Missionary (LDS Church)
Missionaries of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints —widely known as Mormon missionaries—are volunteer representatives of the LDS Church who engage variously in proselytizing, church service, humanitarian aid, community service. Mormon missionaries may serve on a full- or part-time basis, depending on the assignment, are organized geographically into missions; the mission assignment could be to any one of the 421 missions organized worldwide. The LDS Church is one of the most active modern practitioners of missionary work, reporting that it had more than 70,000 full-time missionaries worldwide at the end of 2016. Most full-time LDS missionaries are single young men and women in their late teens and early twenties and older couples no longer with children in their home. Missionaries are assigned to serve far from their homes, including in other countries. Many missionaries learn a new language at a missionary training center as part of their assignment. Missions last two years for males, 18 months for females, 1 to 3 years for older couples.
The LDS Church encourages, but does not require, missionary service for young men. All Mormon missionaries do not receive a salary for their work. Many Latter-day Saints save money during their teenage years to cover their mission expenses. Throughout the church's history, over one million missionaries have been sent on missions. LDS Church president Spencer W. Kimball said, "Every young man should fill a mission". Completing a mission is described as a rite of passage for a young Latter-day Saint; the phrase "the best two years of my life" is a common cliché among returned missionaries when describing their experience. Although Gordon B. Hinckley had suggested that a mission is not to be a rite of passage, this cultural aspect remains. With the usual starting age of 18–20, a mission provides a clear event or marker for the traditional age of adulthood, but is not necessary for continuance in church membership. Young men between the ages of 18 and 25 who meet standards of worthiness are encouraged to consider a two-year, full-time proselytizing mission.
This expectation is based in part on the New Testament passage "Go ye therefore, teach all nations". The minimum age had been age 19 in most countries until October 6, 2012, when Church President Thomas S. Monson announced that all male missionaries, regardless of nation, could serve from age 18. Prior to the announcement, some countries held that male missionaries may be 18 years old because of educational or military requirements, it was announced that young women may serve beginning at age 19 instead of 21. In 2007 30% of all 19-year-old LDS men became Mormon missionaries. In cases where an immediate family member dies, the missionary has the choice to travel home for the funeral or to remain on the mission. Missionaries can be sent home for violating mission rules, missionaries choose to go home for health or various other reasons. However, the vast majority of missionaries serve eighteen-month terms; as of 2007, 80% of all Mormon missionaries were young, single men, 13% were young single women and 7% retired couples.
Women who would like to serve a mission must meet the same standards of worthiness and be at least 19 years old. Women serve as missionaries for 18 months. Married retired couples, on the other hand, are encouraged to serve missions, but their length of service may vary from 6 to 36 months depending on their circumstances and means. Any single retired person may be called to serve in what is known as senior missionary service. In the last two decades, the LDS Church has stepped up its call for senior couple missionaries. All missionaries must meet certain minimum standards of worthiness. Among the standards that a prospective missionary must demonstrate adherence to are: regular attendance at church meetings, regular personal prayer, regular study of the scriptures, adherence to the law of chastity, adherence to the Word of Wisdom, payment of tithing, spiritual diligence and testimony of God. In addition to spiritual preparedness, church bishops are instructed to ensure that prospective missionaries are physically and capable of full-time missionary work.
In the same speech where he called for "every young man" to fill a mission, Kimball added, "we realize that while all men should, all men are not prepared to teach the gospel abroad." Apart from general issues of worthiness and ability, there are a number of specific situations that will disqualify a person from becoming a full-time missionary for the LDS Church. Those excluded include those. Additionally, members who have submitted to, encouraged, paid for, or arranged for an abortion are excluded from missionary service, as are members who have fathered or borne a child out of wedlock. From
Hispanic and Latino Americans
Hispanic Americans and Latino Americans are Americans who are descendants of people from Spain and Latin America, respectively. More it includes all Americans who speak the Spanish language natively, who self-identify as Hispanic or Latino, whether of full or partial ancestry. For the 2010 United States Census, people counted as "Hispanic" or "Latino" were those who identified as one of the specific Hispanic or Latino categories listed on the census questionnaire as well as those who indicated that they were "other Spanish, Hispanic or Latino." The national origins classified as Hispanic or Latino by the United States Census Bureau are the following: Argentine, Colombian, Puerto Rican, Mexican, Costa Rican, Honduran, Panamanian, Bolivian, Spanish American, Ecuadorian, Peruvian and Venezuelan. Brazilian Americans, other Portuguese-speaking Latino groups, non-Spanish speaking Latino groups in the United States are defined as "Latino" by some U. S. government agencies. The Census Bureau uses the terms Hispanic and Latino interchangeably."Origin" can be viewed as the ancestry, nationality group, lineage or country of birth of the person or the person's parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States.
People who identify as Spanish, Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. As one of the only two designated categories of ethnicity in the United States, Hispanics form a pan-ethnicity incorporating a diversity of inter-related cultural and linguistic heritages. Most Hispanic Americans are of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Salvadoran, Guatemalan or Colombian origin; the predominant origin of regional Hispanic populations varies in different locations across the country. Hispanic Americans are the second fastest-growing ethnic group by percentage growth in the United States after Asian Americans. Hispanic/Latinos overall are the second-largest ethnic group in the United States, after non-Hispanic whites. Hispanics have lived within what is now the United States continuously since the founding of St. Augustine by the Spanish in 1565. After Native Americans, Hispanics are the oldest ethnic group to inhabit much of what is today the United States. Many have Native American ancestry. Spain colonized large areas of what is today the American Southwest and West Coast, as well as Florida.
Its holdings included present-day California, New Mexico, Nevada and Texas, all of which were part of the Republic of Mexico from its independence in 1821 until the end of the Mexican–American War in 1848. Conversely, Hispanic immigrants to the New York-New Jersey metropolitan area derive from a broad spectrum of Latin American states. A study published in 2015 in the American Journal of Human Genetics, based on 23andMe data from 8,663 self-described Latinos, estimated that Latinos in the United States carried a mean of 65.1% European ancestry, 18.0% Native American ancestry, 6.2% African ancestry. The study found that self-described Latinos from the Southwest those along the Mexican border, had the highest mean levels of Native American ancestry; the terms "Hispanic" and "Latino" refer to an ethnicity. Hispanic people may share some commonalities in their language, culture and heritage. According to the Smithsonian Institution, the term "Latino" includes peoples with Portuguese roots, such as Brazilians, as well as those of Spanish-language origin.
In the United States, many Hispanics and Latinos are of both Native American ancestry. Others are predominantly of European ancestry or of Amerindian ancestry. Many Hispanics and Latinos from the Caribbean, as well as other regions of Latin America where African slavery was widespread, may be of sub-Saharan African descent as well; the difference between the terms Hispanic and Latino is confusing to some. The U. S. Census Bureau equates the two terms and defines them as referring to anyone from Spain and the Spanish-speaking countries of the Americas. After the Mexican–American War concluded in 1848, term Hispanic or Spanish American was used to describe the Hispanos of New Mexico within the American Southwest; the 1970 United States Census controversially broadened the definition to "a person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race". This is now the common formal and colloquial definition of the term within the United States, outside of New Mexico.
The term Latino has developed a number of definitions. One definition of Latino is "a Latin male in the United States"; this is the oldest and the original definition used in the United States, first used in 1946. This definition encompasses Spanish speakers from both Europe and the Americas. Under this definition, immigrants from Spain and immigrants from Latin America are both Latino; this definition is consistent with the 21st-century usage by the U. S. Census Bureau and OMB, as the two agencies use Latino interchangeably. A definition of Latino is as a condensed form of the term "Latino-Americano", the Spanish word for Latin-American, or someone who comes from Latin America. Under this definition a Mexican American or Puerto Rican, for example, is both a Hispanic and a Latino. A Brazilian American is a Latino by this definition, which includes those of Portuguese-speaking origin from Latin America. However, an immigrant from Spain would be classified as European or White by American sta
In economics, a luxury good is a good for which demand increases more than proportionally as income rises, so that expenditures on the good become a greater proportion of overall spending. Luxury goods are in contrast to necessity goods, where demand increases proportionally less than income. Luxury goods is used synonymously with superior goods and Veblen goods; the word "luxury" originated from the Latin word “Luxus,” which means indulgence of the senses, regardless of cost. Luxury goods have high income elasticity of demand: as people become wealthier, they will buy proportionately more luxury goods; this means, that should there be a decline in income its demand will drop more than proportionately. Income elasticity of demand is not constant with respect to income, may change sign at different levels of income; that is to say, a luxury good may become a necessity good or an inferior good at different income levels. Some luxury products have been claimed to be examples of Veblen goods, with a positive price elasticity of demand: for example, making a perfume more expensive can increase its perceived value as a luxury good to such an extent that sales can go up, rather than down.
Although the technical term luxury good is independent of the goods' quality, they are considered to be goods at the highest end of the market in terms of quality and price. Classic luxury goods include haute couture clothing and luggage. Many markets have a luxury segment including, for example, yacht, bottled water, tea, watches, clothes and high fidelity. Luxuries may be services; the hiring of full-time or live-in domestic servants is a luxury reflecting disparities of income. Some financial services in some brokerage houses, can be considered luxury services by default because persons in lower-income brackets do not use them. Luxury goods have special luxury packaging to differentiate the products from mainstream competitors; the three dominant trends are the main factors that have accelerated the rapid growth of the industry, including the customer base and variations in the consumptions of different brands. The three dominant trends in the global luxury goods market are globalization and diversification.
Consolidation involves the growth of big companies and ownership of brands across many segments of luxury products. Examples include LVMH, Kering, which dominate the market in areas ranging from luxury drinks to fashion and cosmetics. Global consumer companies, such as Procter & Gamble, are attracted to the industry, due to the difficulty of making a profit in the mass consumer goods market; the customer base for various luxury goods continue to be more culturally diversified, this presents more unseen challenges and new opportunities to companies in this industry. The luxury goods market has been on an upward climb for many years. Apart from the setback caused by the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis, the industry has performed well in 2000. In that year, the world luxury goods market – which includes drinks, cosmetics, watches, luggage, handbags – was worth close to $170 billion and grew 7.9 percent. The United States has been the largest regional market for luxury goods and is estimated to continue to be the leading personal luxury goods market in 2013, with a value of 62.5 billion euros.
The largest sector in this category was luxury drinks, including premium whisky, Cognac. This sector was the only one; the watches and jewelry section showed the strongest performance, growing in value by 23.3 percent, while the clothing and accessories section grew 11.6 percent between 1996 and 2000, to $32.8 billion. North America is the largest regional market for luxury goods; the largest ten markets for luxury goods account for 83 percent of overall sales, include Japan, United States, Germany, France, United Kingdom, Brazil and Switzerland. In 2012, China surpassed Japan as the world's largest luxury market. China's luxury consumption accounts for over 25% of the global market; the Economist Intelligence Unit published a report on the outlook for luxury goods in Asia which explores the trends and forecasts for the luxury goods market across key markets in Asia. In 2014, the luxury sector is expected to grow over the next 10 years because of 440 million consumers spending a total of 880 billion euros, or $1.2 trillion.
Though verging on the meaningless in modern marketing, "luxury" remains a legitimate and current technical term in art history for objects that are highly decorated to high standards and use expensive materials. The term is used for medieval manuscripts to distinguish between practical working books for normal use, illuminated manuscripts, that were bound in treasure bindings with metalwork and jewels; these are much larger, with less text on each page and many illustrations, if liturgical texts were usually kept on the altar or sacristy rather any library that the church or monastery who owned them may have had. Secular luxury manuscripts were commissioned by the wealthy and differed in the same ways from cheaper books."Luxury" may be used for other applied arts where both utilitarian and luxury versions of the same types of objects were made. This might cover metalwork, glass and armour, a wide range of objects, it is much less used for objects with no function beyond being an artwork: paintings and sculpture though the disparity in cost between an expensive and cheap work may have been as large.
With increasing "democratization" of luxury goods, new product categories have be
Westside (Los Angeles County)
The Los Angeles Westside is an urban region in western Los Angeles County, California. It has no official definition, there are many schools of opinion, according to the Los Angeles Times and the L. A. Weekly, it is the area south of the Santa Monica Mountains, north of the Santa Monica Freeway, west of either: La Cienega Boulevard 405 Freeway, Downtown Los Angeles - the broadest definition and one common to people who see the city as divided into an east side east of Downtown, a west side west of Downtown a dividing line "of perception" where the cityscape seems more affluentThe Times itself settled on a definition comprising 101.28 square miles, encompassing not only districts in the city of Los Angeles but two unincorporated neighborhoods, plus the cities of Beverly Hills, Culver City, Santa Monica, but excluding all of the city of West Hollywood – areas west of La Cienega Boulevard. According to the Mapping L. A. survey of the Los Angeles Times or the 2004 edition of the Thomas Guide, the Westside region consists of the following: Beverly Hills Culver City Malibu Santa Monica West Hollywood Ladera Heights Marina del Rey In the 2000 census, the Westside had a population of 529,427.
In 2000, non-Hispanic whites made up 63% of the population. The areas within the city of Los Angeles that Los Angeles Almanac recognized as part of the Westside had a population of 413,351. 53% of West Los Angeles residents aged 25 and older had earned a 4-year degree by 2000, according to Census Bureau figures quoted by the Los Angeles Times. They included 89,620 people with higher and 117,695 with bachelor's degrees. In addition, 95,187 people in that age range had some college experience. There were 46,823 with high school diplomas but 40,451; the Westside is home to the University of California, Los Angeles, a public research university in the Westwood neighborhood. It is the second-oldest of the ten campuses of the University of California system. UCLA is considered a flagship campus of the University of California system, along with UC Berkeley, it offers graduate degree programs in a wide range of disciplines. With an approximate enrollment of 28,000 undergraduate and 12,000 graduate students, UCLA is the university with the largest enrollment in the state of California and the most popular university in the United States by number of applicants.
Other post-secondary schools in the Westside are as follows: Santa Monica College, first opened in 1929 as Santa Monica Junior College. Current enrollment is over 30,000 students in more than 90 fields of study. West Los Angeles College, which offers associate degrees, vocationally oriented programs and transfer programs to four-year universities. Other regions of Los Angeles County MLA. Mapping L. A.: Neighborhoods. The Los Angeles County maps and statistics portal. Los Angeles Times, Mapping L. A. TG; the Thomas Guide: Los Angeles County, Rand McNally, pages N and O Westside travel guide from Wikivoyage
Brentwood, Los Angeles
Brentwood is an affluent neighborhood in the Westside of Los Angeles, California. Part of a Mexican land grant, the neighborhood began its modern development in the 1880s, it is the home of seven private and two public schools. Brentwood was part of the Rancho San Vicente y Santa Monica, a Mexican land-grant ranch sold off in pieces by the Sepúlveda family after the Mexican–American War. Modern development began after the establishment of the 600-acre Pacific Branch of the National Home for Disabled Soldiers and Sailors in the 1880s. A small community sprang up outside that facility's west gate. Annexed by the City of Los Angeles on June 14, 1916, Westgate's 49 square miles included large parts of what is now the Pacific Palisades and a small portion of today's Bel-Air. Westgate Avenue is one of the last reminders of that namesake. Local traditions include the annual decoration of San Vicente Boulevard's coral trees with holiday lights and a Maypole erected each year on the lawn of the Archer School for Girls, carrying on that set by the Eastern Star Home housed there.
This building was the exterior establishing shot for the "Mar Vista Rest Home" that provided a key scene in the 1974 film Chinatown. On November 6, 1961, a construction crew working in Sherman Oaks in the San Fernando Valley north of Brentwood on the far side of the Santa Monica Mountains noticed smoke and flames in a nearby pile of rubbish. Within minutes, Santa Ana winds gusting up to 60 mph sent burning brush aloft and over the ridge into Brentwood. More than 300 police officers helped evacuate 3,500 residents during the 12-hour fire, some 2,500 firefighters battled the blaze, pumping water from neighborhood swimming pools to douse flames. Pockets of the fire smoldered for several days; as firefighters battled what was to become a Bel Air disaster, another fire erupted in Santa Ynez Canyon to the west. That blaze was contained the next day after consuming nearly 10,000 acres and nine structures and burning to within a mile of Bel Air and Brentwood; the fires were the fifth-worst conflagration in the nation's history at the time, burning 16,090 acres, destroying more than 484 homes and 190 other structures and causing an estimated $30 million in damage.
Brentwood was the site of the 1994 stabbing deaths of Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Goldman, outside Simpson's Bundy Drive condominium townhouse. Nicole's ex-husband, football player and actor O. J. Simpson, was acquitted of the murders, but was found liable for the deaths in a civil trial; the district is located at the base of the Santa Monica Mountains, bounded by the San Diego Freeway on the east, Wilshire Boulevard on the south, the Santa Monica city limits on the southwest, the border of Topanga State Park on the west and Mulholland Drive along the ridgeline of the mountains on the north. In local parlance, it is known as one of the "Three Bs", along with Bel Air. Brentwood, like nearby Santa Monica, has a temperate climate influenced by marine breezes off the Pacific Ocean. Residents wake to a "marine layer," a cover of clouds brought in at night which burns off by mid-morning; the topography is split into two characters, broadly divided by Sunset Boulevard: the area north of Sunset is defined by ridges and canyons of the Santa Monica Mountains.
The southern district features underground springs which bubble up into a small creek along "the Gully" near the Brentwood Country Club, in the "Indian Springs" portion of the University High School campus the site of a Native American Tongva village. The 2000 U. S. census counted 31,344 residents in the 15.22-square-mile Brentwood neighborhood—or 2,059 people per square mile, among the lowest population densities for the city and the county. In 2008, the city estimated that the population had increased to 33,312. In 2000 the median age for residents was 35, old for city and county neighborhoods; the percentages of residents aged 50 and older were among the county's highest. The racial breakdown is whites, 84.2%. Iran and the United Kingdom were the most common places of birth for the 21.1% of the residents who were born abroad—which was a low percentage for Los Angeles as a whole. The median yearly household income in 2008 dollars was $112,927, considered high for the city and the county. Renters occupied 48.4% of the housing stock, house- or apartment-owners held 51.6%.
The average household size of two people was considered low for Los Angeles. The 5.7 % of families headed by single parents was low for county neighborhoods. San Vicente Boulevard is divided by a wide median on; this green belt replaced a Pacific Electric trolley track, the trees have been named a City of Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument. The site of the crime scene in the O. J. Simpson murder case is located on South Bundy Drive between Montana Avenue. Brentwood features a number of residential subdistricts: Brentwood Circle: gated community east of Barrington and north of Sunset Brentwood Glen: an area bounded by Sunset, the 405 Freeway, the Veterans Administration Bundy Canyon: home to Mount St. Mary's College and the Getty Center Crestwood Hills: includes a cluster of architecturally significant mid-century modern residences located in the northern part of Kenter Canyon Kenter Canyon: the larger canyon containing Crestwood Hills, between Bundy Canyon and Mandeville Canyon Mandeville Canyon: westernmost part of Brentwood, north of Sunset.
Century City is a 176-acre neighborhood and business district in Los Angeles' Westside. Outside Downtown Los Angeles, Century City is one of the metropolitan area's most prominent employment centers, its skyscrapers form a distinctive skyline on the Westside; the district was developed on the former backlot of film studio 20th Century Fox, its first building was opened in 1963. There are two private schools, but no public schools in the neighborhood. Important to the economy are the Westfield Century City shopping center, business towers, Fox Studios. According to the City of Los Angeles Department of City Planning, Century City constitutes census tract 2679.01. As shown on the map published on the Century City Chamber of Commerce website, Century City is bounded by Santa Monica Boulevard to the north, the city of Beverly Hills to the east, Pico Boulevard to the south, Century Park West to the west; these boundaries correspond with those recognized by the Century City Business Improvement District Association.
Neighboring Century City are Beverly Hills to the east, Cheviot Hills to the south, West Los Angeles to the west, Westwood to the north. The Mapping L. A. project of the Los Angeles Times extends Century City's western boundary to Beverly Glen Boulevard. However, this more expansive definition is not consistent with other L. A. Times reports: a 1999 article sets Century Park West as Century City's western boundary, a 2017 article refers to the neighborhood to the west of Century City as distinct from it. Two specific plans cover the neighborhood: "Century City North Specific Plan for the retail and entertainment functions in Century City," and "Century City South Specific Plan for multi-family homes, office tower and Fox Studios," according to the community plan set forth by the Los Angeles Department of City Planning; the land of Century City belonged to cowboy actor Tom Mix. It became a backlot of 20th Century Fox, which still has its headquarters just to the southwest; the area is named for the 20th Century Fox's Century Property.
In 1956, Spyros Skouras, who served as the President of 20th Century Fox from 1942–62, his nephew-in-law Edmond Herrscher, an attorney sometimes known as "the father of Century City", decided to repurpose the land for real estate development. The following year, in 1957, they commissioned a master-plan development from Welton Becket Associates, unveiled at a major press event on the "western" backlot that year. In 1961, after Fox suffered a string of expensive flops, culminating with the financial strain put on the studio by the expensive production of Cleopatra, the film studio sold about 180 acres to developer William Zeckendorf and Aluminum Co. of America known as Alcoa, for US$300 million. Herrscher had encouraged his uncle-in-law to borrow money instead, but once Skouras refused, he was out of the picture; the new owners conceived Century City as "a city within a city". In 1963, the first building, Gateway West Building, was completed; the next year, in 1964, Minoru Yamasaki designed the Century Plaza Hotel.
Five years in 1969, architects Anthony J. Lumsden and César Pelli designed the Century City Medical Plaza. Much of the shopping center's architecture and style can be seen in numerous sequences in the 1967 Fox film, A Guide for the Married Man, as well as in a sequence in another Fox film of the same year, Caprice. Century City's plaza as it appeared in the early 1970s can be viewed in several scenes of still another Fox film, Conquest of the Planet of the Apes; the following data applies to Century City within the boundaries set by the Mapping L. A. project: The 2000 U. S. census counted 5,513 residents in the 0.70-square-mile Century City neighborhood—or 7,869 people per square mile, an average population density for the city and county. The Southern California Association of Governments estimates that the daytime population amounts to 48,343 on a working day. In 2008, the city estimated that the resident population had increased to 5,934. In 2008, the median age for residents was 46, older than average for the county.
The percentage of residents aged 65 and older was the highest for any neighborhood in Los Angeles County. The percentages of widowed men and women and of divorced men were among the county's highest. Military veterans accounted for 11.9 % of the population, a high rate for the county. The neighborhood was considered "not diverse" ethnically, with a high percentage of white residents; the breakdown was whites, 82.5%. Iran and Canada were the most common places of birth for the 25.5% of the residents who were born abroad—a low percentage, compared to the city at large. The median yearly income in 2014 was a high figure for Los Angeles; the percentage of households that earned $125,000 and up was high for Los Angeles County. The average household size of 1.8 people was low for Los Angeles. Renters occupied 39.6% of the housing stock and apartment owners held 60.4%. Westfield Century City and Fox Studios occupy important acreage in the neighborhood; as of 2016, Westfield Century City is undergoing an $800 million renovation and expansion that aims to maintain the center's status as one of the Westside's premier shopping and entertainment destinations.
One tower, Constellation Place, has the headquarters of Houlihan Lokey, ICM Partners, International Lease Finance Corporation. Crystal Cruises is hea
United States Department of Veterans Affairs
The United States Department of Veterans Affairs is a federal Cabinet-level agency that provides near-comprehensive healthcare services to eligible military veterans at VA medical centers and outpatient clinics located throughout the country. While veterans benefits have been provided since the American Revolutionary War, an veteran-focused federal agency, the Veterans Administration, was not established until 1930, became the cabinet-level Department of Veterans Affairs in 1989; the VA employs 377,805 people at hundreds of Veterans Affairs medical facilities, benefits offices, cemeteries. In Fiscal Year 2016, net program costs for the department were $273 billion, which includes VBA Actuarial Cost of $106.5 billion for compensation benefits. The long-term actuarial accrued liability is $2.491 trillion for compensation benefits. The agency is led by the Secretary of Veterans Affairs, who—being a cabinet member—is appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate. In May 2014, it was revealed that veterans died while waiting for their appointments during extended delays in getting care at the Veterans Health Administration.
An investigation found that VA personnel falsified scheduling data to make it seem as if they had met scheduling targets. The Continental Congress of 1776 encouraged enlistments during the American Revolutionary War by providing pensions for soldiers who were disabled. Direct medical and hospital care given to veterans in the early days of the U. S. was provided by the individual communities. In 1811, the first domiciliary and medical facility for veterans was authorized by the federal government, but not opened until 1834. In the 19th century, the nation's veterans assistance program was expanded to include benefits and pensions not only for veterans, but their widows and dependents. After the end of the American Civil War in 1865, many state veterans' homes were established. Since domiciliary care was available at all state veterans homes, incidental medical and hospital treatment was provided for all injuries and diseases, whether or not of service origin. Indigent and disabled veterans of the Civil War, Indian Wars, Spanish–American War, Mexican Border period as well as discharged regular members of the Armed Forces were cared for at these homes.
Congress established a new system of veterans benefits when the United States entered World War I in 1917. Included were programs for disability compensation, insurance for service persons and veterans, vocational rehabilitation for the disabled. By the 1920s, the various benefits were administered by three different federal agencies: the Veterans Bureau, the Bureau of Pensions of the Interior Department, the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers; the establishment of the Veterans Administration came in 1930 when Congress authorized the president to "consolidate and coordinate Government activities affecting war veterans". The three component agencies became bureaus within the Veterans Administration. Brigadier General Frank T. Hines, who directed the Veterans Bureau for seven years, was named as the first Administrator of Veterans Affairs, a job he held until 1945; the close of World War II resulted in not only a vast increase in the veteran population, but a large number of new benefits enacted by Congress for veterans of the war.
In addition, during the late 1940s, the VA had to contend with aging World War I veterans. During that time, "the clientele of the VA increased five fold with an addition of nearly 16,000,000 World War II veterans and 4,000,000 World War I veterans". Prior to World War II, in response to scandals at the Veterans Bureau, programs that cared for veterans were centralized in Washington, D. C; this centralization caused delays and bottlenecks as the agency tried to serve the World War II veterans. As a result, the VA went through a decentralization process, giving more authority to the field offices; the World War II GI Bill was signed into law on 22 June 1944, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt."The United States government began serious consolidated services to veterans in 1930. The GI Bill of Rights, passed in 1944, had more effect on the American way of life than any other legislation - with the possible exception of the Homestead Act."The VA health care system has grown from 54 hospitals in 1930 to include 153 medical centers.
VA health care facilities provide a broad spectrum of medical and rehabilitative care. The responsibilities and benefits programs of the Veterans Administration grew enormously during the following six decades. Further educational assistance acts were passed for the benefit of veterans of the Korean War, the Vietnam Era, the introduction of an "all-volunteer force" in the 1970s, the Persian Gulf War, those who served following the attacks of September 11, 2001; the Department of Veterans Affairs Act of 1988 changed the former Veterans Administration, an independent government agency established in 1930 to see to the needs of World War I veterans, into a Cabinet-level Department of Veterans Affairs. It was signed into law by President Ronald Reagan on 25 October 1988, but came into effect under the term of