Westwood, Los Angeles
Westwood is a commercial and residential neighborhood in the northern central portion of the Westside region of Los Angeles, California. It is the home of the University of Los Angeles; the 2000 census found the forty-seven thousand people living in the neighborhood were young and moderately diverse ethnically, with a high level of income and education. The neighborhood was developed after 1919, with a new campus of the University of California opened in 1926. Other attractions include Westwood Village, with its historic motion picture theaters and shopping, Westwood Village Memorial Park Cemetery and the Hammer Museum. Holmby Hills is considered one of the wealthiest residential areas in Los Angeles, the Geffen Playhouse attracts theater-goers. A Mormon temple is prominent. There are one middle school in the neighborhood; the 2000 U. S. census counted 47,916 residents in the 3.68-square-mile Westwood neighborhood—or 13,036 people per square mile, an average population density for the city. In 2008, the city estimated that the population had increased to 52,041.
The median age for residents was 27, considered young for the city. The neighborhood was considered moderately diverse ethnically, with a high percentage of Asians and of whites; the breakdown was whites, 62.9%. Iran and Taiwan were the most common places of birth for the 31.3% of the residents who were born abroad—about the same percentage as in the city at large. The median yearly household income in 2008 dollars was a high figure for Los Angeles; the percentages of households that earned $125,000 yearly and higher or that earned $20,000 or less were high for Los Angeles County. The average household size of two people was low for Los Angeles. Renters occupied 64.1% of the housing stock and house- or apartment owners held 35.9%. The percentages of never-married men and women were among the county's highest. In 2000 there were 309 families headed by a low percentage for the city. Five percent of the population had served in the military, a low figure for both the city and the county. According to the Westwood Neighborhood Council, the Westwood Homeowners Association, the Los Angeles Times' Mapping L.
A. project, Westwood's street and other boundaries are north, Sunset Boulevard. Westwood is flanked on the north by Beverly Crest, on the east by Beverly Hills, on the southeast by Century City, on the south by West Los Angeles, on the west by Veterans Administration and Brentwood and on the northwest by Bel-Air. Westwood Village was created by the Janss Investment Company, run by Harold and Edwin Janss and their father, Peter, in the late 1920s as an shopping district and headquarters of the Janss Company, its boom was complemented by the boom of UCLA, developed as a shopping district for the residents of Westwood and the university. Opening in 1929, the design was considered one of the nation's most well-planned and beautifully laid out commercial areas. Harold Janss had hired major architects and instructed them to follow a Mediterranean theme, with clay tile roofs, decorative Spanish tile, paseos and courtyards. Buildings at strategic points, including theaters, used towers to serve as beacons for drivers on Wilshire Boulevard.
Janss determined their location in the neighborhood. The architectural style met a turning point in 1970, when a 24-story office building now known as Oppenheimer Tower was built in the neighborhood and the design of new buildings soon became a mishmash of styles; the Oppenheimer Tower was used for the primary location in the 1978 episode of Emergency!, The Steel Inferno. The neighborhood's popularity continued to rise, with commercial rents peaking in 1988; the area suffered a major setback in the late 1980s, when gangs began to frequent the neighborhood and bother visitors. The neighborhood's well-known bookstores and some movie cinemas began closing with the advent of large chain stores, Amazon.com and multiplex theaters. By 1999, the Village was considered to be upscale economically, today it houses many small and large shops and restaurants. Independent merchants have blamed poor sales on lack of parking. Parking is still cited as a major problem. Holmby Hills, Bel Air and Beverly Hills form the "Platinum Triangle" of Los Angeles.
It is bordered by the city of Beverly Hills on the east, Wilshire Boulevard on the south and Bel Air on the north. North Westwood Village is a multifamily residential neighborhood west of Gayley Avenue and east of Le Conte Avenue where many UCLA students reside. Westwood was developed on the lands of the historic Wolfskill Ranch, a 3,000-acre parcel, purchased by Arthur Letts, the successful founder of the Broadway, Bullock's department stores, in 1919. Upon Arthur Lett's death, his son-in-law, Harold Janss, vice president of Janss Investment Company, inherited the land and developed the area and started advertising for new homes in 1922
Susanville is the county seat of Lassen County, United States. Susanville is located on the Susan River in the southern part of the county, at an elevation of 4,186 feet; the population was 17,974 in the 2010 census, up from 13,541 in the 2000 census. Much of the population increase is related to persons held at two state prisons in the city. Susanville, a former logging and mining town, is the site of two state prisons: the California Correctional Center, a minimum-medium security facility, which opened in 1963; the Federal Correctional Institution, Herlong is nearby, having opened in 2001 The prisons and their effects on the community, including the provision of much-needed jobs, were explored in the documentary, Prison Town, USA, aired on PBS. Nearly half the adult population of Susanville works at the three prisons in the area, where 6,000 people are incarcerated, it was known as Rooptown until 1857, named for Isaac Roop, a pioneer of the Honey Lake District. Roop renamed the town Susanville in honor of his daughter in 1857.
Susanville is located at the head of Honey Lake Valley, 40 miles east of Lassen Peak. Susanville is located at 40°24′59″N 120°39′11″W; the elevation of Susanville is 4,258 feet above sea level. It is considered a gateway city to Reno on U. S. Route 395. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.0 square miles, of which 7.9 square miles is land and 1.07% is water. Eagle Lake is located 15 miles north of the town. Susanville is underlain by igneous rock, which provides the parent material for its well-drained brown stony to gravelly sandy loams or loams. On the western outskirts under forest cover, the soils are reddish brown; the most common soil series in Susanville's urban area is Springmeyer gravelly fine sandy loam. Susanville was named after daughter of Isaac Roop, an early settler, it was first called Rooptown, the present name was adopted in 1857. The Susanville US post office was established in 1860. Susanville was incorporated in 1900; the center of farming and the lumber industry, Susanville suffered from the loss of jobs as these industries changed or declined in the 20th century.
Since the late 20th century, the only area of growth in the economy has been associated with the construction and operation of two state prisons in the city and one federal prison in the area. In 2007 half of the adult population of Susanville worked in the prisons: the California Correctional Center, a minimum-medium security facility, which opened in 1963. Susanville has an alpine climate with cold winters and warm dry summers with a high degree of diurnal temperature variation. Records have been kept at several stations since 1893, including Susanville Airport and Susanville 2 SW, southwest of the town center, along with two other stations with shorter records. Average January temperatures are a high of 40.4 °F and a low of 20.8 °F. Average July temperatures are a high of 88.4 °F and a low of 49.8 °F. Temperatures reach 90 °F or higher on an average of 36.9 days annually, drop to 32 °F or lower on an average of 164.6 days annually. The highest recorded temperature in Susanville was 106 °F in July 1931, the lowest recorded temperature was −23 °F on February 1, 1956.
Annual precipitation averaged 13.44 inches from 1971 to 2000, with an average of 66 days with measurable precipitation. Susanville Airport has averaged a somewhat higher 15.04 inches between 1893 and 2012. At the airport the wettest calendar year has been 1907 with 33.51 inches and the driest 1976 with 5.33 inches, though the wettest "rain year" was from July 1937 to June 1938 with 33.01 inches as against 32.42 inches between July 1906 and June 1907 and 4.36 inches in the driest rain year from July 1975 to June 1976. The most precipitation in one month was 12.30 inches in March 1907, the most in 24 hours 5.04 inches on January 31, 1897. Annual snowfall averages 18.7 inches at Susanville 2 SW and 32.8 inches at the airport, though the median at Susanville 2 SW is only 6.5 inches. The most snowfall in one year was 89 inches in 1937, with the most in one month 65.5 inches in January 1895. The 2010 United States Census reported that Susanville had a population of 17,947; the population density was 2,238.7 people per square mile.
The racial makeup of Susanville was 11,269 White, 2,249 African American, 612 Native American, 198 Asian, 111 Pacific Islander, 2,928 from other races, 580 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4,259 persons; the Census reported that 9,439 people lived in households, 108 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 8,400 were institutionalized. There were 3,833 households, out of which 1,357 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 1,645 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 499 had a female householder with no husband pres
T. B. Walker
Thomas Barlow Walker was a successful American business magnate who acquired lumber in Minnesota and California and became an art collector. Walker founded the Minneapolis Public Library, he was among the ten wealthiest men in the world in 1923. He built two company towns, one of which his son sold to become part of what is today known as Sunkist, he is the namesake of the Walker Art Center. T. B. Walker was the son of Platt Walker and Anstis Keziah Walker, a sister of New York State Senator Thomas Barlow, he was born in Xenia, Ohio, in 1840, where in 1849 he got his first job in a bakery cutting biscuits. He had accompanied his parents and siblings west from New York when his father died of cholera in 1849 at Westport, Missouri, on their way to the California gold fields to seek their fortune. In 1854, his mother married Oliver Barnes and in 1855 his family moved to Berea, where while traveling for Fletcher Hulet, he was able to study mathematics intermittently and Newton's Principia at Baldwin University.
When he finished college at age 19, he filled a contract in Illinois for railroad ties. He taught school and became a traveling salesman of grindstones, he is remembered as a man of "strong opinions" who would not eat grapefruit and who slept with a pistol under his pillow. His brother Platt Bayless Walker II founded a magazine, he had another brother and two sisters: Oliver W. Barnes, Adelaide B. Walker, Helen M. Walker. Walker married his college classmate and boss's daughter Harriet Granger Hulet in 1863, they had eight children and lived in Minneapolis at first in a home on the east side rented for $9 per month. Their children were Gilbert M. Julia A. Leon B. Harriet, Fletcher L. Willis J. Clinton L. and Archie D.. The Walkers celebrated their 50th wedding anniversary in 1913. One of Walker's grandson's was Olympic hurdler Walker Smith. From a man in Iowa, Walker heard good things about Minneapolis and moved there in 1862, he arrived at Saint Paul where he met and sold grindstones, once to James Jerome Hill employed as a clerk who sorted them for the buyer.
Within one hour of his arrival in Minneapolis, he was hired as a chainman to George B. Wright, surveying federal pine lands in the north of the state, he became a deputy surveyor within a few days. His application to become assistant professor in mathematics at the University of Wisconsin had been accepted but he loved his new career and turned it down. Walker worked for twelve years on government surveys and on surveys for the St. Paul and Duluth Railroad, his work took him away from home for long periods, it gave him intricate knowledge of what property to buy in northern Minnesota. He began to acquire pine land in 1867, but without capital of his own, he partnered at first with Dr. Levi Butler and Howard W. Mills and with others. With George A. Camp, in 1877 Walker bought the Pacific Mill, a sawmill constructed in 1866 at the foot of 1st Avenue North on the Mississippi River in Minneapolis, which they owned for ten years before dissolving their partnership amicably. Red River Lumber Company was incorporated the following year.
His oldest sons Gilbert and Leon became partners with Walker and the company built more mills in Crookston, Minnesota and at Grand Forks, Dakota Territory. He developed the town and built a mill at Akeley, named for his business partner, Healy C. Akeley. By 1902, four of his sons were involved in his businesses, one was still in school, he was concerned about forest conservation and wrote an article for the National Magazine about what had become the "forestry question". During his lifetime, he gave papers to the Conservation Commission, the U. S. Forestry Department, the U. S. Interior Department and to the U. S. House Ways and Means Committee for their consideration for a tariff on lumber, he gave a presentation on conservation to the Minnesota Academy of Science. He had to spend months up north, but returned to Minneapolis in 1881 intending to build up the city. Walker said, "St. Paul had the retail trade, the railroads and the banks. We tried five years to arrange an amicable interest in building up the industries of both cities."
He and others tried to lure a factory from the east but was double-crossed when Saint Paul, at the time a rival, ended up with both the eastern and the Minneapolis factories. He and his friends invested in the Midway area but the city of Saint Paul annexed it. Walker built the commercial market in Minneapolis, renowned at the time, into the best produce market in the U. S, he is "primarily responsible" for building the Minneapolis Public Library system, first with donations and as a stockholder in the Athenaeum Library Association and with public property tax. He overcame opposition to the idea of a free public library. Walker was a director and president of the library board from its founding in 1885 until he died in 1928. Four-fifths of the art displayed at the library came from his own collection which he had started to collect in 1874 when he purchased a copy of a portrait of George Washington by Rembrandt Peale for the library of his new home, he was interested in creating a public art gallery, a museum, the Minneapolis Art School.
He became president of the Businessman's Union, which formed in 1883 for fifteen years. They chose to build up land west of Minneapolis for their industrial site, to avoid any possibility of Saint Paul annexing the land. According to Walker, "some of the men in the union who liked changes made a social club of it, in the Guara
Brian Dahle is an American politician serving in the California State Assembly. He is a Republican representing the 1st district, encompassing the Shasta Cascade region and the northern Sierra Nevada. Prior to being elected to the state Assembly, he was a Lassen County supervisor for 16 years, he was first elected to the Assembly in 2012, re-elected in 2014 and 2016. Dahle is a third-generation farmer, business owner, father. Before running for State Assembly, Dahle was a Lassen County Supervisor and a full-time farmer in rural Northern California. Elected to the Lassen County Board of Supervisors in 1996, Brian helped ensure that the Lassen County budget was balanced. While he served as a supervisor, he helped them become debt free. Dahle was first elected to the State Assembly in November 2012 with 65.6% of the vote. He was reelected in 2014 with 70.2% of the vote, again in 2016 with 73.76%. He was appointed Vice Chair of the Assembly Environmental and Toxic Materials Committee, the Revenue and Taxation Committee, the Natural Resources Committee.
He has served as a member of the following Committees: Agriculture, Water and Wildlife, Privacy and Consumer Protection and Commerce, Fisheries and Aquaculture and Business and Professions. ` Dahle was appointed in 2018 by Assembly Speaker Anthony Rendon to serve on the Subcommittee on Sexual Harassment Prevention and Response, working to improve services for staff in the Capitol. Dahle was elected by his Assembly Republican colleagues to serve as their Leader on August 24, 2017, he served in this leadership role from September 15, 2017 to November 8, 2018. Dahle has introduced several bills. Assembly Bill 354, required local initiatives to disclose how the measure qualified for the ballot -- whether, by voter petitions or by being placed by the local government. Assembly Bill 744 addressed the need for forest fuel reduction in response to catastrophic fires in California by establishing a fuel reduction pilot program, establishing a three-year pilot project to increase the diameter of tree, increasing the size of trees that can be removed, directing state agencies to work together to develop regionally appropriate forest restoration processes.
Assembly Bill 2363 directed the California Public Utilities Commission to calculate the integration cost of different sources of “green” power to ensure ratepayers get the best deal for their renewable electricity dollar. Assembly Bill 2082 authorized the Board of Forestry to set stocking standards based on the specific landscape and species needs, to take into account the vastly improved survival rates of today’s seedlings. Assembly Bill 2112; the law fixes the Public Resources Code to allow landowners more time to extend Timber Harvest Plans. The law allowed no more than a 30-day window for filing notice to extend Timber Harvest Plans, leaving landowners at great risk of having their plans – which can cost $30,000 to $40,000 to complete – expire and need to be rewritten because of trivial paperwork oversights; the law now allows a 140-day window to ask for an extension. Assembly Bill 2029 reduces some of the regulation and red tape on landowners working to thin the timber on their property to reduce fire danger.
Assembly Bill 1665 sets a goal of providing broadband access to 98 percent of California households. Assembly Bill 1665 will strengthen the California Advanced Services Fund, which supports modern communications infrastructure in underserved areas. All of these bills were signed into law by Governor Jerry Brown; the son and grandson of a farmer, Dahle grew up in Lassen County. His family history dates back to their original homestead farm in the 1930s in the Tulelake area of Siskiyou County, their present Lassen County farm was purchased in the 1940s by Brian's grandparents and has remained as the family farm since that time. He married his wife Megan in 1999; when his parents retired and his wife purchased the farm. He and his wife have three children. Dahle still enjoys farming in Northern California and splits his time between the legislature and the field. Assembly Republican Caucus Legislative Outdoor Sporting Caucus Legislative Rural Caucus Official website Facebook Twitter
Sunkist Growers, Incorporated
Sunkist Growers, Incorporated is an American citrus growers' non-stock membership cooperative composed of 6,000 members from California and Arizona. It is headquartered in the Valencia neighborhood of Santa Clarita, California. Through 31 offices in the United States and Canada and four offices outside North America, its sales in 1991 totaled $956 million, it is the largest fresh produce shipper in the United States, the most diversified citrus processing and marketing operation in the world, one of California's largest landowners. In the late 1880s, California citrus growers began organizing themselves into cooperatives, with the goal of increasing profits by pooling their risk and increasing their collective bargaining power with jobbers and packers; the economic depression that began in 1893 worsened farmers' situations, intensified their desire to self-organize to their own benefit. In 1893, P. J. Dreher and his son, the "father of the California citrus industry" Edward L. Dreher, formed the Southern California Fruit Exchange in Claremont, a small college town near Los Angeles.
It represented only growers of oranges: in 1896 lemon growers joined as well. The exchange soon included growers and groves in Riverside in Riverside County and San Dimas in Los Angeles County, Santa Paula, Fillmore, Rancho Sespe and Piru in Ventura County. In 1952, it changed its name to Inc.. Sunkist has three levels of organizational hierarchy: local and central associations. Individual growers belong to a local organization; the main purpose of the cooperative is to create systems enabling fruit from multiple growers to be efficiently harvested, sorted into various sizes and grades, packed and shipped across the United States, in response to shifting demand. Since inception, the organization has expanded its activities. In 1906, the CFGE launched the a lobbying arm. In 1907, it formed the Fruit Growers Supply Company to supply growers with materials such as radios, shooks for fruit crates and fertilizers at wholesale prices, it formed the Sunkist's Exchange By-Products Company, which developed markets for products such as citric acid, sodium citrate, lemon oil, orange oil and orange pulp.
In its early years, the primary problem facing the California citrus industry was an oversupply of fruit. By 1907, California was producing five times the quantity of oranges it had been fifteen years earlier, orange production was continuing to grow as newly planted orange groves began to bear fruit. In response, in 1907 the CFGE approved the first-ever large-scale advertising campaign aimed at advertising a perishable commodity; the March 1907 campaign, which marketed oranges to Iowans as "healthy" and "summery," resulted in a 50% increase of orange sales in that state. It launched the Sunkist brand: the ad agency Lord & Thomas proposed using the adjective "sun-kissed" to describe the CFGE oranges. In an effort to distinguish Sunkist oranges from others, the CFGE wrapped its oranges in paper stamped with the Sunkist brand, but in 1909, after Sunkist learned that merchants were selling non-Sunkist oranges as Sunkist, it began to offer consumers a free Sunkist-branded spoon in exchange for mailing in twelve Sunkist wrappers.
One million spoons were claimed in the first year of the promotion, further establishing the brand in consumers' minds and giving merchants a reason to want to display Sunkist oranges in their original wrappers. By 1910, the promotion had resulted in Sunkist becoming the world's largest purchaser of cutlery; the success of early campaigns prompted Sunkist to invest in advertising, in coming decades the brand was advertised in magazines and on radio, on billboards and railroad cars, on the sides of speedboats, in school curricula and essay contests, in pamphlets distributed in doctors' offices. Its messaging aimed to reposition oranges in the minds of consumers. Rather than being seen as a luxury to be enjoyed only at Christmas, Sunkist wanted people to see oranges as essential for good health, to eat one every day. Sunkist invested in marketing fresh-squeezed orange juice and lemonade as superior alternatives to "artificial" beverages such as Coca-Cola. By the mid-1930s, one Sunkist orange in five was being consumed in juice form at soda fountains, Sunkist juice was the second-most-popular soda fountain drink, after Coca-Cola.
By 1914, Americans were consuming about forty oranges per person every year, up 80% from 1885. In 1915, in response to competition from imported Italian lemons, which at that time had nearly half the American market, Sunkist started aggressively marketing the benefits of Sunkist lemons, promoting their use as a hair rinse, in tea, in pie and as a food garnish. By 1924, California lemons had 90% of the American lemon market; as of 2007, Sunkist markets fresh oranges, limes, grapefruits and strawberries to 12 states and three Canadian provinces, from 6,000 growers in California and Arizona. From 1971 to 2014, Sunkist was based in the Sherman Oaks district of Los Angeles. Through licensing agreements, Sunkist has rented its trademark to other firms such as General Mills and Snapple, for marketing more than 600 citrus-flavoured products includ
Under the Whyte notation for the classification of steam locomotives, 2-6-0 represents the wheel arrangement of two leading wheels on one axle in a leading truck, six powered and coupled driving wheels on three axles and no trailing wheels. This arrangement is called a Mogul. In the United States of America and Europe, the 2-6-0 wheel arrangement was principally used on tender locomotives; this type of locomotive was built in the United States from the early 1860s to the 1920s. Although examples were built as early as 1852–53 by two Philadelphia manufacturers, Baldwin Locomotive Works and Norris Locomotive Works, these first examples had their leading axles mounted directly and rigidly on the frame of the locomotive rather than on a separate truck or bogie. On these early 2-6-0 locomotives, the leading axle was used to distribute the weight of the locomotive over a larger number of wheels, it was therefore an 0-8-0 with an unpowered leading axle and the leading wheels did not serve the same purpose as, for example, the leading trucks of the 4-4-0 American or 4-6-0 Ten-Wheeler types which, at the time, had been in use for at least a decade.
The first American 2-6-0 with a rigidly mounted leading axle was the Pawnee, built for heavy freight service on the Philadelphia and Reading Rail Road. In total, about thirty locomotives of this type were built for various American railroads. While they were successful in slow, heavy freight service, the railroads that used these first 2-6-0 locomotives didn't see any great advantages in them over the 0-6-0 or 0-8-0 designs of the time; the railroads noted their increased pulling power, but found that their rather rigid suspension made them more prone to derailments than the 4-4-0 locomotives of the day. Many railroad mechanics attributed these derailments to having too little weight on the leading truck; the first true 2-6-0s were built in the early 1860s, the first few being built in 1860 for the Louisville and Nashville Railroad. The new design required the utilisation of a single-axle swivelling truck; such a truck was first patented in the United Kingdom by Levi Bissell in May 1857. In 1864, William S. Hudson the superintendent of Rogers Locomotive and Machine Works, patented an equalized leading truck, able to move independently of the driving axles.
This equalized suspension worked much better over the uneven tracks of the day. The first locomotive built with such a leading truck was completed in 1865 for the New Jersey Railroad and Transportation Company as their number 39, it is that the locomotive class name derives from a locomotive named Mogul, built by Taunton Locomotive Manufacturing Company in 1866 for the Central Railroad of New Jersey. However, it has been suggested that, in England, it derived from the engine of that name built by Neilson and Company for the Great Eastern Railway in 1879. Beyer and Company provided large numbers of standard design 3 ft 6 in narrow gauge Mogul locomotives to several Australian Railways. Users of the Mogul type include the South Australian Railways with its Y Class, the Tasmanian Government Railways with its C Class, the Western Australian Government Railways with its G Class and numerous private users. Twenty 2-6-0 locomotives were built by Les Ateliers de Tubize locomotive works in Belgium for the 1,000 mm metre gauge CF du Congo Superieur aux Grands Lacs Africains between 1913 and 1924.
The first eight, numbered 27 to 34, were built in 1913, followed by six more in 1921, numbered 35 to 40. Six more of a larger version followed in 1924, numbered 41 to 46, they had 360 by 460 millimetres cylinders and 1,050 millimetres diameter driving wheels, with the smaller versions having a working order mass of 28.8 tonnes and the larger versions 33.4 tonnes. Most of the CFL was regauged to 3 ft 6 in gauge in 1955. Most of them still survived in 1973. A large number of 2-6-0 locomotives were used in Canada, where they were considered more usable in restricted spaces, being shorter than the more common 4-6-0 Ten-Wheelers; the Canadian National Railway had several. One of them, the CN no. 89, an E-10-a class locomotive built by Canadian Locomotive Company in 1910, has been owned and operated since 1972 by the Strasburg Rail Road in Pennsylvania in the USA, in conjunction with the Railroad Museum of Pennsylvania. A good preserved the White Pass and Yukon Railroad no. 51, can be found at the MacBride Museum of Yukon History in Yukon.
Finland’s 2-6-0 locomotives were the Classes Sk1, Sk2, Sk3, Sk4, Sk5 and Sk6. Finnish Steam Locomotive Class Sk1s were built from 1885 by Machine Works, they carried numbers 117 to 131, 134 to 149, 152 to 172 and 183 to 190. These locomotives were nicknamed Little Brown. Class Sk2 locomotives were numbered 196 to 213, 314 to 321 and 360 to 372, they were built by Tampella. No. 315 is preserved at Tampere in Tampella. Finnish Steam Locomotive Class Sk3s were built from 1903 by Tammerfors Jern Manufakt. A. B, they were numbered 173 to 177, 191 to 195, 214 to 221, 334 to 359, 373 to 406 and 427 to 436. These locomotives were nicknamed Grandmothers; the Staatsspoorwegen in Indonesia operated 83 2-6-0 tank locomotives of the C12 series, built by Sächsische Maschinenfabrik of Chemnitz, Germany in 1896. They were wood-burning locomotives which consumed two cubic meters of wood and 3,500 litres of water for 4½ hours of steam production. Of these locomotives, 43 survived the invasion by Japan during the Second World War and were still being operated following independence from the
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif