John Pakington, 1st Baron Hampton
John Somerset Pakington, 1st Baron Hampton, known as Sir John Pakington, Bt, from 1846 to 1874, was a British Conservative politician. Born John Somerset Russell, Hampton was the son of William Russell and Elizabeth Pakington, the member of a prominent Worcestershire family. Elizabeth was the sister and heiress of Sir John Pakington, the 8th and last Baronet Pakington of Ailesbury. John Somerset was educated at Eton and Oriel College and assumed in 1830 by Royal Licence the surname of Pakington in lieu of his patronymic on inheriting the estates of his maternal uncle; these included Westwood House in Worcestershire and Pakington moved in there with his first wife in 1832. Pakington was elected at the fourth attempt as the Tory Member of Parliament for Droitwich in 1837, a seat he held until 1874, he was given office by Sir Robert Peel in 1841 and created in 1846 first Baronet Pakington of the second creation, of Westwood in the County of Worcester. He next served under Lord Derby as Secretary of State for War and the Colonies in 1852 and was sworn of the Privy Council the same year.
The government lasted only a year and in opposition he developed an interest in education reform, introducing in 1855 an unsuccessful Education Bill which foreshadowed the 1870 Act. With the Tories back in power he again held office under Lord Derby as First Lord of the Admiralty from 1858 to 1859 and from 1866 to 1867; as First Lord he commissioned the first ironclad warship, HMS Warrior, launched in 1860. Under Derby and his successor Benjamin Disraeli he was Secretary of State for War from 1867 to 1868, he was appointed a GCB in 1859. Hampton lost his seat in the Commons in the 1874 election and was raised to the peerage as Baron Hampton, of Hampton Lovett and of Westwood in the County of Worcester. Hampton served for many years as chairman of the Worcestershire Quarter Sessions, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in Jun, 1858. He was President of the Royal Statistical Society from 1861 to 1863 and Chief Civil Service Commissioner from 1875 until his death. Lord Hampton married firstly Mary, daughter of Moreton Aglionby Slaney, on 14 August 1822.
After her death in 1843 he married secondly Augusta, daughter of the Right Reverend George Murray, on 2 June 1844. After her death in 1848 he married thirdly Augusta Anne, daughter of Thomas Champion de Crespigny, widow of Thomas Davies, MP, on 5 June 1851. Lord Hampton died at his London home in April 1880, aged 81, was succeeded by his son from his first marriage, John Slaney Pakington. Obituary New York Times 10 April 1880 The peerage of the British empire as at present existing. Page 31 Google Books
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland; the state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres. As of 15 May 2018, Queensland has a population of 5,000,000, concentrated along the coast and in the state's South East; the capital and largest city in the state is Australia's third-largest city. Referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third-largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled by its warm tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Torres Strait Islanders.
The first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain; the colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842; the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with federation on 1 January 1901; the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement.
The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding"; the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia; the Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, became divided into over 90 different language groups.
During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York; this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland,'New South Wales'; the Aboriginal population declined after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone and Moreton Bay.
At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe; the settlement known as Edenglassie, was transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland; the Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their alli
Governor of Queensland
The Governor of Queensland is the representative in the state of Queensland of the Queen of Australia. In an analogous way to the Governor-General of Australia at the national level, the Governor performs constitutional and ceremonial functions at the state level. In particular the governor has the power to appoint and dismiss the Premier of Queensland and all other ministers in the cabinet, issue writs for the election of the state parliament; the current Governor, Paul de Jersey, was sworn in on 29 July 2014. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Queensland Catherine Holmes, acts in the position of Governor in the governor’s absence; as from June 2014, the Queen, upon the recommendation of then-Premier Campbell Newman, accorded all current and living former governors the title'The Honourable' in perpetuity. The Governor of Queensland has resided at Government House, Brisbane since 1910; the mansion, set in 14 hectares of gardens and bushland in the Brisbane suburb of Bardon, is known as "Fernberg".
Unlike Fernberg, the original Government House was purpose-built and was used from 1862 to 1910. The office of Governor is established by the Constitution of Queensland. Section 29 of the Constitution as passed in 2001 provides that the office of Governor must exist and be appointed by the Sovereign, but parts of the earlier Constitution Act of 1867 relating to the Governor are still in force owing to the double entrenchment of them within the constitution by the government of Joh Bjelke-Petersen, who feared that the office and powers of State Governor might be abolished following the controversies of the 1975 Australian constitutional crisis at a federal level. In accordance with the conventions of the Westminster system of parliamentary government, the Governor nearly always acts on the advice of the head of the elected government, the Premier of Queensland; the Governor retains the reserve powers of the Crown, has the right to appoint and dismiss Ministers, issue pardons, dissolve Parliament.
The Queensland constitution expressly provides that the Governor is not subject to direction by any person and is not limited as to the Governor's sources of advice on the appointment or dismissal of Ministers, another provision inserted by the Bjelke-Petersen government in the wake of the 1975 federal dismissal. This provision worked against Bjelke-Petersen when, in the dying days of his government in November 1987, he tried and failed to convince Governor Sir Walter Campbell to remove several ministers to shore up his own support within Parliament; when the parliamentary wing of the National Party deposed Bjelke-Petersen and elected one of the dissident ministers, Mike Ahern, as new Leader of the National Party, Sir Joh refused to resign as Premier and Sir Walter resisted calls to dismiss him. Sir Joh elected to resign on 1 December 1987; the Governor is head of the Executive Council, a Queensland equivalent to the Federal Executive Council. The Council is composed of ministers from the government of the day.
The Chief Justice of Queensland and other judges in the Queensland judicial system are appointed by the Governor acting on the advice of the Executive Council. The first Australian- born Governor of Queensland was Lieutenant-General Sir John Lavarack, his successor, Sir Henry Abel Smith was British. All subsequent governors have been Australian-born, except for Leneen Forde, born in Canada but who emigrated to Australia at an early age. Four former governors of Queensland are alive; the most recent death of a former governor was that of Sir Walter Campbell, on 4 September 2004. Administrators and Lieutenant-Governors are deputy roles appointed to carry out the duties of the Governor when the Governor is unavailable, due to travel or illness. If one is not appointed the duties are carried out by the Chief Justice of Queensland; the following are the Administrators and Lieutenant-Governors of Queensland: Official Website of the Governor of Queensland
Postcodes in Australia
Postcodes are used in Australia to more efficiently sort and route mail within the Australian postal system. Postcodes in Australia are placed at the end of the Australian address. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department and are now managed by Australia Post, are published in booklets available from post offices or online from the Australia Post website. Australian envelopes and postcards have four square boxes printed in orange at the bottom right for the postcode; these are used. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department to replace earlier postal sorting systems, such as Melbourne's letter and number codes and a similar system used in rural and regional New South Wales; the introduction of the postcodes coincided with the introduction of a large-scale mechanical mail sorting system in Australia, starting with the Sydney GPO. By 1968, 75% of mail was using postcodes, in the same year post office preferred-size envelopes were introduced, which came to be referred to as “standard envelopes”.
Postcode squares were introduced in June 1990 to enable Australia Post to use optical character recognition software in its mail sorting machines to automatically and more sort mail by postcodes. Australian postcodes consist of four digits, are written after the name of the city, suburb, or town, the state or territory: Mr John Smith 100 Flushcombe Road BLACKTOWN NSW 2148When writing an address by hand, a row of four boxes is pre-printed on the lower right hand corner of an envelope, the postcode may be written in the boxes. If addressing a letter from outside Australia, the postcode is recorded before'Australia'. Australian postcodes are sorting information, they are linked with one area. Due to post code rationalisation, they can be quite complex in country areas; the south-western Victoria 3221 postcode of the Geelong Mail Centre includes twenty places around Geelong with few people. This means that mail for these places is not sorted until it gets to Geelong; some postcodes cover large populations, while other postcodes have much smaller populations in urban areas.
Australian postcodes range from 0200 for the Australian National University to 9944 for Cannonvale, Queensland. Some towns and suburbs have two postcodes — one for street deliveries and another for post office boxes. For example, a street address in the Sydney suburb of Parramatta would be written like this: Mr John Smith 99 George Street PARRAMATTA NSW 2150But mail sent to a PO Box in Parramatta would be addressed: Mr John Smith PO Box 99 PARRAMATTA NSW 2124Many large businesses, government departments and other institutions receiving high volumes of mail had their own postcode as a Large Volume Receiver, e.g. the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital has the postcode 4029, the Australian National University had the postcode 0200. More postcode ranges were made available for LVRs in the 1990s. Australia Post has been progressively discontinuing the LVR programme since 2006; the first one or two numbers show the state or territory that the postcode belongs to Sometimes near the state and territory borders, Australia Post finds it easier to send mail through a nearby post office, across the border: Some of the postcodes above may cover two or more states.
For example, postcode 2620 covers both a locality in NSW as well as a locality in the ACT, postcode 0872 covers a number of localities across WA, SA, NT and QLD. Three locations straddle the NSW-Queensland border. Jervis Bay Territory, once an exclave of the ACT but now a separate territory, is geographically located on the coast of NSW, it is just south of the towns of Huskisson, with which it shares a postcode. Mail to the Jervis Bay Territory is still addressed to the ACT; the numbers used to show the state on each radio callsign in Australia are the same number as the first number for postcodes in that state, e.g. 2xx in New South Wales, 3xx in Victoria, etc. Radio callsigns pre-date postcodes in Australia by more than forty years. Australia's external territories are included in Australia Post's postcode system. While these territories do not belong to any state, they are addressed as such for mail sorting: Three scientific bases in Antarctica operated by the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions share a postcode with the isolated sub-Antarctic island of Macquarie Island: Each state's capital city ends with three zeroes, while territorial capital cities end with two zeroes.
Capital city postcodes were the lowest postcodes in their state or territory range, before new ranges for LVRs and PO Boxes were made available. The last number can be changed from "0" to "1" to get the postcode for General Post Office boxes in any capital city: While the first number of a postcode shows the state or territory, the second number shows a region within the state. However, postcodes with the same second number are not always next to each other; as an example, postcodes in the range 2200–2299 are split between the southern suburbs of Sydney and the Central Coast of New South Wales. Postcodes with a second number of "0" or "1" are always located within the metropolitan area of the state's capital city. Postcodes with higher secon
Separation of Queensland
The Separation of Queensland was an event in 1859 in which the land that forms the present-day State of Queensland was removed from the Colony of New South Wales and created as a separate Colony of Queensland. European settlement of Queensland began in 1824 when Lieutenant Henry Miller, commanding a detachment of the 40th Regiment of Foot, founded a convict outpost at Redcliffe; the settlement was transferred to the north bank of the Brisbane River the following year and continued to operate as a penal establishment until 1842, when the remaining convicts were withdrawn and the district opened to free settlement. By squatters had established themselves on the Darling Downs, far distant from the seat of the New South Wales government in Sydney. Agitation soon commenced for the creation of a separate northern colony which could look after local interests, with the clamour being no less apparent in the fledgling township of Brisbane. In the vanguard of those seeking representative government was the Reverend John Dunmore Lang, representative for Moreton Bay in the New South Wales Legislative Council.
Lang's call for the creation of a northern colony in 1844 was defeated in the Council by 26 votes to seven, matters were held in abeyance until 1850 when the British Parliament passed the Australian Colonies Government Act, which enabled the creation of new Australian colonies with a similar form of government to New South Wales. In other words, they would have a bicameral parliament watched over by a vice-regal representative. Mentioned Port Phillip and Moreton Bay as districts which were to become colonies in the foreseeable future; the Act inspired Lang to renewed efforts, between 1851 and 1854 he held nine meetings to gain further support for separation. He was, in fact, preaching to the converted as the inhabitants of the northern district had been neglected by the government in Sydney, yet while they could reach consensus on the need for separation, whether a new colony would be free or unfree became a divisive issue. Lang and the majority of townspeople supporters favoured free immigration.
The powerful squatting fraternity who were reliant on cheap labour advocated a renewal of convict transportation. While urban growth in Brisbane and Ipswich dictated for the former, there was still disagreement over where a new capital should be located. Brisbane, Gayndah, Gladstone and Rockhampton were all potential candidates favoured by parochial interests. Brisbane emerged victorious, the reality of a new colony moved a step closer in 1856 when the British Government agreed that the time was ripe to create a new northern colony. Among other things there was uncertainty over the location of a southern border. Lang was among many others who believed that the Northern Rivers should become part of a northern colony; the following month unofficial news was received that the Secretary of State for the Colonies, Sir Edward Bulwer-Lytton, had appointed Sir George Bowen to be the colony's first Governor of Queensland. Bowen had served as Britain's Lord High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands near Greece, was to have a distinguished career in the Colonial Office.
While both the Letters Patent and the Order-in-Council appointing Bowen as Governor were duly published by the New South Wales Government, separation could not be accomplished until the Letters Patent had been published in Queensland. As Governor Bowen was due to arrive on 6 December 1859 with the Letters Patent formally proclaiming the new colony, a reception committee was organised as early as September to arrange the celebrations. Inclement weather intervened meaning Governor Bowen did not arrive until the evening of 9 December 1859; the following day Governor and Lady Bowen were welcomed by an estimated crowd of 4,000 exultant colonists when they stepped ashore at the Botanic Gardens in Brisbane. They were conveyed by carriage to the temporary Government House, a building which now serves as the deanery of St John's Cathedral. After ascending to the balcony, the resident Supreme Court Judge, Justice Alfred Lutwyche administered Governor Bowen's oath, after which the Queen's Commission was read to the assembled throng by the newly appointed Colonial Secretary, Robert Herbert.
The formalities concluded with the proclamation of the Letters Patent being read by Governor Bowen's acting private secretary, Abram Moriarty, to become the new colony's first civil servant after being appointed Under Colonial Secretary on 15 December 1859. The Letters Patent were published in the inaugural issue of the Queensland Government Gazette on 10 December 1859, this has given rise to confusion over whether 10 December 1859 should be remembered as Separation Day or Proclamation Day; the former may be preferred, for it was only with the publication of the Letters Patent in Queensland that separation became a legal reality, though it can be accepted that this was an official proclamation of their content. On 10 December 1859, Bowen appointed an Executive Council to operate as a provisional government until a parliament had been elected. Under the terms of separation, however, it was left for Sir William Denison, Governor of New South Wales, to appoint 11 members to the first Queensland Legislative Council in May 1860 for a term of five years.
Bowen was to appoint their successors for life, from the outset the nominee character of the Upper House proved unpopular. Attempts to amend the Constitution to make the Upper House elected were to continue until the Legislative Council was abolished in 1
Division of Flynn
The Division of Flynn is an Australian Electoral Division in Queensland. The division was created following a redistribution of seats in the state, it was first contested at the 2007 federal election. The electorate extends west from the port city of Gladstone, as far as the Central Highlands town of Emerald, it was named after founder of the Royal Flying Doctor Service. In June 2006, the Australian Electoral Commission announced that the new federal electorate in Queensland to be created for the 2007 election would be named Wright in honour of Judith Wright for her life as a "poet and in the areas of arts and indigenous affairs in Queensland and Australia". However, in September 2006 the AEC announced that, due to numerous objections from people fearing the name may be linked to disgraced former Queensland ALP leader Keith Wright, it would name the seat after John Flynn; the city of Gladstone, home to 40% of Flynn's voters, has long been a Labor stronghold. However, the rural areas vote in large numbers for the Liberal National Party.
Division of Flynn — Australian Electoral Commission
Adolphus William Copper Smelter
Adolphus William Copper Smelter is a heritage-listed former copper smelter and associated mining camp at Westwood and Oakey Creek in Rockhampton Region, Australia. It was built in 1874, it was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 13 May 2011. The Adolphus William Copper Smelter, located 45 kilometres southwest of Rockhampton, was one of a number of small copper operations established in central Queensland during the boom-bust period in international copper prices in the early to mid 1870s; the smelter operated between 1874 and 1876. The associated Adolphus William Copper Mine had a fluctuating history, being worked on and off between 1872 and the late 1870s again in the early and mid 20th century. Little information exists for the associated Dee Township, believed to have been occupied during the 1870s boom period and was abandoned when the mine and smelter closed for the first time; the last copper mining occurred in the area in 1940, in 1942, the copper deposits in the area were declared unprofitable.
Copper was the first metal commercially mined in Australia, commencing in South Australia in 1844. In Queensland, the Peak Downs Copper Mine at Copperfield in Central Queensland, opened in 1862, it was Queensland's first successful copper mine and the first successful copper mine outside South Australia. The early copper industry, like most Australian mining operations, always had to export its mineral products and was therefore at the mercy of international copper price fluctuations. A series of small copper mines and smelters were established in Queensland during a copper boom-bust period in the early-mid 1870s; these operations were established during a period of high international copper prices when the mineral was valued at as much as UK£95 per ton. The first mine established during this period was at southwest of Bundaberg. A mineral freehold had been established at a "copper rush" soon followed. A smelter was erected in 1871 and its reverberatory furnaces were operating by 1872; this "copper rush" and an extended period of high copper prices resulted in a rapid establishment of a number of additional copper mines and smelters in central and southern parts of Queensland.
Operations commenced at Kariboe Creek, between Monto and Biloela in 1871 and Mount Orange southwest of Mackay in 1871. In southern Queensland, mining began at Mount Coora and Mount Clara to the west of Gympie in 1872 and Teebar northwest of Gympie in 1873. Copper had been found close to Oaky Creek, southwest of Mount Morgan by William MacKinlay, head stockman of the pastoral run over the area Calliungal, held by Hugh Robinson. MacKinlay had walked the Dee Range, along the river and creeks, fossicking for gold, but instead found a copper lode; the year of actual discovery is not known, but rights to mine copper here were acquired by the Scottish Australian Mining Company in 1870. Samples of copper ore sent to Wales for assay proved the value of the ore. Mineral freeholds were taken up to cover the copper deposit which extended about two kilometres in length; the Adolphus William Copper Mine, located on the top of a steep slope north of Mackay Creek, southwest of Mount Morgan, opened in about 1872.
It is not clear when the nearby and associated Dee Township site was first occupied, but it is that it was utilised during the 1870s boom-bust period, quickly abandoned. A smelter was constructed at Adolphus William in about 1874. Smelting is a process of extracting a metal from its ores by heating ores in a reducing environment such as a furnace. Smelting is a standard method for treating copper ores which are heated to melting point where the higher density copper metal is separated from the lighter ore. At the Adolphus William, two chimneys were built to provide the necessary draught for smelting ore with wood to fuel the furnace sourced from throughout the local area. Two small reverberatory furnaces were installed at the smelter; the reverberatory furnace was the predominant copper smelter technology in use in central Queensland and across Queensland until the 1890s, when the water-jacket blast furnace technology developed in the United States of America became more common. The reverberatory furnace was a Welsh technology and was a masonry hearth with a roof erected over it.
The Welsh process happened to be well suited to the rich carbonate ores that characterised the early copper discoveries. Finely crushed and concentrated copper ore is mixed with the flux and spread on the hearth, under which an intense fire is lit in a firebox situated at one end of the furnace, allowing a flame to pass over the ore. Common practice from the period was to fire the furnace for up to twenty-four hours, following which the matte and slag were extracted from separate openings and at different levels on the sides of the furnace. Copper smelting in 1870s central Queensland was an experimental undertaking due to isolation from required materials, expertise and a need to adapt existing technologies to suit the local environmental and economic conditions. Smelter men who came to Queensland were more to rely on "craft" knowledge of smelting than on written instruction and would adapt their approaches to solve problems in personal and idiosyncratic ways. Crucial for the durability and efficiency of reverberatory furnaces was construction by skilled bricklayers and good quality firebricks - both of which were in short supply in Australia at the time.
The furnaces at Adolphus William were constructed from firebricks made in Cumbernauld, Scotland by the Cumbernauld Fire-Cla