A walnut is the nut of any tree of the genus Juglans the Persian or English walnut, Juglans regia. Technically a walnut thus not a true botanical nut, it is used for food after being processed, while green for pickled walnuts or after full ripening for its nutmeat. Nutmeat of the eastern black walnut from the Juglans nigra is less commercially available, as are butternut nutmeats from Juglans cinerea; the walnut is nutrient-dense with protein and essential fatty acids. Walnuts are rounded, single-seeded stone fruits of the walnut tree used for the meat after ripening. Following full ripening, the removal of the husk reveals the wrinkly walnut shell, commercially found in two segments. During the ripening process, the husk will become brittle and the shell hard; the shell encloses the kernel or meat, made up of two halves separated by a partition. The seed kernels – available as shelled walnuts – are enclosed in a brown seed coat which contains antioxidants; the antioxidants protect the oil-rich seed from atmospheric oxygen, thereby preventing rancidity.
Walnuts are late to grow leaves not until more than halfway through the spring. They secrete chemicals into the soil to prevent competing vegetation from growing; because of this, flowers or vegetable gardens should not be planted close to them. The two most common major species of walnuts are grown for their seeds – the Persian or English walnut and the black walnut; the English walnut originated in Persia, the black walnut is native to eastern North America. The black walnut is of high flavor, but due to its hard shell and poor hulling characteristics it is not grown commercially for nut production. Numerous walnut cultivars have been developed commercially, which are nearly all hybrids of the English walnut. Other species include J. californica, the California black walnut, J. cinerea, J. major, the Arizona walnut. Other sources list J. californica californica as native to southern California, Juglans californica hindsii, or just J. hindsii, as native to northern California. In 2016, worldwide production of walnuts was 3.7 million tonnes, with China contributing 48% of the world total.
Other major producers were: United States, Turkey, Mexico and Chile. The average worldwide walnut yield was about 3.5 tonnes per hectare in 2014. Eastern European countries had the highest yield, with Slovenia and Romania each harvesting about 19 tonnes per hectare. In 2014, the United States was the world's largest exporter of walnuts, followed by Turkey; the Central Valley of California produces 99 percent of total United States commerce in English walnuts. It has been been found naturalized in England. Walnuts, like other tree nuts, must be stored properly. Poor storage makes walnuts susceptible to insect and fungal mold infestations. A mold-infested walnut batch should be discarded; the ideal temperature for longest possible storage of walnuts is in the −3 to 0 °C and low humidity – for industrial and home storage. However, such refrigeration technologies are unavailable in developing countries where walnuts are produced in large quantities. Temperatures above 30 °C, humidities above 70 percent can lead to rapid and high spoilage losses.
Above 75 percent humidity threshold, fungal molds that release dangerous aflatoxin can form. Walnut meats are available in two forms; the meats may be whole, halved, or in smaller portions due to processing. Walnuts are candied, may be used as an ingredient in other foodstuffs. Pickled walnuts that are the whole fruit can be savory or sweet depending on the preserving solution. Walnut butters can be purchased in both raw and roasted forms. All walnuts can be eaten on their own or as part of a mix such as muesli, or as an ingredient of a dish. For example, walnut soup and walnut pie are prepared using walnuts as a main ingredient. Walnut Whip and walnut cake, pickled walnuts are more examples. Walnut is the main ingredient of a khoresh in Iranian cuisine. Walnuts are popular in brownie recipes, as ice cream toppings, walnut pieces are used as a garnish on some foods. Nocino is a liqueur made from unripe green walnuts steeped in alcohol with syrup added. Walnut oil is available commercially and is chiefly used as a food ingredient in salad dressings.
It has a low smoke point. Walnuts without shells are 4% water, 15% protein, 65% fat, 14% carbohydrates, including 7% dietary fiber. In a 100-gram serving, walnuts provide 2,740 kilojoules and rich content of several dietary minerals manganese at 163% DV, B vitamins. While English walnuts are the most consumed, their nutrient density and profile are similar to those of black walnuts. Unlike most nuts that are high in monounsaturated fatty acids, walnut oil is composed of polyunsaturated fatty acids alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid, although it does contain oleic acid as 13% of total fats. In 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration provided a Qualified Health Claim allowing products containing walnuts to state
Jacaranda is a genus of 49 species of flowering plants in the family Bignoniaceae, native to tropical and subtropical regions of Mexico, Central America, South America, Hispaniola and the Bahamas. It has been planted in Asia in Nepal. A cosmopolitan plant, Jacaranda mimosifolia is quite common in southern California, Argentina, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand and Zambia and has been introduced to most tropical and subtropical regions to the extent that it has entered the popular culture; the generic name is used as the common name. The name is believed to be of Guarani origin; the word jacaranda was described in A supplement to Mr. Chambers's Cyclopædia, 1st ed. as "a name given by some authors to the tree the wood of, the log-wood, used in dyeing and in medicine" and as being of Tupi-Guarani origin, by way of Portuguese. Although not consistent with the Guarani source, one common pronunciation of the name in English is given by; the species are shrubs to large trees ranging in size from 20 to 30 m tall.
The leaves are pinnate or simple in a few species. The flowers are produced in conspicuous large panicles, each flower with a five-lobed blue to purple-blue corolla; the fruit is an oblong to oval flattened capsule containing numerous slender seeds. The genus differs from other genera in the Bignoniaceae in having a staminode, longer than the stamens, tricolpate pollen, a chromosome number of 18; the genus is divided into sect. Monolobos and sect. Dilobos DC. based on the number of thecae on the anthers. Sect. Jacaranda has 18 species and is found in western South America, Central America and the Caribbean. Sect. Dilobos, believed to be the primitive form, has 31 species and is found in southeastern Brazil including the Paraná River valley; the anatomy of the wood in the two sections differs. Although treated in sect. Jacaranda, J. copaia differs somewhat from all other members of the genus, may be intermediate between the two sections. Jacaranda can be propagated from grafting and seeds, though plants grown from seeds take a long time to bloom.
Jacaranda grows in well drained soil and tolerates drought and brief spells of freeze. This genus thrives in full sun and sandy soils. Mature plants can survive in colder climates down to −7 °C. Younger plants are more fragile and may not survive in colder climates when temperatures drop below freezing. Several species are grown as ornamental plants throughout the subtropical regions of the world, valued for their intense flower displays; the most seen is the Blue Jacaranda Jacaranda mimosifolia. Other members of the genus are commercially important. Dos Santos, G. & Miller, R. B.. Wood anatomy of Jacaranda: Systematic relationships in sections Monolobos and Dilobos as suggested by twig and stem rays. IAWA Journal 18: 369-383. Available online. Goodna Jacaranda Festival at Evan Marginson Park, Goodna Agroforestry Tree Database Jacaranda Festival, Grafton
Los Angeles Fire Department
The Los Angeles Fire Department provides emergency medical services, fire cause determination, fire prevention, fire suppression, hazardous materials mitigation, rescue services to the city of Los Angeles, United States. The LAFD is responsible for 4 million people who live in the agency's 471 square miles jurisdiction; the Los Angeles Fire Department founded in 1886 is one of the largest municipal fire departments in the United States, after the New York City Fire Department and the Chicago Fire Department. The department may be unofficially referred to as the Los Angeles City Fire Department or "LA City Fire" to distinguish it from the Los Angeles County Fire Department which serves the county and whose name may directly confuse people, as the county seat is the city. Another possible reason is that the city and the unincorporated County are bordering each other and thus the two appear to be serving the same area; the department is under the command of chief Ralph Terrazas. The Los Angeles Fire Department has it origins in the year 1871.
In September of that year, George M. Fall, the County Clerk for Los Angeles County organized Engine Company No. 1. It was a volunteer firefighting force with a hose jumper; the equipment was hand-drawn to fires. In the spring of 1874, the fire company asked the Los Angeles City Council to purchase horses to pull the engine; the Council refused and the fire company disbanded. Many of the former members of Engine Company No. 1 reorganized under the name of Thirty-Eights No. 1 in May 1875, Engine Co. No. 2 was organized under the name Confidence Engine Company. Los Angeles acquired its first "ladder" truck for the Thirty-Eights, it was ill-adapted to the needs of the city. It was sold to the city of Wilmington. In 1876, another "hook and ladder" truck was purchased, serving in the city until 1881. In 1878, a third fire company was formed by the residents in the neighborhood of Sixth Street and Park, it was given the name of "Park Hose Co. No. 1". East Los Angeles formed a hose company named "East Los Angeles Hose Co.
No. 2" five years later. The final volunteer company was formed in the fall of 1883 in the Morris Vineyard area; this company was called "Morris Vineyard Hose Co. No.3."All of these companies remained in service until February 1, 1886, when the present paid fire department came into existence. In 1877, the first horses were bought for the city fire department; the department would continue to use horses for its equipment for fifty years, phasing out the last horse drawn equipment on July 19, 1921. By 1900, the Department had grown to 18 fire stations with 123 full-time paid firefighters and 80 fire horses; the city had installed 194 fire-alarm boxes allowing citizens to sound the alarm if a fire was spotted. 660 fire hydrants were placed throughout the city, giving firefighters access to a reliable water source. In 1955 Station 78 in Studio City became the first racially integrated station in the department; the department utilizes a wide array of equipment. These are most but not all of the apparatus.
The triple combination Fire Engine or “TRIPLE” is the most common type of firefighting apparatus in Los Angeles. The term “triple combination” refers to the apparatus having three components; the triple can be found as a one-piece engine company or as two engines assigned to a Task Force station. The “Triples” used by the LAFD have several parallel main pumps of varying capacities. Depending upon the area served, this apparatus may carry a combination of any or all of the following sizes of hose; the water tank carrying capacity ranges from 300 gallons to 500 gallons. These apparatus are staffed by four members, including a Captain 1 as the company commander. A number of triples in the LAFD are Paramedic assessment companies – meaning they include a Paramedic as part of the crew; the LAFD uses the concept of Light Forces and Task Forces which can be considered one "Resource", although comprising more than one unit or company. A Light Force is composed of a Ladder Truck. Light forces will always respond together as one unit or resource.
A Task Force is a Light Force coupled with an Engine. An Engine is considered a single unit or "resource". A Task Force responds to larger incidents, such as structural fires, is made up of an Engine, a 200 Series Pump Engine, a Truck, all operating together. While a standard Engine is always staffed with a full crew, a 200 Series Pump Engine is only staffed by a driver; the purpose of the 200 Series Pump Engine is to provide support and equipment to the Truck in a Light Force, either the Truck or the Engine in a Task Force. Rescue Ambulances called'rescues' for short, can be considered either advanced life support, or basic life support. Ambulances number 1-112 are frontline ALS staffed by 2 firefighter / paramedics, while those in the 200 series are ALS reserves. Ambulances in the 800s are BLS staffed by 2 firefighter EMT's, while those in the 900s are BLS reserves; the Air Operations division of the LAFD operates out of Fire Station 114 at Van Nuys Airport. The division has six helicopters available for air medical services.
Copter 1 and Copter 4 are both Bell 412s. Copter 2, Copter 3 and Copter 5 are all AgustaWestland AW139s; the final helicopter, Copter 6, is a Bell 206B. The Port of Los An
Los Angeles County, California
Los Angeles County the County of Los Angeles, in the Los Angeles metropolitan area of the U. S. state of California, is the most populous county in the United States, with more than 10 million inhabitants as of 2017. As such, it is the largest non–state level government entity in the United States, its population is larger than that of 41 individual U. S. states. It is the third-largest metropolitan economy in the world, with a Nominal GDP of over $700 billion—larger than the GDPs of Belgium and Taiwan, it has 88 incorporated cities and many unincorporated areas and, at 4,083 square miles, it is larger than the combined areas of Delaware and Rhode Island. The county is home to more than one-quarter of California residents and is one of the most ethnically diverse counties in the U. S, its county seat, Los Angeles, is California's most populous city and the nation's second largest city with about 4 million people. Los Angeles County is one of the original counties of California, created at the time of statehood in 1850.
The county included parts of what are now Kern, San Bernardino, Inyo, Tulare and Orange counties. In 1851 and 1852, Los Angeles County stretched from the coast to the border of Nevada; as the population increased, sections were split off to organize San Bernardino County in 1853, Kern County in 1866, Orange County in 1889. Prior to the 1870s, Los Angeles County was divided into townships, many of which were amalgamations of one or more old ranchos, they were: Azusa El Monte Azusa and El Monte Townships were merged for the 1870 census. City of Los Angeles Los Angeles Township Los Nietos San Jose San Gabriel Santa Ana. For the 1870 census, Annaheim district was enumerated separately. San Juan. San Pedro. Tejon When Kern County was formed, the portion of the township remaining in Los Angeles County became Soledad Township According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 4,751 square miles, of which 4,058 square miles is land and 693 square miles is water. Los Angeles County borders 70 miles of coast on the Pacific Ocean and encompasses mountain ranges, forests, lakes and desert.
The Los Angeles River, Rio Hondo, the San Gabriel River and the Santa Clara River flow in Los Angeles County, while the primary mountain ranges are the Santa Monica Mountains and the San Gabriel Mountains. The western extent of the Mojave Desert begins in the Antelope Valley, in the northeastern part of the county. Most of the population of Los Angeles County is located in the south and southwest, with major population centers in the Los Angeles Basin, San Fernando Valley and San Gabriel Valley. Other population centers are found in the Santa Clarita Valley, Pomona Valley, Crescenta Valley and Antelope Valley; the county is divided west-to-east by the San Gabriel Mountains, which are part of the Transverse Ranges of southern California, are contained within the Angeles National Forest. Most of the county's highest peaks are in the San Gabriel Mountains, including Mount San Antonio 10,068 feet ) at the Los Angeles-San Bernardino county lines, Mount Baden-Powell 9,399 feet, Mount Burnham 8,997 feet and Mount Wilson 5,710 feet.
Several lower mountains are in the northern and southwestern parts of the county, including the San Emigdio Mountains, the southernmost part of Tehachapi Mountains and the Sierra Pelona Mountains. Los Angeles County includes San Clemente Island and Santa Catalina Island, which are part of the Channel Islands archipelago off the Pacific Coast. East: Eastside, San Gabriel Valley, portions of the Pomona Valley West: Westside, Beach Cities South: South Bay, South Los Angeles, Palos Verdes Peninsula, Gateway Cities, Los Angeles Harbor Region North: San Fernando Valley, Crescenta Valley, portions of the Conejo Valley, portions of the Antelope Valley and Santa Clarita Valley Central: Downtown Los Angeles, Mid-Wilshire, Northeast Los Angeles Angeles National Forest Los Padres National Forest Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area Los Angeles County had a population of 9,818,605 in the 2010 United States Census; the racial makeup of Los Angeles County was 4,936,599 White, 1,346,865 Asian, 856,874 African American, 72,828 Native A
Westchester, Los Angeles
Westchester is a neighborhood in Los Angeles and the Westside Region of Los Angeles County, California. It is home to Los Angeles International Airport, Loyola Marymount University, Otis College of Art and Design, Westchester Enriched Sciences Magnet Schools; the main part of Westchester is flanked by Playa Vista and Culver City on the north and Lennox on the east, Hawthorne on the southeast, Del Aire and El Segundo on the south and Playa del Rey on the west. It includes all of the Los Angeles International Airport. There is a two-block-wide shoestring district that runs from the intersection of Centinela Avenue and La Cienega Boulevard north to 63rd Street and east to Overhill Avenue, where it links with the Hyde Park neighborhood; the main neighborhood's boundary lines are on the east: north-south on La Cienega Boulevard or the Inglewood city line. Westchester began the 20th century as an agricultural area, growing a wide variety of crops in the dry, farming-friendly climate; the rapid development of the aerospace industry near Mines Field, the move of Loyola University to the area in 1928, population growth in Los Angeles as a whole, created a demand for housing in the area.
Westchester hosted the cross country part of the eventing equestrian event for the 1932 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. In the late 1930s, real estate magnate Fritz Burns and his partner Fred W. Marlow developed a tract of inexpensive prefabricated single-family homes on the site of a former hog farm at the intersection of Manchester and Sepulveda Boulevards; this community, dubbed "Westchester", grew by leaps and bounds as the aerospace industry boomed in World War II and afterward. A Los Angeles Times article in 1989 described the development as "a raw suburb", "created willy-nilly in the 1940s"; the area was predominantly residential. When the area had 30,000 residents, it was still lacking a police station, fire station, or hospital, it lacked a barber shop by 1949. The 1960s saw the introduction of airliners that could make trans-Pacific flights without refueling, causing a massive increase in air traffic at LAX; when the North Airfield Complex was constructed the increase in noise from jet takeoffs decreased the desirability of the residential areas adjoining LAX.
In response, the city of Los Angeles began a program of purchasing and condemning houses from noise-weary homeowners. In all, Westchester lost 14,000 residents; the 18-hole Westchester golf course became a 15-hole course. In 2007 Los Angeles World Airport proposed another move of the North runway into Westchester, local opposition to LAX expansion rose to fever pitch. In February 2010, a NASA panel should stay as it is; that same month, LAWA broke ground on a $1.5 billion expansion of the Bradley International Terminal. Home prices rose 25 percent in 2013-14 while most southern California communities were recovering much more slowly. A major factor has been the influx of technology companies in Playa Vista as the Silicon Beach phenomena in west Los Angeles has spread; the community experienced a boom in home additions or complete rehabilitation of traditional postwar Ranch-style house into larger two-story homes. The Howard Hughes Center was a significant addition to the neighborhood in 2001 next to the San Diego Freeway.
Development continued till by 2015 the complex had 1.3 million square feet of office space in high-rise buildings, 3,200 apartments, an updated, renovated shopping mall. A total of 39,480 people lived in Westchester's 10.81 square miles, according to the 2010 U. S. census, that figure included the uninhabited acreage of the Los Angeles International Airport—resulting in a density of 3,652 people per square mile, among the lowest population densities in the city of Los Angeles but about average for the county. The median age was 35.6, about average for Los Angeles city. The percentage of people from age 19 through 34 was among the county's highest. In 2010 whites made up 61.1% of the population, blacks were at 14.2%, Asians at 12.0%, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander 0.3%, others at 11.9%. Those who identified themselves as Hispanic or Latino were 18.2%. In 2010, the mean family income for the area was $135,026 and the median family income was $106,302, both numbers high for the city.
The percentages of families that earned more than $100,000 a year was 53.5%. Renters occupied 48.2% of the housing units, homeowners occupied the rest. The average household size was 2.3 people, considered low for the county. The percentages of divorced men and divorced women were among the county's highest; the 2000 census counted 3,055 military veterans, 9.2% of the population, considered a high percentage for the city of Los Angeles but about average for the county. Los Angeles Fire Department Station 5 is in Westchester. Los Angeles Police Department operates the Pacific Community Police Station at 12312 Culver Boulevard, 90066, serving the neighborhood. Los Angeles Public Library operates the Westchester-Loyola Village Library, at 7114 W. Manchester Avenue, 90045, is a community library offering free online access, programming & information for all ages. Los Angeles World Airports has its headquart
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti