Aurora, a suburb of Chicago, is a city in DuPage, Kane and Will counties in the U. S. state of Illinois. Located in DuPage and Kane counties, it is an outer suburb of Chicago and the second most populous city in the state, the 114th most populous city in the country; the population was 197,899 at the 2010 census, was estimated to have increased to 200,965 by 2017. Once a mid-sized manufacturing city, Aurora has grown since the 1960s. Founded within Kane County, Aurora's city limits and population have expanded into DuPage and Kendall counties. Between 2000 and 2003, the U. S. Census Bureau ranked Aurora as the 34th fastest-growing city in the United States. From 2000 to 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau ranked the city as the 46th fastest growing city with a population of over 100,000. In 1908, Aurora adopted the nickname "City of Lights", because in 1881 it was one of the first cities in the United States to implement an all-electric street lighting system. Aurora's historic downtown is located on the Fox River, centered on Stolp Island.
The city is divided into three regions, the West Side, on the west side of the Fox River, the East Side, between the eastern bank of the Fox River and the Kane/DuPage County line, the Far East Side/Fox Valley, from the County Line to the city's eastern border with Naperville. The Aurora area has some significant architecture, including structures by Frank Lloyd Wright, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Bruce Goff and George Grant Elmslie. Aurora is home to a large collection of Sears Catalog Homes and Lustron all-steel homes; the Hollywood Casino Aurora, a dockside gaming facility with 53,000 square feet and 1,200 gaming positions, is located along the river in downtown Aurora. Before European settlers arrived, there was a Native American village in what is today downtown Aurora, on the banks of the Fox River. In 1834, following the Black Hawk War, the McCarty brothers arrived, they owned land on both sides of the river, but sold their lands to the Lake brothers on the west side. The Lake brothers opened a mill on the opposite side of the river.
The McCartys operated their mill on the east side. A post office was established in 1837 creating Aurora. Aurora was two villages: East Aurora, incorporated in 1845, on the east side of the river, West Aurora, formally organized on the west side of the river in 1854. In 1857, the two towns joined incorporated as the city of Aurora; as representatives could not agree which side of the river should house the public buildings, most public buildings were built on or around Stolp Island in the middle of the river. As the city grew, it attracted numerous jobs. In 1856, the Chicago and Quincy Railroad located its roundhouse and locomotive shop in Aurora, becoming the town's largest employer, a rank it held until the 1960s. Railroad restructuring in the railroad industry resulted in a loss of jobs as the number of railroads reduced and they dropped lines for passenger traffic. Aurora at one time had scheduled passenger trains to Chicago; the heavy industries on the East side provided employment for generations of European immigrants, who came from Ireland, Great Britain, Luxembourg, Germany and Italy.
Aurora became the economic center of the Fox Valley region. The combination of these three factors—a industrialized town, a sizable river that divided it, the Burlington railroad's shops—accounted for much of the dynamics of Aurora's political and social history; the city supported abolitionism before the American Civil War. Mexican migrants began arriving after the Mexican Revolution of 1910; the town was progressive in its attitude toward education, religion and women. The first free public school district in Illinois was established in 1851 here and the city established a high school for girls in 1855; the city developed as a manufacturing powerhouse and continued until the early 1970s, when the railroad shops closed. Soon many other factories and industrial areas went out of business. By 1980, there were few industrial areas operating in the city, unemployment soared to 16%. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, development began of the Far East side along the Eola Road and Route 59 areas.
While this was financially beneficial to the city, it drew off retail businesses and manufacturing from downtown and the industrial sectors of the near East and West Sides weakening them. In the mid-1980s crime rates soared and street gangs started to form. During this time Aurora became a much more culturally diverse city; the Latino population began to grow in the city in the 1980s. In the late 1980s, several business and industrial parks were established on the city's outskirts. In 1993, the Hollywood Casino was built downtown, which helped bring the first redevelopment to the downtown area in nearly twenty years. In the late 1990s, more development began in the rural towns outside Aurora. Subdivisions sprouted up around the city, Aurora's population soared. Today, Aurora is a culturally diverse city of around 200,000 residents. Historic areas downtown are being redeveloped, new developments are being built all over the city. Aurora is at 41°45′50″N 88°17′24″W. According to the 2010 census, Aurora has an area of 45.799 square miles, of which 44.94 square miles is land and 0.859 square miles is water.
While the city has traditionally been regarded as being in Kane County, Aurora includes parts of DuPage and Will counties. Aurora is one of only three cities in Illinois. (The others are Barrington Hills and Centr
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Darien is a city in DuPage County, Illinois, USA. The population was 22,086 at the 2010 census. A south-western suburb of Chicago, Darien was named after a town in Connecticut; the first people to settle in Darien came from New England via the Erie Great Lakes. Among the first to arrive was the Andres Neiman family, they settled along an old stagecoach line in 1835. Andres served as Justice of the Peace, Town Clerk, Dog Catcher, County Commissioner, he established the Andres Inn, near what is the intersection of Lemont Road and I-55. Andres named the area "Cass."Andres and Father Beggs built the First Cass Church, a log cabin design. The church's cemetery, located west of where the church stood, can still be seen today; the church was used as a school house. Elisha and Eliza Smart settled in Darien in 1838 with their 10 children. Elisha joined the Gold Rush and left for California, returning seven years as a rich man, he bought more land and donated it, on which a new Cass Church was built in 1870.
John and Hannah Oldfield came to Cass in 1850. Mr. Oldfield increased his land holdings to 2,000 acres. In 1881, a man named; the factory was moved or closed. Martin Madden was an Irish immigrant, he became a member of the Chicago City Council and was elected to the House of Representatives and served in the United States Congress. In 1903, Mr. Madden built a home to look like the White House in Washington D. C. he called it Castle Eden. Today Castle Eden is part of the Aylesford Retreat Center of the Carmelite Fathers. A group of German Lutherans from Europe came to the area near 67th and Clarendon Hills Road in 1859, they laid out the cemetery behind the church. Today the cemetery is still located at Clarendon Hills Road. In 1899, a new church was built on the northeast corner of 75th Street; the Church was located where the Taco Buona Beef Restaurant now stand. In 1969, the second church was torn down and the present St. John's Lutheran Church was built west of Cass and north of 75th Street. A school was built on the northwest corner of Cass and 75th street in 1860.
It was the first Lace School. It burned down in 1924, was replaced with the present building, it is now a museum, open on the first Sunday of each month from 2:00pm to 4:00pm. By 1890, the Village of Lace was established; the important location at that time was the triangle bordered by Cass Avenue, Plainfield Road and 75th Street. It was called "The Point"; the Point included General Store, Blacksmith Shop and the office of Dr. Roe. A Post Office had been established at The Point in 1884; the future city of Darien was part of the Lace and Cass communities. Residents of the Marion Hills, Brookhaven and Hinsbrook subdivisions wanted to incorporate as a single city; when the incorporation committee reached an impasse on an acceptable name for the new city, acting mayor Sam Kelly suggested the name "Darien". He had visited Darien and found it to be a pleasant and attractive community. Today, Darien is known as "A Nice Place to Live". Darien in Illinois is pronounced with the accent on the first syllable.
According to the 2010 census, Darien has a total area of 6.303 square miles, of which 6.18 square miles is land and 0.123 square miles is water. Darien's City Hall used to be underground until 1994, when it was lifted up. Now only 75% is underground. Darien's City Hall is surrounded on three sides by the village of Downers Grove. Darien is bordered by the cities of Downers Grove, Woodridge and Willowbrook, it has easy access to the three major thoroughfares crossing Chicago's southwest suburbs: Interstate 55, Interstate 355, Interstate 294; as of the census of 2000, there were 22,860 people, 8,735 households, 6,455 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,782.7 people per square mile. There were 8,929 housing units at an average density of 1,477.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 90.10% White, 0.97% African American, 0.11% Native American, 9.53% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.97% from other races, 1.29% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.64% of the population.
There were 8,735 households out of which 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.1% were married couples living together, 7.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.1% were non-families. 22.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.09. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.1% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 28.1% from 25 to 44, 30.0% from 45 to 64, 12.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.1 males. According to a 2007 estimate, the median income for a household in the city was $78,122, the median income for a family was $95,332. Males had a median income of $70,580 versus $46,352 for females; the per capita income for the city was $39,795. About 1.6% of families and 2.2% of the po
Hinsdale is a village in Cook and DuPage counties in the U. S. state of Illinois. Hinsdale is a western suburb of Chicago; the population was 16,816 at the 2010 census. The town's ZIP code is 60521, it is listed in the top 1% of wealthiest towns in Illinois, it is known locally for its beautiful residences and teardown culture, of which new rebuilds have taken 30% of homes in the village. The town has a rolling, wooded topography, with a quaint downtown, is a 22-minute express train ride to downtown Chicago on the Burlington Northern line. Hinsdale is located 20 miles west of Chicago and is bordered by Western Springs to the east, Clarendon Hills and Westmont to the west, Oak Brook to the north, Burr Ridge and Willowbrook to the south, it can be reached by highway from Interstate 294 or Interstate 55. The eastern boundary of Hinsdale is I-294, the western boundary is Route 83. According to the 2010 census, Hinsdale has a total area of 4.633 square miles, of which 4.6 square miles is land and 0.033 square miles is water.
As of the census of 2010, 16,816 people lived in Hinsdale. The racial makeup of the village was 90.0% White, 1.3% African American, 0.0% Native American, 6.4% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.5% some other race, 1.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.5% of the population. The census recorded 5,488 households in the village, out of which 48.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 73.2% were headed by married couples living together, 6.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 18.0% were non-families. 16.5% of all households were made up of individuals, 8.5% were someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.03, the average family size was 3.43. According to the 2010 census, Hinsdale's age distribution amounted to 33.5% under the age of 18, 5.3% from 18 to 24, 17.4% from 25 to 44, 32.3% from 45 to 64, 11.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41.4 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.6 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $165,598, the median income for a family was $170,433. Males had a median income of $161,579 versus $77,292 for females; the per capita income for the city was $78,902. About 2.2% of the population was below the poverty line, including 3.8% of those under age 18 and 0.4% of those age 65 or over. Hinsdale's downtown area is a National Register Historic District; the downtown area is located in the center of town and is remarkably little changed considering the many teardowns that have occurred in town. The village has restaurants, different types of shops, various services, as well as the train station; the Robbins Park district just east of downtown between Garfield Street and County Line Road, as well as between Hinsdale Avenue and 9th Street, is a National Register Historic District as well. The district includes two of Hinsdale's seven buildings individually listed on the National Register of Historic Places, as well as seven of seventeen Hinsdale Historic Landmarks.
The six individual Hinsdale buildings on the National Register of Historic Places are the Orland P. Bassett House at 329 E. Sixth St. the Robert A. and Mary Childs House at 318 S. Garfield Ave. Immanuel Evangelical Church at 302 S. Grant St. the Francis Stuyvesant Peabody House at 8 E. Third St. and the William Whitney House at 142 E. First St. Another significant architectural landmark is the R. Harold Zook Home and Studio, located at 327 S. Oak Street and was saved from demolition in 2005 by relocation to the Katherine Legge Memorial Park, 5941 S. County Line Road. To address Hinsdale's legacy of important architectural landmarks, the Hinsdale Historical Society runs the Roger & Ruth Anderson Architecture Center, which advocates for the preservation of Hinsdale's historical architecture and serves as an archive and resource; the village was incorporated on April 1, 1873. Law enforcement is provided by the Hinsdale Police Department; the Hinsdale Fire Department was established in 1893. The community is served by the United States Postal Service Hinsdale Post Office.
As of December 2014, the village president is Jr.. The village trustees are J. Kimberley Angelo, Christopher J. Elder, William N. Haarlow, Gerald J. Hughes, Laura LaPlaca and Bob Saigh. Hinsdale is served by Metra's BNSF Railway Line at three stations: West Hinsdale and Highlands. Additionally, Pace operates connecting bus services. Pace bus lines 663 and 668 serve Hinsdale. Community Consolidated School District 181 and the Hinsdale Township High School District 86 serve Hinsdale's youth; the high school district has its headquarters in Hinsdale. The School District 181 elementary schools within Hinsdale include The Lane School, Madison School, Monroe School, Oak School. Elementary schools in District 181 that are not in Hinsdale include Prospect School, Elm School, Walker School. Hinsdale Middle School, operated by the elementary school district, is in Hinsdale. Clarendon Hills Middle School, in District 181, is in Clarendon Hills. St Isaac Jogues is a K-8 Catholic Grade School School located in Hinsdale.
Hinsdale Central High School is located in Hinsdale. The Hinsdale Public Library is located in the west wing of the Memorial Building; the library opened in August 1893. The Memorial Building, the library's first permanent residence, was completed in 1929. D. K. Pearson, a director of the library association, donated his house and a portion of his estate to the library system. In 1988 the Memorial Building received an addition on the west side, th
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl
United States Atomic Energy Commission
The United States Atomic Energy Commission known as the AEC, was an agency of the United States government established after World War II by U. S. Congress to foster and control the peacetime development of atomic science and technology. President Harry S. Truman signed the McMahon/Atomic Energy Act on August 1, 1946, transferring the control of atomic energy from military to civilian hands, effective on January 1, 1947; this shift gave the members of the AEC complete control of the plants, laboratories and personnel assembled during the war to produce the atomic bomb. During its initial establishment and subsequent operationalization, the AEC played a key role in the institutional development of Ecosystem ecology, it provided crucial financial resources, allowing for ecological research to take place. More it enabled ecologists with a wide range of groundbreaking techniques for the completion of their research. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, the AEC approved funding for numerous bioenvironmental projects in the arctic and subarctic regions.
These projects were designed to examine the effects of nuclear energy upon the environment and were a part of the AEC's attempt at creating peaceful applications of atomic energy. An increasing number of critics during the 1960s charged that the AEC's regulations were insufficiently rigorous in several important areas, including radiation protection standards, nuclear reactor safety, plant siting, environmental protection. By 1974, the AEC's regulatory programs had come under such strong attack that the U. S. Congress decided to abolish the AEC; the AEC was abolished by the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, which assigned its functions to two new agencies: the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. On August 4, 1977, President Jimmy Carter signed into law The Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977, which created the Department of Energy; the new agency assumed the responsibilities of the Federal Energy Administration, the Energy Research and Development Administration, the Federal Power Commission, various other Federal agencies.
In creating the AEC, Congress declared that atomic energy should be employed not only in the form of nuclear weapons for the nation's defense, but to promote world peace, improve the public welfare and strengthen free competition in private enterprise. At the same time, the McMahon Act which created the AEC gave it unprecedented powers of regulation over the entire field of nuclear science and technology, it furthermore explicitly prevented technology transfer between the United States and other countries, required FBI investigations for all scientists or industrial contractors who wished to have access to any AEC controlled nuclear information. The signing was the culmination of long months of intensive debate among politicians, military planners and atomic scientists over the fate of this new energy source and the means by which it would be regulated. President Truman appointed David Lilienthal as the first Chairman of the AEC. Congress gave the new civilian AEC extraordinary power and considerable independence to carry out its mission.
To provide the AEC exceptional freedom in hiring its scientists and engineers, AEC employees were exempt from the civil service system. The AEC's first order of business was to inspect the scattered empire of atomic plants and laboratories to be inherited from the U. S. Army; because of the need for great security, all production facilities and nuclear reactors would be government-owned, while all technical information and research results would be under AEC control. The National Laboratory system was established from the facilities created under the Manhattan Project. Argonne National Laboratory was one of the first laboratories authorized under this legislation as a contractor-operated facility dedicated to fulfilling the new AEC's missions; the Argonne was the first of the regional laboratories. Others were the Clinton labs and the Brookhaven National Laboratory in the Northeast, although a similar lab in Southern California did not eventuate. On 11 March 1948 Lilienthal and Kenneth Nichols were summoned to the White House where Truman told them "I know you two hate each other’s guts".
He directed that "the primary objective of the AEC was to develop and produce atomic weapons", Nichols was appointed a major general and replaced Leslie Groves as chief of the Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Lilienthal had opposed his appointment. Lilienthal was told to "forgo your desire to place a bottle of milk on every doorstop and get down to the business of producing atomic weapons. Nichols became General Manager of the AEC on 2 November 1953; the AEC was in charge of developing the U. S. nuclear arsenal, taking over these responsibilities from the wartime Manhattan Project. In its first decade, the AEC oversaw the operation of Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, devoted to weapons development, in 1952, the creation of new second weapons laboratory in California, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; the AEC carried out the "crash program" to develop the hydrogen bomb, the AEC played a key role in the prosecution of the Rosenbergs for espionage. The AEC began a program of regular nuclear weapons testing, both in the faraway Pacific Proving Grounds and at the Nevada Test Site in the western United States.
While the AEC supported much basic research, the vast majority of its early budget was devoted to nuclear weapons development and production. Within the AEC, high-level scientific and technical advice was provided by the General Advisory Committee headed by J. Robert Oppenheimer. In its early years, the General
Addison is a village located in the Chicago Metropolitan Area, in DuPage County, United States. The population was 36,942 at the 2010 census; the community itself was named Dunkley's Grove after the settler Hezekiah Dunklee, was renamed after a town in England or Addison, New York. Adventureland amusement park was located in Addison during the 1970s; the Addison Industrial District was the proposed location for the reconstruction of Comiskey Park in the late 1980s before this was voted down. The Village of Addison lies on a tributary of the Des Plaines River. Addison is located at 41°55′54″N 88°0′8″W. According to the 2010 census, Addison has a total area of 9.98 square miles, of which 9.77 square miles is land and 0.21 square miles is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 35,914 people, 11,649 households, 9,097 families residing in the village; the population density was 3,807.6 people per square mile. There were 11,805 housing units at an average density of 1,251.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 75.39% White, 2.51% African American, 0.35% Native American, 7.94% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 11.39% from other races, 2.40% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 28.40% of the population. There were 11,649 households out of which 38.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.7% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.9% were non-families. 16.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.07 and the average family size was 3.46. In the village, the population was spread out with 26.2% under the age of 18, 11.3% from 18 to 24, 32.0% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, 8.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.8 males. The median income for a household in the village was $54,090, the median income for a family was $59,007. Males had a median income of $39,718 versus $27,815 for females; the per capita income for the village was $21,201.
9.6% of the population and 7.2% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 13.2% of those under the age of 18 and 7.3% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. Addison is home to Indian Trail Junior High School; the Elementary schools are: Wesley Elementary, Lake Park Elementary, Fullerton Elementary, Army Trail Elementary, Lincoln Elementary and Stone Elementary. St. Philip the Apostle, a private Catholic school and parish, is located in Addison and serves students from pre-kindergarten through 8th grade. Driscoll Catholic High School was located in Addison before closing in 2009. DeVry University and Chamberlain College of Nursing call Addison home. Another public place in Addison for education is the Addison Public Library, it offers thousands of books to residents, as well as computer privileges and various educational, creative and technical skill classes. According to Addison's 2018 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city were: Rich Veenstra is the Mayor of Addison.
Other elected officials include Village Trustees Sam Nasti, Harry Theodore, Tom Hundley, Bill Lynch, Cathy Kluczny and Joe McDermott, Village Clerk Lucille Zucchero. The town of Triggiano, Italy is the sister city of Addison. Addison is located in Illinois's 8th congressional district, represented by Raja Krishnamoorthi. In the Illinois Senate it is Representative by Tom Cullerton. In the Illinois House of Representatives it is represented by Christine Winger, Deb Conroy. and Kathleen Willis. Mark Anelli, former tight end for the San Francisco 49ers and St. Louis Rams. Tim Breslin, professional hockey player, he played left wing for the Chicago Wolves. Jim Ellison, founder of the legendary Power Pop band, Material Issue, along with Ted Ansani and Mike Zelenko. Jamie Freveletti, author of the Covert-One series novels The Geneva Strategy. Bobby Hull, Hockey Hall of Fame inductee, he lived in Addison from 1963-1971. George Ireland, men's basketball coach who led the Loyola Ramblers to win the 1963 NCAA championship.
He died in Addison. Kyle Kinane, stand-up comedian and actor, he is a graduate of Addison Trail High School. Hubert J. Loftus and politician Tony Pasquesi, defensive lineman for the Chicago Cardinals from 1955-1957, he was a resident of Addison at the time of his death. Rob Renzetti and creator of My Life as a Teenage Robot, he was raised in Addison. Mike Retondo, bassist for the Plain White T's. Mark Rodenhauser, an American football player who played center for seven NFL teams from 1987 to 1999, he played football at Addison Trail High School. Alexa Scimeca Knierim, pair skater and winner of the 2015 U. S. Figure Skating Championships with her then-fiancé Chris Knierim, she is a graduate of Addison Trail High School. Rocco Sisto, actor best known for playing young Junior Soprano on The Sopranos. Leon Spinks, boxer, he resided in Addison after his retirement from boxing. Lina Trivedi, involved with creation of, she was raised in Addison where she lived for most of her school-age and young-adult life, is a graduate of Addison Trail H