; the earliest inhabitants of Westmoreland were Ciboney Indians. The Ciboney were first to arrive from the coast of South America around 500 BC. Known as "cave dwellers," they lived along the cliffs of Negril; the labyrinth of caves and passageways beneath what is now the Xtabi Hotel in Negril are one of the first known settlements of Ciboney Indians in Jamaica. Christopher Columbus stopped at what became Westmoreland on his second voyage when he landed in Jamaica. One of the first Spanish settlements was built at present-day Bluefields in this parish; the English took over the island from Spanish rule in 1665. Colonists named the parish Westmoreland in 1703. In 1730, Savanna-la-Mar, a coastal port, was designated to replace Banbury as the capital of the parish.
A fort was built in the 1700s to defend the port against pirates. Today it is one of the historic sites of the parish; the name Westmoreland appears to stem from Dr John Drummond who had several plantations on the island plus vast lands at Savanna-la-Mar, owned by his parents. He was surgeon to the Westmoreland Regiment of Foot from 1784; this British Regiment were on the island from 1802 to 1813 but the name appears to pre-date this as John Drummond refers to his "Westmoreland estate" in his will of 1793. In 1938, riots at the Frome sugar estate, changed the course of Jamaica's history. In the wake of these riots, the legislature passed universal adult suffrage in 1944, as well as a new constitution, approved by the Crown; this put Jamaica on the road to self government and independence. The two national heroes, Sir Alexander Bustamante and Norman Washington Manley, emerged as political leaders during this time. Westmoreland has an area of 807 square kilometres, making it Jamaica's eighth largest parish.
Westmoreland's population of 144,817 is made up of a large percentage of ethnic East Indians, descendants of Indentured laborers who came to Jamaica from India to work after Britain abolished slavery in 1833 and the demand for labor remained high. Many intermarried with people of African descent, the multi-racial descendants are known locally as "half indian." There are over 40 square kilometres of morass land, the largest part of, called the Great Morass. This contains animal material collected over centuries; the morass can be mined as an excellent source of energy. The marsh serves as a natural and unique sanctuary for a wide variety of Jamaican wildlife and birds; the remaining area consists of several hills of moderate elevation, alluvial plains along the coast. Numerous rivers run through the parish; the Cabaritta River, 39.7 km long, drains the George's Plain and can accommodate ships weighing up to eight tons. Other rivers include the Negril, New Savanna, Morgan's, Smithfield, Bluefields, Roaring and Dean.
The westernmost tip of the island, Negril Point, is the site of the Negril Lighthouse. As a result of the fertile plains, the parish thrives on agriculture sugarcane, which offers direct employment. Other agricultural products include bananas, ginger, pimento, honey and breadfruit. Pastoralism is practised. Manufacturing is the third largest sector. Manufactured items include food and drink, animal feeds and textile products. Negril is one of the main tourist destinations in Jamaica. Since the 1950s tourism has been the single fastest growing sector; the major hotels are Poinciana Beach Resort and Negril Beach Club. There are 200 + bars and restaurants. AttractionsBridgewater Mayfield Falls Negril Petersfield Roaring River Park Savanna-la-Mar Seaford Town References SourcesParish Information Political Geography of Jamaica Westmoreland Media related to Westmoreland Parish at Wikimedia Commons https://www.nlj.gov.jm/history-notes/History%20of%20Westmoreland.pdf
William Childs Westmoreland was a United States Army general, most notably commander of United States forces during the Vietnam War from 1964 to 1968. He served as Chief of Staff of the United States Army from 1968 to 1972. Westmoreland adopted a strategy of attrition against the Viet Cong and the North Vietnamese Army, attempting to drain them of manpower and supplies, he made use of the United States' edge in artillery and air power, both in tactical confrontations and in relentless strategic bombing of North Vietnam. Many of the battles in Vietnam were technically United States victories, with the United States Army in control of the field afterward. Public support for the war diminished after the Battle of Khe Sanh and the Tet Offensive in 1968. By the time he was re-assigned as Army Chief of Staff, United States military forces in Vietnam had reached a peak of 535,000 personnel. Westmoreland's strategy was politically unsuccessful. Growing United States casualties and the draft undermined United States support for the war while large-scale casualties among non-combatants weakened South Vietnamese support.
This failed to weaken North Vietnam's will to fight, the Government of South Vietnam—a factor out of Westmoreland's control—never succeeded in establishing enough legitimacy to quell defections to the Viet Cong. William Childs Westmoreland was born in Spartanburg County, South Carolina, on March 26, 1914 to Eugenia Talley Childs and James Ripley Westmoreland, his upper middle class family was involved in textile industries. At the age of 15, William became an Eagle Scout at Troop 1 Boy Scouts, was recipient of the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award and Silver Buffalo from the Boy Scouts of America as a young adult. After spending a year at The Citadel in 1932, he was appointed to attend the United States Military Academy on the nomination of Senator James F. Byrnes, a family friend, his motive for entering West Point was "to see the world". He was a member of a distinguished West Point class that included Creighton Abrams and Benjamin O. Davis Jr. Westmoreland graduated as first captain—the highest cadet rank—and received the Pershing Sword, "presented to cadet with highest level of military proficiency".
Westmoreland served as the superintendent of the Protestant Sunday School Teachers. Following graduation from West Point in 1936, Westmoreland became an artillery officer and served in several assignments with the 18th Field Artillery at Fort Sill. In 1939, he was promoted to first lieutenant, after which he was a battery commander and battalion staff officer with the 8th Field Artillery at Schofield Barracks, Hawaii. In World War II, Westmoreland saw combat with the 34th Field Artillery Battalion, 9th Infantry Division, in Tunisia, Sicily and Germany, he reached the temporary wartime rank of colonel, on October 13, 1944, was appointed the chief of staff of the 9th Infantry Division. After the war, Westmoreland completed Airborne training at the Infantry School in 1946, he commanded the 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 82d Airborne Division. From 1947 to 1950, he served as chief of staff for the 82d Airborne Division, he was an instructor at the Army Command and General Staff College from 1950 to 1951.
He completed the Army War College as a student in 1951, stayed as an instructor from 1951 to 1952. Westmoreland was promoted to Brigadier General in November 1952 at the age of 38, making him one of the youngest U. S. Army generals in the post-World War II era, he commanded the 187th Airborne Regimental Combat Team in operations in Korea from 1952 to 1953. After returning to the United States, Westmoreland was deputy assistant chief of staff, G–1, for manpower control on the Army staff from 1953 to 1955. In 1954, he completed a three-month management program at Harvard Business School; as Stanley Karnow noted, "Westy was a corporation executive in uniform."After the war, Westmoreland was the United States Army's Secretary of the General Staff from 1955 to 1958. He commanded the 101st Airborne Division from 1958 to 1960, he was Superintendent of the United States Military Academy from 1960 to 1963. In 1962, Westmoreland was admitted as an honorary member of the Massachusetts Society of the Cincinnati.
He was promoted to lieutenant general in July 1963 and was Commanding General of the XVIII Airborne Corps from 1963 to 1964. Background and overviewMaster philosopher of war Karl von Clausewitz emphasized a century and a half earlier that because war is controlled by its political object, the value of this object must determine the sacrifices to be made for it both in magnitude and in duration, he went on to say, Once the expenditure of effort exceeds the value of the political object, the object must be renounced. The attempted French re-colonization of Vietnam following World War II culminated in a decisive French defeat at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu; the Geneva Conference discussed the possibility of restoring peace in Indochina, temporarily separated Vietnam into two zones, a northern zone to be governed by the Việt Minh, a southern zone to be governed by the State of Vietnam headed by former emperor Bảo Đại. A Conference Final Declaration, issued by the British chairman of the conference, provided that a general election be held by July 1956 to create a unified Vietnamese state.
Although presented as a consensus view, this document was not accepted by the delegates of either the State of Vietnam or the United States. In addition, the Soviet Union and other communist nations recognized the North while the United States and other non-communist sta