Electorate of Bavaria
The Electorate of Bavaria was an independent hereditary electorate of the Holy Roman Empire from 1623 to 1806, when it was succeeded by the Kingdom of Bavaria. The Wittelsbach dynasty which ruled the Duchy of Bavaria was the younger branch of the family which ruled the Electorate of the Palatinate; the head of the elder branch was one of the seven prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire according to the Golden Bull of 1356, but Bavaria was excluded from the electoral dignity. In 1621, the Elector Palatine Frederick V was put under the imperial ban for his role in the Bohemian Revolt against Emperor Ferdinand II, the electoral dignity and territory of the Upper Palatinate was conferred upon his loyal cousin, Duke Maximilian I of Bavaria. Although the Peace of Westphalia would create a new electoral title for Frederick V's son, with the exception of a brief period during the War of the Spanish Succession, Maximilian's descendants would continue to hold the original electoral dignity until the extinction of his line in 1777.
At that point the two lines were joined in personal union until the end of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1805, after the Peace of Pressburg, the then-elector, Maximilian Joseph, raised himself to the dignity of King of Bavaria, the Holy Roman Empire was abolished the year after; the Electorate of Bavaria consisted of most of the modern regions of Upper Bavaria, Lower Bavaria, the Upper Palatinate. Before 1779, it included the Innviertel, now part of modern Austria; this was ceded to the Habsburgs by the Treaty of Teschen, which ended the War of the Bavarian Succession. There were a considerable number of independent enclaves and jurisdictions within those broad areas, including the principalities of Palatinate-Neuburg and Palatinate-Sulzbach in the Upper Palatinate, which were held by cadet branches of the Palatinate line of the Wittelsbachs. For administration purposes Bavaria was from 1507 divided into four stewardships: Munich, Burghausen and Straubing. With the acquisition of the Upper Palatinate during the Thirty Years' War the stewardship Amberg was added.
In 1802 they were abolished by the minister Maximilian von Montgelas. In 1805 shortly before the elevation Tirol and Vorarlberg were united with Bavaria, same as several of these enclaves. By virtue of his electoral title, the Elector of Bavaria was a member of the Council of Electors in the Imperial Diet as well as Archsteward of the Holy Roman Empire. In the Council of Princes of the Diet prior to the personal union of 1777 he held individual voices as Duke of Bavaria and Princely Landgrave of Leuchtenberg. In the Imperial Circles he was, along with the Archbishop of Salzburg, co-Director of the Bavarian Circle, a circle territorially dominated by the elector's lands, he held lands in the Swabian Circle. After 1777 these lands were joined by all of the Palatine lands, including the Electorate of the Palatinate, the Duchies of Jülich and Berg, Palatinate-Neuburg, Palatinate-Sulzbach, Palatinate-Veldenz, other territories; when he had succeeded to the throne of the duchy of Bavaria in 1597, Maximilian I had found it encumbered with debt and filled with disorder, but ten years of his vigorous rule effected a remarkable change.
The finances and the judicial system were reorganised, a class of civil servants and a national militia founded, several small districts were brought under the duke's authority. The result was a unity and order in the duchy which enabled Maximilian to play an important part in the Thirty Years' War. In spite of subsequent reverses, Maximilian retained these gains at the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. During the years of this war Bavaria the northern part, suffered severely. In 1632 the Swedes invaded, when Maximilian violated the treaty of Ulm in 1647, the French and the Swedes ravaged the land. After repairing this damage to some extent, the elector died at Ingolstadt in September 1651, leaving his duchy much stronger than he had found it; the recovery of the Upper Palatinate made Bavaria compact. Whatever lustre the international position won by Maximilian I might add to the ducal house, on Bavaria itself its effect during the next two centuries was more dubious. Maximilian's son, Ferdinand Maria, a minor when he succeeded, did much indeed to repair the wounds caused by the Thirty Years' War, encouraging agriculture and industries, building or restoring numerous churches and monasteries.
In 1669, moreover, he again called a meeting of the diet, suspended since 1612. His constructive work, was undone by his son Maximilian II Emanuel, whose far-reaching ambition set him warring against the Ottoman Empire and, on the side of France, in the great struggle of the Spanish succession, he shared in the defeat at the Battle of Blenheim, near Höchstädt, on 13 August 1704.
Ottobeuren is a Benedictine abbey, located in Ottobeuren, near Memmingen in the Bavarian Allgäu, Germany. For part of its history Ottobeuren Abbey was one of the 40-odd self-ruling imperial abbeys of the Holy Roman Empire and, as such, was a independent state. At the time of its dissolution in 1802, the imperial abbey covered 266 square kilometers and had about 10,000 subjects, it was founded in 764 by Blessed Toto, dedicated to St. Alexander, the martyr. Of its early history little is known beyond the fact that Toto, its first abbot, died about 815 and that Saint Ulrich was its abbot in 972. In the 11th century its discipline was on the decline, until Abbot Adalhalm introduced the Hirsau Reform; the same abbot began a restortion of the decaying buildings, completed along with the addition of a convent for noble ladies, by his successor, Abbot Rupert I. Under the rule of the latter the newly founded Marienberg Abbey was recruited with monks from Ottobeuren, his successor, Abbot Isengrim, wrote Annales Annales majores.
Blessed Conrad of Ottobeuren was abbot from 1193 until his death in 1227, described by the Benedictines as a "lover of the brethren and of the poor". In 1153, again in 1217, the abbey was consumed by fire. In the 14th and 15th centuries it declined so that at the accession of Abbot Johann Schedler only six or eight monks were left, its annual revenues did not exceed 46 silver marks. Under Abbot Leonard Wiedemann it again began to flourish: he erected a printing establishment and a common house of studies for the Swabian Benedictines; the latter, was soon closed, owing to the ravages of the Thirty Years' War. Ottobeuren became an imperial abbey in 1299, but lost this status after the prince-bishop of Augsburg had become Vogt of the abbey; these rights were renounced after a court case at the Reichskammergericht in 1624. Within months of his election in 1710, the new abbot, Rupert Ness, the son of a master blacksmith, succeeded in solving the centuries-old dispute over jurisdiction by paying 30,000 guldens to the prince-bishop of Augsburg for his renouncing the protection vogtei over the abbey, thus allowing Ottobeuren to regain its full status as an independent imperial abbey, although it did not become a member of the Swabian Circle.
The War of the Spanish Succession not being yet over at the time, Abbot Rupert arranged to meet Emperor Charles VI who still occupied Bavaria, as well as Prince Eugene and the Duke of Marlborough who were operating in the area. Abbot Rupert ushered in the most flourishing period in the history of Ottobeuren which lasted until its secularization in 1802. From 1711-1725 he erected the present monastery, the architectural grandeur of which has merited for it the name of "the Swabian Escorial". In 1737 he began the building of the present church, completed by his successor, Anselm Erb, in 1766. In the zenith of its glory, Ottobeuren fell victim to the German mediatization along with all the other imperial abbeys of the Holy Roman Empire. On 1 December 1802 Ottobeuren was securalized and its territory annexed to Bavaria. At the time, the territory of the imperial abbey covered 266 square kilometers and had about 10,000 inhabitants. In 1834 King Ludwig I of Bavaria restored it as a Benedictine priory, dependent on St. Stephen's Abbey, Augsburg.
It was granted the status of an independent abbey in 1918. As of 1910, the community consisted of five fathers, sixteen lay brothers, one lay novice, who had under their charge the parish of Ottobeuren, a district school, an industrial school for poor boys. Ottobeuren has been a member of the Bavarian Congregation of the Benedictine Confederation since 1893. Noteworthy among monks of Ottobeuren are: Nicolas Ellenbog, humanist, d. 1543 Jacob Molitor, the learned and saintly prior, d. 1675 Albert Krey, the hagiographer, d. 1713 Fr. Schmier, canonist, d. 1728 Augustine Bayrhamer, d. 1782 historian Maurus Feyerabend, d. 1818, historian Abbot Honoratus Goehl, a promoter of true church music, founder of two schools Ulric Schiegg, the mathematician and astronomer, d. 1810. Ottobeuren Abbey has one of the richest music programs in Bavaria, with concerts every Saturday. Most concerts feature one or more of the Abbey's famous organs; the old organ, the masterpiece of French organbuilder Karl Joseph Riepp, is a double organ.
It was the main instrument for 200 years, until 1957 when a third organ was added by G. F. Steinmeyer & Co, renovated and augmented in 2002 by Johannes Klais, making 100 stops available on five manuals. Carolingian architecture Carolingian art List of Carolingian monasteries This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Ottobeuren". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. Media related to Basilika Ottobeuren at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Ochsenhausen Abbey was a Benedictine monastery in Ochsenhausen in the district of Biberach in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. The traditional story of the foundation, in which there may be some elements of truth, is that in the 9th century there was a nunnery here called "Hohenhusen", abandoned at the time of the Hungarian invasions in the early 10th century. A ploughing ox turned up a chest of valuables buried by the nuns before their flight, the monastery of Ochsenhausen was founded on that spot; the first Abbey Church of Ochsenhausen was in fact dedicated in 1093. The monastery was a priory of St. Blaise's Abbey in the Black Forest, but gained the status of an independent abbey in 1391. In 1495 it became Reichsfrei; the abbey was secularised in 1803 and in 1806 its territories were absorbed into the Kingdom of Württemberg. Much of the buildings still survive, they were extensively refurbished in the Baroque style, so much so that Ochsenhausen is sometimes referred to as "Himmelreich des Barocks".
The Baden-Württemberg State Youth Music Academy is accommodated in part of them. The former abbey church is now the parish church of St. George's. Ochsenhausen Town Website
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery; the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, collapse of centralized authority and mass migrations of tribes, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages; the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the 7th century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, an Islamic empire, after conquest by Muhammad's successors. Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete.
The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire, Rome's direct continuation, survived in the Eastern Mediterranean and remained a major power. The empire's law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or "Code of Justinian", was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became admired in the Middle Ages. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions. Monasteries were founded; the Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty established the Carolingian Empire during the 8th and early 9th century. It covered much of Western Europe but succumbed to the pressures of internal civil wars combined with external invasions: Vikings from the north, Magyars from the east, Saracens from the south. During the High Middle Ages, which began after 1000, the population of Europe increased as technological and agricultural innovations allowed trade to flourish and the Medieval Warm Period climate change allowed crop yields to increase. Manorialism, the organisation of peasants into villages that owed rent and labour services to the nobles, feudalism, the political structure whereby knights and lower-status nobles owed military service to their overlords in return for the right to rent from lands and manors, were two of the ways society was organised in the High Middle Ages.
The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation-states, reducing crime and violence but making the ideal of a unified Christendom more distant. Intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, by the founding of universities; the theology of Thomas Aquinas, the paintings of Giotto, the poetry of Dante and Chaucer, the travels of Marco Polo, the Gothic architecture of cathedrals such as Chartres are among the outstanding achievements toward the end of this period and into the Late Middle Ages. The Late Middle Ages was marked by difficulties and calamities including famine and war, which diminished the population of Europe. Controversy and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the interstate conflict, civil strife, peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages and beginning the early modern period.
The Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history: classical civilisation, or Antiquity. The "Middle Ages" first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or "middle season". In early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or "middle age", first recorded in 1604, media saecula, or "middle ages", first recorded in 1625; the alternative term "medieval" derives from medium aevum. Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the "Six Ages" or the "Four Empires", considered their time to be the last before the end of the world; when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being "modern". In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua and to the Christian period as nova. Leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People, with a middle period "between the fall of the Roman Empire and the revival of city life sometime in late eleventh and twelfth centuries".
Tripartite periodisation became standard after the 17th-century German historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods: ancient and modern. The most given starting point for the Middle Ages is around 500, with the date of 476 first used by Bruni. Starting dates are sometimes used in the outer parts of Europe. For Europe as a whole, 1500 is considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date. Depending on the context, events such as the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453, Christopher Columbus's first voyage to the Americas in 1492, or the Protestant Reformation in 1517 are sometimes used. English historians use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period. For Spain, dates used are the death of King Ferdinand II in 1516, the death of Queen Isabella I of Castile in 1504, or the conquest of Granada in 1492. Historians from Romance-speaking countries tend to divide the Middle Ages into two parts: an earlier "High" and late
Rot an der Rot Abbey
Rot an der Rot Abbey was a Premonstratensian monastery in Rot an der Rot in Upper Swabia, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It was the first Premonstratensian monastery in the whole of Swabia; the imposing structure of the former monastery is situated on a hill between the valleys of the rivers Rot and Haslach. The monastery church, dedicated to St Verena, the convent buildings are an important part of the Upper Swabian Baroque Route. Apart from the actual monastic buildings, a number of other structures have been preserved among which are the gates and the economy building. Rot an der Rot was first mentioned as Rota in a donation by Adelbert von Wolfertschwenden around the year 1100. Together with the church and the inn, the village formed most the centre of a manor. According to local tradition the monastery was founded under the name of Mönchroth in 1126 by Hemma von Wildenberg with active participation of Norbert of Xanten. Though the foundation date is confirmed by an entry in the annals of Altenmarkt Abbey a Premonstratensian monastery, the personal involvement of Norbert of Xanten cannot be ascertained.
The first monks to settle at Rot an der. From the time of its foundation the monastery was directly subordinate to the pope and not to a local or regional ecclesiastical chapter. Shortly after 1126 around 1140, a nunnery was added to Rot an der Rot Abbey, not unusual for the Premonstratensian order. By close proximity to a monastery the nuns were provided with pastoral care; this nunnery continued to exist until the second half of the 14th century. The first prior of the abbey was Burkhard sent by Norbert of Xanten from the mother house Prémontré near Laon in northern France together with twelve monks. Burkhard's work was so successful that in 1137 the first filial institution was founded in Wilten near Innsbruck following a request by bishop Reginbert of Brixen. Burkhard's successor, abbot Ottino, led the monastery, consisting by now of 200 monks, to its first prosperous period and increased the number of filial institutions. Between 1145 and 1171 the following monasteries were founded: Weissenau Abbey, Schussenried Abbey, Steingaden Abbey and Marchtal Abbey.
In 1182 the abbey had possessions not only around Rot an der Rot and in the nearby valley of the Iller but had managed to acquire possessions on the Swabian Jura, near Lindau, around Hüttisheim and Untermoorweiler. In a charter dated from 1179, Emperor Frederick Barbarossa declared himself Vogt of the abbey, laying the foundation for the Imperial immediacy. In 1182 a devastating conflagration destroyed the original foundation documents and imperial privileges. A Papal bull by Lucius III published the same year replaced the lost documents and assigned the foundation of the monastery to Hemma von Wildenberg and two of her male relatives. By 1182 the village of Rot was in the possession of the monastery being the administrative and pastoral centre of the parish, became integrated into the economic structure of the monastery. By acquisitions and donations the abbey managed to extend its possessions until its territory was a closed area around the villages of Rot and Haslach. By incorporating parishes, the monastery secured its economic prosperity.
In 1338 the abbey received a grant exempting it from the jurisdiction of secular courts. Following the Great Plague of 1348 fewer members of the landed gentry joined the monastery but more and more farmers and members of the middle class resulting in a decrease in the acquisition of lands. Crop failures, wars and an economic crisis lasting for decades accelerated the decline of the abbey until, in 1391, only three monks were left; the abbot of Weissenau Abbey, an abbey founded as a filial institution by monks from Rot an der Rot took control and in 1407 King Rupert installed Seneschal John II of Waldburg as governor of the abbey. The restoration of the fortunes of Rot an der Rot Abbey began with Abbot Henrich Merk and was continued by his successor Martin Hesser, called the second founder of Rot an der Rot. In Constance in 1425 an alliance was forged with most of the other Swabian abbots to defend the monasteries' rights against the intervention of noble family members of monks. Martin Hesser expedited the restoration of monastic life and the restitution of the monastery's mortgaged and sold property as well as the rebuilding of the monastery buildings.
Since 1458 Rot an der Rot Abbey had the financially lucrative right to occupy the incorporated parishes with priest from the monastery. In 1481 a fire destroyed the whole monastery; the rebuilding of the monastery lasted until 1509. Emperor Maximilian I elevated Rot an der Rot Abbey to the status of Imperial Abbey in 1497; the abbey gained imperial immediacy and the abbot became a member of the Swabian College of Imperial Prelates contributing to the Council of the Princes in the Imperial Diet of the Holy Roman Empire. However, following repeated lootings during the German Peasants' War in 1525 and the Schmalkaldic War in 1546 the fortunes of the abbey went again into decline, only stopped by cautious reforms introduced by Abbot Martin Ehrmann; the abbey's position of imperial immediacy was strengthened when in 1619 Leopold of Tyrol mortgaged right to inflict high justice to Rot an der Rot Abbey, however, entailed higher financial contributions to the imperial coffers. This privilege was only effected during the War of the Austrian Succession.
During a visitation in 1601 Rot an der Rot Abbey was considered to be in perfec
Roggenburg Abbey is a Premonstratensian canonry in Roggenburg near Neu-Ulm, Bavaria, in operation between 1126 and 1802, again from its re-foundation in 1986. Since 1992 it has been an independent priory of Windberg Abbey in Lower Bavaria; the monastery manages a training centre and a museum, is known for its unchanged Baroque building and the organ concerts that are held in the church. For over three centuries, Roggenburg was one of the 40-odd self-ruling imperial abbeys of the Holy Roman Empire and, as such, was a independent state, its abbot had seat and voice at the Imperial Diet where he sat on the Bench of the Prelates of Swabia. At the time of the abbey's dissolution in 1802, its territory covered 112 square kilometers and it had 3,300-5,000 subjects. In 1126 Count Bertold of Bibereck, together with his wife and his two brothers, Bishop of Chur, Siegfried, a canon in the diocese of Augsburg, founded the monastery; the first Premonstratensian canons came from Ursberg Abbey nearby and built the first monastery church.
In 1444 the foundation was raised to the status of an abbey. The first description of Roggenburg Abbey as reichsunmittelbar dates from 1482/5. In the 18th century the abbey and its dependent churches were rebuilt in the Baroque style, as they are today; the conventual buildings were rebuilt in 1732. Construction of a new church began in 1752, lasted six years. In 1802 the monastery was occupied by Bavarian troops during the secularisation of Bavaria and the last abbot, Thaddäus Aigler, stripped of his office; the abbey church became a parish church. The rest of the abbey's property passed into private ownership, except for the buildings, which were taken over by the Bavarian government; until 1862 a district court and rent office were accommodated here. The buildings were used for a variety of functions, including as a school, a forestry office and a parochial office. In 1986 Premonstratensians again occupied the premises. On 8 November 1992 the new community was raised to the status of an independent priory of Windberg Abbey.
In the interval there had arisen a training centre for family and culture, a museum and a centre for art and culture, as well as gastronomical facilities. In addition, the monastery shop sells devotional items, the monastery's own wine and various other products of their own manufacture; the Baroque abbey church was built between 1752 and 1758 to plans by Simpert Kraemer in the shape of a cross. The hall church, with extended transept and double towers, is 70 metres long, 35 metres across and has an inside height, to the highest point, of 28 metres. Today it is used as the Roman Catholic parish church of the Ascension of the Virgin Mary; the great Baroque organ by the Ulm organ builder Georg Friedrich Schmahl of 1761 was replaced in 1905 by a Late Romantic construction by the Gebrüder Hindelang of Ebenhofen. This was replaced in its turn in 1955–56, with the reuse of some registers, by an instrument by the Familie Nenninger. In 1984–86 it was extensively rebuilt by Gerhard Schmid of Kaufbeuren.
The appearance of the organ by Schmahl was preserved throughout all rebuildings. Groll, Elisabeth, 1944: Das Prämonstratenserstift Roggenburg im Beginn der Neuzeit. Augsburg Hadry, Sarah: Klosterregiment am Ende des Mittelalters: Die „Innenpolitik“ des Reichsstifts Roggenburg. In: Jahrbuch des Historischen Vereins Dillingen an der Donau, 106. Jahrgang 2005, pp. 57–86 Probst, Michael, c. 1989: Carmen epicum de morte Sifridi Ratte, Franz Josef, 1990: Die Orgel im Prämonstratenserkloster Roggenburg und ihr Erbauer Georg Friedrich Schmahl. In: Orgelkunst und Orgelforschung, pp. 113–127 Stankowski, Martin, 2003: Land-Kloster — Kloster-Landschaft 1650–1800. Über das Bauen in Roggenburg und in Ost- und Oberschwaben. Fink: Lindenberg. ISBN 3-89870-134-4 Tuscher, Franz, 1991: Das Reichsstift Roggenburg im 18. Jahrhundert. 2nd, improved edition. Konrad: Weissenhorn. ISBN 3-87437-315-0 Official website Klöster in Bayern
The Fraumünster Church in Zürich is built on the remains of a former abbey for aristocratic women, founded in 853 by Louis the German for his daughter Hildegard. He endowed the Benedictine convent with the lands of Zürich and the Albis forest, granted the convent immunity, placing it under his direct authority. Today, it belongs to the Evangelical Reformed Church of the Canton of Zürich and is one of the four main churches of Zürich, the others being the Grossmünster, Prediger and St. Peter's churches. In 1045, King Henry III granted the convent the right to hold markets, collect tolls, mint coins, thus made the abbess the ruler of the city. Emperor Frederick II granted the abbey Reichsunmittelbarkeit in 1218, thus making it territorially independent of all authority save that of the Emperor himself, increasing the political power of the abbess; the abbess assigned the mayor, she delegated the minting of coins to citizens of the city. A famous abbess during this time of great power was Elisabeth of Wetzikon.
However, the political power of the convent waned in the fourteenth century, beginning with the establishment of the Zunftordnung in 1336 by Rudolf Brun, who became the first independent mayor, i.e. not assigned by the abbess. The abbey was dissolved on 30 November 1524 in the course of the reformation of Huldrych Zwingli, supported by the last abbess, Katharina von Zimmern; the monastery buildings were destroyed in 1898 to make room for the new Stadthaus. The church building today serves as the parish church for one of the city's 34 reformed parishes. Münsterhof the main square and marketplace of the medieval city, is named for the abbey. Gesellschaft zu Fraumünster cultivates the traditions of the former nunnery convent; the choir of the abbey includes 5 large stained glass windows designed by artist Marc Chagall and installed in 1970. Each of the 5 depicts a Biblical story. From left to right, the 5 works are: Prophets, depicting Elijah's ascent to heaven Jacob, displaying his combat, dreams of heaven Christ, illustrating various scenes of Christ's life Zion, showing an angel trumpeting the end of the world Law, with Moses looking down upon the suffering of his peopleEqually impressive is the 9m tall stained glass of the North transept, created by Augusto Giacometti in 1940.
Since the last renovation in 1900, the crypt under the choir of the Fraumünster abbey was sealed, has made public since 19 June 2016. The oldest part of the church preserved the abbey's Holy Relics until the Reformation in Zürich banned the Roman Catholic adoration of saints; the foundations of the crypt date back to the 9th century. The crypt comprises an exhibition on the history of the Reformation in Zürich, on the architecture and local history, assisted by a multimedia information system that illustrates the foundation fragments of the crypt, how the church was rebuilt from the original Romanesque construction phase to its present Gothic appearance, on occasion of its establishment guided by Dölf Wild, the archaeologist in charge. For the around 500,000 visitors every year a new developed visitor management started in June 2016. Visitors groups up to 60 persons are admitted from June 20 only by appointment and only in defined time windows. Guided tours are allowed only in a "whisper" modus, by accredited tour guides, from 10 am to 4 pm in winter, to 5 pm and 6 pm in spring summer.
Hildegard, first abbess of Fraumünster Abbey Katharina von Zimmern, last abbess of the Abbey In the Swiss inventory of cultural property of national and regional significance the Fraumünster is listed as a Class A object of national importance. Peter Vogelsanger: Zürich und sein Fraumünster. Eine elfhundertjährige Geschichte. NZZ Libro, Zürich 1994, ISBN 3-85823-515-6 Grossmünster Wasserkirche Official website