Alexander Spotswood was a Lieutenant-Colonel in the British Army and a noted Lieutenant Governor of Virginia. He is noted in Virginia and American history for a number of his projects as governor, including his exploring beyond the Blue Ridge Mountains, his establishing what was the first colonial iron works, his negotiating the Treaty of Albany with the Iroquois Nations of New York. Alexander Spotswood was born in the Colony of Tangier, about 1676 to Catharine and her second husband, Dr. Robert Spottiswoode, the Chirurgeon to the Tangier Garrison. Through his father, Alexander was a grandson of Judge Robert Spottiswoode, a great-grandson of Archbishop John Spottiswoode, a descendant of King Robert II of Scotland through the 2nd Earls of Crawford. Alexander's older half-brother was Roger Elliott, who became one of the first Governors of Gibraltar. Following the death of Robert Spotswood, his mother married, Reverend Dr. George Mercer, the Garrison's Schoolmaster. On 20 May 1693, Alexander became an Ensign in the Earl of Bath's Regiment of Foot.
He was commissioned in 1698, promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel in 1703. He was appointed Quartermaster-General of the Duke of Marlborough's army the same year, was wounded at the Battle of Blenheim the following year. In 1710, Alexander was appointed Lieutenant Governor of Virginia, under the nominal governorship of George Hamilton, 1st Earl of Orkney, he was the first to occupy the new Governor's Mansion, which many citizens thought overly extravagant. In 1711, he intervened in Cary's Rebellion in North Carolina, sending a contingent of Royal Marines from the Chesapeake to put down the rebellion. A Tobacco Act requiring the inspection of all tobacco intended for export or for use as legal tender was passed in 1713; the next year, he founded the First Germanna Colony, regulated trade with Native Americans at another of his pet projects, Fort Christanna. In 1715, he bought 3229 acres at Germanna. In 1716 he led the Knights of the Golden Horseshoe Expedition up the Rappahannock River valley and across the Blue Ridge Mountains at Swift Run Gap into the Shenandoah Valley to expedite settlement.
The following year saw the foundation of the Second Germanna Colony and the Repeal of regulation of trade with Native Americans. A Third Germanna Colony followed in 1719, Germanna was made the seat of Spotsylvania County the following year. Between 1716 and 1720, Spotswood built the Tubal Works, it had a cold blast-charcoal blast furnace which produced pig iron, a finery forge.. It operated for about 40 years. Pig iron from Tubal is in the collections of the Fredericksburg Area Museum and the NPS. Tubal Works iron was exported to England by 1723. In May of the same year, Gov. Drysdale reported to the Lords of Trade that Spotswood was selling "backs and frames for Chumnies, doggs, frying and backing panns" at auction in Williamsburg. Around 1732 at Massaponax, Spotswood built what may have been the first purpose-built foundry in the British North American Colonies; this was used to recast pig iron produced at Tubal into final shapes. Neither of Spotswood's iron operations were at Germanna. Spotswood was not, as is believed, involved in the Fredericksville Furnace.
In the fall of 1718, Spotswood engaged in a clandestine expedition by hiring two sloops and Ranger, a number of Royal Navy men to seek out the pirate Blackbeard. On 18 November 1718, Lt. Robert Maynard sailed from Hampton, Virginia to Ocracoke Inlet, North Carolina. On 22 November 1718, his men defeated Blackbeard and the pirates. On 24 November 1718, two days after Blackbeard's death, Spotswood issued a proclamation at the Assembly in Williamsburg offering reward for any who brought Teach and the other pirates to justice. Spotswood worked to make a Treaty with the Iroquois through their meeting in Albany, New York during 1721, it was an attempt to end the raids between the Iroquois and Catawba that endangered settlers in the Shenandoah Valley. The Iroquois agreed to stay west of the Blue Ridge Mountains; the agreement was renewed the next year. Spotswood completed the Governor's palace in 1722, when he was recalled from the lieutenant governorship and replaced by Hugh Drysdale. Throughout his career, Spotswood had maintained an adversarial relationship with the Virginia Council its most prominent member, James Blair.
As the Bishop of London's representative in the colony, the President of the College of William and Mary, a councilman in Virginia's highest legislative body, Blair was arguably the most powerful man in the colony. He orchestrated the recall of three royally appointed governors, including Alexander Spotswood; the latter entered private life with 80,000 acres in three iron furnaces. Returning to London, Spotswood married Anne Butler Brayne in March 1724/1725, but was back at the'Enchanted Castle', Germanna, by 1729, he served as Deputy Postmaster General from 1730 to 1739, died on 7 June 1740 at Annapolis, Maryland. At The College of William and Mary Spotswood Hall, a dorm, Old Spotswood, a cannon seized during the Revolutionary war, The Spotswood Society, the tour guides of Historic Campus, are all named in his honor. So is the Spotsylvania County itself: "Spots" + "sylvan
Baltimore is the largest city in the state of Maryland within the United States. Baltimore was established by the Constitution of Maryland as an independent city in 1729. With a population of 611,648 in 2017, Baltimore is the largest such independent city in the United States; as of 2017, the population of the Baltimore metropolitan area was estimated to be just under 2.808 million, making it the 20th largest metropolitan area in the country. Baltimore is located about 40 miles northeast of Washington, D. C. making it a principal city in the Washington-Baltimore combined statistical area, the fourth-largest CSA in the nation, with a calculated 2017 population of 9,764,315. Baltimore is the second-largest seaport in the Mid-Atlantic; the city's Inner Harbor was once the second leading port of entry for immigrants to the United States. In addition, Baltimore was a major manufacturing center. After a decline in major manufacturing, heavy industry, restructuring of the rail industry, Baltimore has shifted to a service-oriented economy.
Johns Hopkins Hospital and Johns Hopkins University are the city's top two employers. With hundreds of identified districts, Baltimore has been dubbed a "city of neighborhoods." Famous residents have included writers Edgar Allan Poe, Edith Hamilton, Frederick Douglass, Ogden Nash, H. L. Mencken. During the War of 1812, Francis Scott Key wrote "The Star-Spangled Banner" in Baltimore after the bombardment of Fort McHenry, his poem popularized as a song. Baltimore has more public statues and monuments per capita than any other city in the country, is home to some of the earliest National Register Historic Districts in the nation, including Fell's Point, Federal Hill, Mount Vernon; these were added to the National Register between 1969–1971, soon after historic preservation legislation was passed. Nearly one third of the city's buildings are designated as historic in the National Register, more than any other U. S. city. The city has 33 local historic districts. Over 65,000 properties are designated as historic buildings and listed in the NRHP, more than any other U.
S. city. The historical records of the government of Baltimore are located at the Baltimore City Archives; the city is named after Cecil Calvert, second Lord Baltimore of the Irish House of Lords and founding proprietor of the Province of Maryland. Baltimore Manor was the name of the estate in County Longford on which the Calvert family lived in Ireland. Baltimore is an anglicization of the Irish name Baile an Tí Mhóir, meaning "town of the big house." The Baltimore area had been inhabited by Native Americans since at least the 10th millennium BC, when Paleo-Indians first settled in the region. One Paleo-Indian site and several Archaic period and Woodland period archaeological sites have been identified in Baltimore, including four from the Late Woodland period. During the Late Woodland period, the archaeological culture, called the "Potomac Creek complex" resided in the area from Baltimore south to the Rappahannock River in present-day Virginia. In the early 1600s, the immediate Baltimore vicinity was sparsely populated, if at all, by Native Americans.
The Baltimore County area northward was used as hunting grounds by the Susquehannock living in the lower Susquehanna River valley. This Iroquoian-speaking people "controlled all of the upper tributaries of the Chesapeake" but "refrained from much contact with Powhatan in the Potomac region" and south into Virginia. Pressured by the Susquehannock, the Piscataway tribe, an Algonquian-speaking people, stayed well south of the Baltimore area and inhabited the north bank of the Potomac River in what are now Charles and southern Prince George's counties in the coastal areas south of the Fall Line. European colonization of Maryland began with the arrival of an English ship at St. Clement's Island in the Potomac River on March 25, 1634. Europeans began to settle the area further north, beginning to populate the area of Baltimore County; the original county seat, known today as "Old Baltimore", was located on Bush River within the present-day Aberdeen Proving Ground. The colonists engaged in sporadic warfare with the Susquehanna, whose numbers dwindled from new infectious diseases, such as smallpox, endemic among the Europeans.
In 1661 David Jones claimed the area known today as Jonestown on the east bank of the Jones Falls stream. The colonial General Assembly of Maryland created the Port of Baltimore at old Whetstone Point in 1706 for the tobacco trade; the Town of Baltimore, on the west side of the Jones Falls, was founded and laid out on July 30, 1729. By 1752 the town had just 27 homes, including two taverns. Jonestown and Fells Point had been settled to the east; the three settlements, covering 60 acres, became a commercial hub, in 1768 were designated as the county seat. Being a colony, the Baltimore street names were laid out to demonstrate loyalty to the mother country. For example King George, King and Caroline streets. Baltimore grew swiftly in the 18th century, its plantations producing grain and tobacco for sugar-producing colonies in the Caribbean; the profit from sugar encouraged the cultivation of cane in the Caribbean and the importation of food by planters there. As noted, Baltimore was as the county seat, in 1768 a courthouse was built to serve both the city and county.
Its square was a center of community discussions. Baltimore established its public market system in 1763. Lexington Market, founded in 1782, i
Lieutenant Governor of Virginia
The Lieutenant Governor is a constitutional officer of the Commonwealth of Virginia. The Lieutenant Governor is elected every four years along with the Attorney General; the office is held by Democrat Justin Fairfax. The governor and lieutenant governor are elected separately and thus may be of different political parties; the lieutenant governor's office is located in the Oliver Hill Building on Capitol Square in Richmond, Virginia. The lieutenant governor serves as the President of the Senate of Virginia and is first in the line of succession to the governor. Unlike the governor, the Lieutenant Governor of Virginia can serve consecutive terms. Since the late 1920s, the lieutenant governor has been one of only three positions that competes in a statewide election in Virginia. Since the governor cannot serve consecutive terms, whoever is elected lieutenant governor is always considered a leading candidate for governor; this is the case if the lieutenant governor and the attorney general come from different parties.
For example, after Democrat Tim Kaine was elected lieutenant governor and Republican Jerry Kilgore was elected attorney general in 2001, it was taken for granted that they would face each other in the 2005 election. The office of Lieutenant Governor is of colonial origin and can be traced to the Virginia Council of London; the Council was appointed by the King, in turn, the Council appointed the Lieutenant Governor or deputy. When the English crown forbade colonial governors' absence from the colonies without leave in 1680, it became the Council’s duty to designate or send a deputy who could exercise all the powers of the Governor under the written instructions of both the crown and the Governor. Virginia’s first Constitution, adopted in 1776, provided a Council of State from which a President was annually selected from its members; the President acted as Lieutenant Governor in the case of the death, inability, or necessary absence of the Governor from the government. The Virginia Constitution of 1851 abolished the Governor’s Council of State and provided for the popular election of the Lieutenant Governor.
Shelton Farrar Leake, from Albemarle County, was the first elected Lieutenant Governor, serving from 1852 to 1856. Constitutionally, the Lieutenant Governor is president of the Senate of Virginia, as is the case with many other lieutenant governors in the United States. Unlike many of his counterparts, the Lieutenant Governor presides over Senate sessions rather than delegating this role to the president pro tempore or majority leader. Parties No party/Conservative Democratic Whig Republican As of January 2018, seven former lieutenant governors of Virginia were alive, the oldest being Douglas Wilder; the most recent death of a former lieutenant governor of Virginia was that of Richard J. Davis, Jr. on March 4, 1999. He is the most serving lieutenant governor of Virginia to die. Lieutenant Governor of Virginia's website List of past Lieutenant Governors
Sir Samuel Argall was an English adventurer and naval officer. As a sea captain, in 1609, Argall was the first to determine a shorter northern route from England across the Atlantic Ocean to the new English colony of Virginia, based at Jamestown, made numerous voyages to the New World, he captained one of Lord De La Warr's ships in the successful rescue mission to Virginia in 1610 which saved the colony from starvation. As a sea warrior, he is best known for his successful diplomacy with the Powhatan Confederacy, he abducted the Chief's daughter and held her as a captive at Henricus as security against the return of English captives and property held by Powhatan on 13 April 1613. Pocahontas had long been a friend of the English and was treated with great respect according to her rank, in the eyes of the English, as an Algonquian Princess; this action resulted in the restoration of peace and trade relations between the English and the Powhatan Confederacy when English Planter John Rolfe of nearby Varina Plantation met and married Pocahontas.
Argall was successful in his actions against French efforts at colonisation in Acadia and North Africa which were upheld in London as violations of the Charter of the Virginia Company. Knighted by King James I, Argall was accused of having been excessively stern in his term as Governor of Virginia and not having the best interests of the planters at heart, but the examinations of his conduct in London and the opinion of some modern historians have questioned these charges. Samuel Argall, baptized 4 December 1580, was the fourth son of Richard Argall of East Sutton, Kent, by his third wife, Mary Scott, the daughter of Sir Reginald Scott of Scot's Hall, one of the foremost houses in Kent, by his second wife, Mary Tuke, the daughter of Sir Bryan Tuke of Layer Marney, secretary to Cardinal Wolsey. In 1609, Argall, as an English ship's captain employed by the Virginia Company of London, was the first to develop a shorter, more northerly route for sailing from England across the Atlantic Ocean to the Virginia Colony and its primary port and seat of government at Jamestown.
Rather than following the normal practice of going south to the tropics and west with the trade winds, Captain Argall sailed west from the Azores to Bermuda and almost due west to the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay. His voyage took six days, including two weeks becalmed; this new route enabled the English to save on provisions. Upon his arrival at Jamestown, Captain Argall found the colonists in dire straits. Argall resupplied them with all the food he could spare and returned to England at the end of the summer; the help came to the colony at one of the most critical moments in its history, as it began the Starving Time, during which fewer than one in five survived. However, without the provisions Argall had left, the colony may have been destroyed. Argall's voyage prevented the Spanish from gaining knowledge of the weakness of the Jamestown colony. In July 1609, Argall encountered a Spanish reconnaissance ship, La Asunción de Cristo under the command of Francisco Fernández de Écija, sent from St. Augustine by governor Pedro de Ibarra to survey the activities of the Jamestown colonists.
Argall's larger ship and John, stationed at Cape Henry, chased the Spanish ship and denied it entrance into the Chesapeake Bay. Argall arrived back at the Colony in the summer of 1610, when Royal Governor Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr reinforced the defences of the English against the sometimes hostile Native Americans in Virginia. De La Warr, became so ill that in the spring of 1611 he sailed home to England, Sir Thomas Dale took his place as Deputy Governor in charge of the Virginia Colony; when he returned to England, Lord de la Warr wrote a book, The Relation of the Right Honourable the Lord De-La-Warre, of the Colonie, Planted in Virginia, remained nominally the Royal Governor until his death in 1618. Serving under Dale, in March 1613, looking for food for the settlement, sailed up the Potomac River. There, he traded with a Native American tribe, they lived at the village of Passapatanzy. When two English colonists began trading with the Patawomecks, they discovered the presence of Pocahontas, the daughter of Wahunsonacock, Chief of the Powhatan Confederacy.
According to a book by Captain John Smith, she had been there for around three months. As soon as he heard this, Argall resolved to capture Pocahontas. Sending for the local chief, Argall told him he must bring her on board his ship, suggested luring her with the present of a copper kettle. With the help of Japazaws, they tricked Pocahontas into captivity, their purpose, as they explained in a letter, was to ransom her for some English prisoners held by Chief Powhatan, along with various weapons and farming tools that the Powhatans had stolen. Powhatan returned the prisoners but failed to satisfy the colonists with the amount of weapons and tools he returned, a long standoff ensued. Argall commanded the ship that took Pocahontas, her half-sister Matachanna, Matachanna's husband, Uttamatomakkin, to England in 1616, as well as the ship, in the Thames Estuary about to carry Pocahontas home to Virginia when she died suddenly. After the capture of Pocahontas in 1613, under orders from London, Argall began to raid Acadia.
First he eradicated the French Jesuit colony of Saint-Sauveur on Mount Desert Island. After the first of two trips to accomplish this, he carried fourteen prisoners back to Jamestown, he went on to burn the settlement and the restant structures of an earlier one on Sainte-Croix and the occupied site of Port Royal. O
Sir William Gooch, 1st Baronet
Sir William Gooch, 1st Baronet, born in Great Yarmouth, Norfolk and died in London, served as Governor of Virginia from 1727 through 1749. Technically, Gooch only had the title Royal Lieutenant Governor, but the nominal governors, George Hamilton, 1st Earl of Orkney, Willem Anne van Keppel, 2nd Earl of Albemarle, were in England and did not exercise much authority. Gooch’s tenure as governor was characterized by his unusual political effectiveness. One of his greatest successes was the passage of the Tobacco Inspection Act of 1730; the Act called for the inspection and regulation of Virginia’s tobacco, the most important crop of the colony. Tobacco planters were required to transport their crop to public warehouses where it was inspected and stored; the Act raised the quality of reduced fraud. Gooch’s military policy focused on protecting the western territory from Native Americans and French encroachment, he promoted the settlement of the Shenandoah Valley in order to buffer the rest of the colony from Indian attacks, to prevent the French from settling the land.
However, in the early 1730s, Western expansion was fraught by the Iroquois invasion each spring, as settlements fell along their war-trails leading south. Gooch decided to broker peace between the Six Nations and their southern enemies, to end the warfare, he hired Conrad Weiser to negotiate in the winter of 1737, before the war season began. Weiser was successful in negotiating an armistice, allowing Gooch to authorize settlement of the Shenandoah Valley, he had many military credentials including fighting under John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough in his campaigns in the Low Countries and as a colonel of Gooch's American Regiment with Admiral Edward Vernon in his expedition against Cartagena, New Grenada as part of the War of Jenkins' Ear. During King George's War, Gooch received an appointment as brigadier-general in charge of the army raised to invade Canada, but declined. Gooch was made a baronet in 1746 and a major general in 1747. In 1747, Gooch made a speech condemning all religious groups aside from the established Church.
However, in 1738, Gooch had given a group of Presbyterians the right to settle new territory under the conditions of the English Act of Toleration. In 1749, Gooch returned to England. Gooch married Rebecca Staunton, the daughter of a squire in Middlesex, England; the two had a son named William. William became a naval officer, but died of the "bloody flux" at the age of 26, shortly before his parents returned to England. Gooch honored himself with the naming of Goochland County, Virginia in 1727. A residence hall at the College of William and Mary is named in his honor. Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990, Leigh Rayment's list of baronets Sir William Gooch at Encyclopedia Virginia
Robert Carter I
Robert "King" Carter, of Lancaster County, was an American businessman and colonist in Virginia and became one of the wealthiest men in the colonies. As President of the Governor's Council of the Virginia Colony, he was acting Governor of Virginia in 1726-1727 after the death in office of Governor Hugh Drysdale, he acquired the moniker "King" from his wealth, political power, autocratic business methods. Robert Carter was born at Corotoman Plantation in Lancaster County, Virginia, to John Carter of London and Sarah Ludlow of Maiden Bradley, Wiltshire. In 1688, he married Judith Armistead of Hesse in Gloucester County, an area, included in the formation of Mathews County in 1691. After her death in 1699, he married Elizabeth Landon in 1701. At age 28, Robert Carter entered the General Assembly of Virginia as a Burgess from Lancaster County, serving five consecutive years. In 1726, as President of the Governor's Council, he served as acting Governor of Virginia after the death of Governor Hugh Drysdale.
As an agent of Thomas Fairfax, 5th Lord Fairfax of Cameron – known as Lord Fairfax – he served two terms as agent for the Fairfax Proprietary of the Northern Neck of Virginia. During his first term, 1702–1711, he began to acquire large tracts of land for himself in the Rappahannock River region of Virginia. Carter acquired some 20,000 acres, a large part of, the 6,000-acre Nomini Hall Plantation spelled "Nomoni" or "Nominy," which he purchased in 1709 from the heirs of Col. Nicholas Spencer, cousin of the Lords Culpeper, from whom the Fairfaxes had inherited their Virginia holdings; when he became representative of Fairfax's interests again in 1722, serving from 1722–32, he secured for his children and grandchildren about 110,000 acres in the Northern Neck, as well as additional land in Virginia west of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Carter died on 4 August 1732, in Lancaster County and was buried there at Christ Church, he left his family 300,000 acres of 1,000 slaves and 10,000 British pounds in cash.
When Lord Fairfax saw Carter's obituary in the London monthly The Gentleman's Magazine, he was astonished to read of the immense personal wealth acquired by his resident land agent. Rather than name another Virginian to the position, Fairfax made arrangements to have his cousin, Colonel William Fairfax, move to Virginia to act as land agent, with the paid position of customs inspector for the Potomac River district. Fairfax himself visited his vast Northern Neck Proprietary from 1735–37, he moved there permanently in 1747. Carter had five children with his first wife, Judith Armistead: Sarah Carter Elizabeth Carter married Nathaniel Burwell. Judith Carter died in infancy before her mother and buried near her at Christ Church Judith Carter married Mann Page. John Carter married Elizabeth Hill of Shirley PlantationCarter had ten children with his second wife, Betty Landon: Anne Carter married Benjamin Harrison IV. Robert Carter II married Priscilla Churchill. Sarah Carter Betty Carter Charles Carter married Anne Byrd, daughter of Col. William Byrd II.
Ludlow Carter Landon Carter married Maria Byrd, daughter of Col. William Byrd II. Mary Carter married George Braxton. Lucy Carter married Henry Fitzhugh George Carter Other notable descendants include: Robert Burwell, member of the House of Burgesses Robert Carter III Carter Braxton, signer of Declaration of Independence Talcott Eliason J. E. B. Stuart's Field Surgeon during the Civil War. Robert Randolph Carter, Confederate States Army first lieutenant John Page 13th Governor of Virginia. Mann Page Virginia delegate to the Continental Congress in 1777 Thomas Nelson Page US ambassador to Italy during the Woodrow Wilson administration. William Nelson Page American civil engineer and industrialist. James "Gentleman Jim" Robinson, one of the wealthiest African Americans in the Manassas area, but is known because his homestead was located between the lines of the Confederate and Union armies during two major battles of the Civil War. Robert Carter III Carter's Grove Plantation Corotoman Plantation Rosewell Plantation Shirley Plantation History of slavery in the United States Robert Carter I at Encyclopedia Virginia Nomini Hall Plantation Robert Carter I at Christ Church Diary and Papers of Robert Carter at the University of Virginia Library Paweł Konieczny, Korespondencja Roberta „Króla” Cartera jako źródło do badań nad mentalnością elity osiemnastowiecznej Wirginii
Virginia the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U. S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna; the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2018 is over 8.5 million. The area's history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony. Slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colony's early politics and plantation economy.
Virginia was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution. In the American Civil War, Virginia's Secession Convention resolved to join the Confederacy, Virginia's First Wheeling Convention resolved to remain in the Union. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia; the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008, it is unique in how it treats cities and counties manages local roads, prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms. Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in the Shenandoah Valley. S. Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency. Virginia has a total area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area. Virginia is bordered by Maryland and Washington, D.
C. to the north and east. Virginia's boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes; the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court; the Chesapeake Bay separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia's Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the drowned river valleys of the James River. Many of Virginia's rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, which create three peninsulas in the bay; the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the fall line. It includes major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay; the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era. The region, known for its heavy clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville.
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state, the tallest being Mount Rogers at 5,729 feet. The Ridge and Valley region includes the Great Appalachian Valley; the region includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, south of the Allegheny Plateau. In this region, rivers flow northwest, into the Ohio River basin; the Virginia Seismic Zone has not had a history of regular earthquake activity. Earthquakes are above 4.5 in magnitude, because Virginia is located away from the edges of the North American Plate. The largest earthquake, at an estimated 5.9 magnitude, was in 1897 near Blacksburg. A 5.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Virginia on August 2011, near Mineral. The earthquake was felt as far away as Toronto and Florida. 35 million years ago, a bolide impacted. The resulting Chesapeake Bay impact crater may explain what earthquakes and subsidence the region does experience.
Coal mining takes place in the three mountainous regions at 45 distinct coal beds near Mesozoic basins. Over 64 million tons of other non-fuel resources, such as slate, sand, or gravel, were mined in Virginia in 2018; the state's carbonate rock is filled with more than 4,000 caves, ten of which are open for tourism, including the popular Luray Caverns and Skyline Caverns. The climate of Virginia is humid subtropical and becomes warmer and more humid farther south and east. Seasonal extremes vary from average lows of 26 °F in January to average highs of 86 °F in July; the Atlantic Ocean has a strong effect on southeastern coastal areas of the state. Influenced by the Gulf Stream, coastal weather is subject to hurricanes, most pronouncedly near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. In spite of its position adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean the coastal areas have a significant continental influence with quite large temperature differences between summ