Essen is the central and second largest city of the Ruhr, the largest urban area in Germany. Its population of 583,393 makes it the ninth largest city of Germany, as well as the fourth largest city of the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia. On the Ruhr and Emscher rivers, Essen geographically is part of the Rhineland and the larger Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Region; the Ruhrdeutsch regiolect spoken in the region has strong influences of both Low German and Low Franconian. Essen is seat to several of the region's authorities, as well as to eight of the 100 largest publicly-held German corporations regarding turnover, including three DAX corporations, placing Essen first among all German cities in the number of DAX corporate headquarters, together with Munich. Essen is considered the energy capital of Germany with E. ON and RWE, Germany's largest energy providers, both headquartered in the city. Essen is known for its impact on the arts through the respected Folkwang University of the Arts, its Zollverein School of Management and Design, the Red Dot industrial product design award.
In early 2003, the universities of Essen and the nearby city of Duisburg were merged into the University of Duisburg-Essen with campuses in both cities and a university hospital in Essen. In 1958, Essen was chosen to serve as the seat to a Roman Catholic diocese. Founded around 845, Essen remained a small town within the sphere of influence of an important ecclesiastical principality until the onset of industrialization; the city — through the Krupp family iron works — became one of Germany's most important coal and steel centers. Essen, until the 1970s, attracted workers from all over the country. Following the region-wide decline of heavy industries in the last decades of the 20th century, the city has seen the development of a strong tertiary sector of the economy; the most notable witness of this Strukturwandel is the Zollverein Coal Mine Industrial Complex, which has once been the largest of its kind in Europe. Closed in 1993, both the coking plant and the mine have been inscribed in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites since 2001.
Notable accomplishments of the city in recent years include the title of European Capital of Culture on behalf of the whole Ruhr area in 2010 and the selection as the European Green Capital for 2017. Essen is located in the centre of the Ruhr area, one of the largest urban areas in Europe, comprising eleven independent cities and four districts with some 5.3 million inhabitants. The city limits of Essen itself are 87 km long and border ten cities, five independent and five kreisangehörig, with a total population of 1.4 million. The city extends over 21 km from north to south and 17 km from west to east north of the River Ruhr; the Ruhr forms the Lake Baldeney reservoir in the boroughs of Fischlaken, Kupferdreh and Werden. The lake, a popular recreational area, dates from 1931 to 1933, when some thousands of unemployed coal miners dredged it with primitive tools. Large areas south of the River Ruhr are quite green and are quoted as examples of rural structures in the otherwise densely populated central Ruhr area.
According to the Federal Statistical Office of Germany, Essen with 9.2% of its area covered by recreational green is the greenest city in North Rhine-Westphalia and the third-greenest city in Germany. The city has been shortlisted for the title of European Green Capital two consecutive times, for 2016 and 2017, winning for 2017; the city was singled out for its exemplary practices in protecting and enhancing nature and biodiversity and efforts to reduce water consumption. Essen participates in a variety of networks and initiatives to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to improve the city’s resilience in the face of climate change; the lowest point can be found in the northern borough of Karnap at 26.5 m, the highest point in the borough of Heidhausen at 202.5 m. The average elevation is 116 m. Essen comprises fifty boroughs which in turn are grouped into nine suburban districts named after the most important boroughs; each Stadtbezirk is assigned a Roman numeral and has a local body of nineteen members with limited authority.
Most of the boroughs were independent municipalities but were annexed from 1901 to 1975. This long-lasting process of annexation has led to a strong identification of the population with "their" boroughs or districts and to a rare peculiarity: The borough of Kettwig, located south of the Ruhr River, and, not annexed until 1975, has its own area code. Additionally, the Archbishop of Cologne managed to keep Kettwig directly subject to the Archdiocese of Cologne, whereas all other boroughs of Essen and some neighboring cities constitute the Diocese of Essen. Essen has a "true"/typical oceanic climate with mild winters and cool summers. Without large mountains and the presence of inland seas, it ends up extending a predominantly marine climate is found in Essen a little more extreme and drier in other continents in such geographical location, its average annual temperature is 10 °C: 13.3 °C during the day and 6.7 °C at night. The average annual precipitation is 934 mm; the coldest m
August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben
August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben was a German poet. He is best known for writing "Das Lied der Deutschen", its third stanza now being the national anthem of Germany, a number of popular children's songs, considered part of the Young Germany movement. Hoffmann was born in Fallersleben in Lower Saxony in the duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg; the son of a merchant and mayor of his native city, he was educated at the classical schools of Helmstedt and Braunschweig, afterwards at the universities of Göttingen and Bonn. His original intention was to study theology, but he soon devoted himself to literature. In 1823 he was appointed custodian of the university library at Breslau, a post which he held till 1838, he was made extraordinary professor of the German language and literature at that university in 1830, ordinary professor in 1835. Hoffmann was deprived of his chair in 1842 in consequence of his Unpolitische Lieder, which gave much offence to the authorities in Prussia. During his exile, he traveled in Germany and Italy, lived for two or three years in Mecklenburg, of which he became a naturalized citizen.
After the revolution of 1848 he was enabled to return to Prussia, where he was restored to his rights, received the salary attached to a promised office not yet vacant. He married in 1849, during the next ten years lived first in Bingerbrück, afterwards in Neuwied, in Weimar, where together with Oskar Schade he edited the Weimarische Jahrbuch. In 1860 he was appointed librarian to Victor I, Duke of Ratibor at the monasterial castle of Corvey near Höxter on the Weser, where he died in 1874. Hoffmann von Fallersleben was one of the most popular poets of his time. In politics he ardently sympathized with the progressive tendencies of his time, he was among the earliest and most effective of the political poets who prepared the way for the outbreak of 1848; as a poet, however, he acquired distinction chiefly by the ease and grace with which he gave expression to the passions and aspirations of daily life. Although he had not been scientifically trained in music, he composed melodies for many of his songs, a considerable number of them are sung by all classes in every part of Germany.
Among the best known is the patriotic "Das Lied der Deutschen" which starts with the words Deutschland, Deutschland über alles and is set to a 1797 tune by Joseph Haydn. The lyrics were written in 1841 on the island of Helgoland in British possession; the text of the song expresses the pan-German sentiments common in revolutionary republicans of the period and were inflammatory in the princedoms of the German-speaking world. This sentiment was, of course, considered high treason; the phrase über alles did not refer to militant ideas of conquest of foreign countries, but to the need for loyalty to a united Germany to replace all other regional loyalties. The best of his poetical writings is his Gedichte, but there is great merit in his Alemannische Lieder, Rheinleben, in his Fünfzig Kinderlieder, Alte und neue Kinder. Many of his children's songs are popular until today and nearly known by every German child, so as "Alle Vögel sind schon da", "Ein Männlein steht im Walde", "Summ, summ", "Winters Abschied", "Kuckuck, ruft’s aus dem Wald", "Der Kuckuck und der Esel", "A, a, a, der Winter der ist da", "Der Frühling hat sich eingestellt", the Christmas song "Morgen kommt der Weihnachtsmann".
His Unpolitische Lieder, Deutsche Lieder aus der Schweiz and Streiflichter are interesting in relation to the movements of the age in which they were written. As a student of ancient Teutonic literature, Hoffmann von Fallersleben ranks among the most persevering and cultivated of German scholars, some of the chief results of his labors being embodied in his Horae Belgicae, Fundgruben für Geschichte deutscher Sprache und Literatur, Altdeutsche Blätter, Spenden zur deutschen Literaturgeschichte und Findlinge. Among his editions of particular works may be named Reineke Vos Monumenta Elnonensia and TheophilusDie deutsche Philologie im Grundriss was at the time of its publication a valuable contribution to philological research, historians of German literature still attach importance to his Geschichte des deutschen Kirchenliedes bis auf Luther, Unsere volkstümlichen Lieder and Die deutschen Gesellschaftslieder des 16. Und 17. Jahrh.. In 1868-1870 Hoffmann published in 6 vols. an autobiography, Mein Leben: Aufzeichnungen und Erinnerungen.
His Gesammelte Werke were edited by H. Gerstenberg in 8 vols.. See Briefe von Hoffmann von Fallersleben und Moritz Haupt an Ferdinand Wolf. Deutschlandlied Sequence of Saint Eulalia Works by Hoffmann von Fallersleben at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Hoffmann von Fallersleben at Internet Archive Works by August Heinric
North Rhine-Westphalia is a state of Germany. North Rhine-Westphalia is located in western Germany covering an area of 34,084 square kilometres. With a population of 17.9 million, it is the most populous state in Germany. It is the most densely populated German state apart from the city-states of Berlin and Hamburg, the fourth-largest by area. Düsseldorf is the state capital and Cologne is the largest city. North Rhine-Westphalia features four of Germany's 10 largest cities: Düsseldorf, Cologne and Essen, the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan area, the largest in Germany and the third-largest on the European continent. North Rhine-Westphalia was established in 1946 after World War II from the Prussian provinces of Westphalia and the northern part of Rhine Province, the Free State of Lippe by the British military administration in Allied-occupied Germany. North Rhine-Westphalia became a state of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949, the city of Bonn served as the federal capital until the reunification of Germany in 1990 and as the seat of government until 1999.
The first written account of the area was by its conqueror, Julius Caesar, the territories west of the Rhine were occupied by the Eburones and east of the Rhine he reported the Ubii and the Sugambri to their north. The Ubii and some other Germanic tribes such as the Cugerni were settled on the west side of the Rhine in the Roman province of Germania Inferior. Julius Caesar conquered the tribes on the left bank, Augustus established numerous fortified posts on the Rhine, but the Romans never succeeded in gaining a firm footing on the right bank, where the Sugambri neighboured several other tribes including the Tencteri and Usipetes. North of the Sigambri and the Rhine region were the Bructeri; as the power of the Roman empire declined, many of these tribes came to be seen collectively as Ripuarian Franks and they pushed forward along both banks of the Rhine, by the end of the fifth century had conquered all the lands, under Roman influence. By the eighth century, the Frankish dominion was established in western Germany and northern Gaul, but at the same time, to the north, Westphalia was being taken over by Saxons pushing south.
The Merovingian and Carolingian Franks built an empire which controlled first their Ripuarian kin, the Saxons. On the division of the Carolingian Empire at the Treaty of Verdun, the part of the province to the east of the river fell to East Francia, while that to the west remained with the kingdom of Lotharingia. By the time of Otto I, both banks of the Rhine had become part of the Holy Roman Empire, the Rhenish territory was divided between the duchies of Upper Lorraine on the Moselle and Lower Lorraine on the Meuse; the Ottonian dynasty had both Frankish ancestry. As the central power of the Holy Roman Emperor weakened, the Rhineland split into numerous small, separate vicissitudes and special chronicles; the old Lotharingian divisions became obsolete, although the name survives for example in Lorraine in France, throughout the Middle Ages and into modern times, the nobility of these areas sought to preserve the idea of a preeminent duke within Lotharingia, something claimed by the Dukes of Limburg, the Dukes of Brabant.
Such struggles as the War of the Limburg Succession therefore continued to create military and political links between what is now Rhineland-Westphalia and neighbouring Belgium and the Netherlands. In spite of its dismembered condition and the sufferings it underwent at the hands of its French neighbours in various periods of warfare, the Rhenish territory prospered and stood in the foremost rank of German culture and progress. Aachen was the place of coronation of the German emperors, the ecclesiastical principalities of the Rhine bulked in German history. Prussia first set foot on the Rhine in 1609 by the occupation of the Duchy of Cleves and about a century Upper Guelders and Moers became Prussian. At the peace of Basel in 1795, the whole of the left bank of the Rhine was resigned to France, in 1806, the Rhenish princes all joined the Confederation of the Rhine. After the Congress of Vienna, Prussia was awarded the entire Rhineland, which included the Grand Duchy of Berg, the ecclesiastic electorates of Trier and Cologne, the free cities of Aachen and Cologne, nearly a hundred small lordships and abbeys.
The Prussian Rhine province was formed in 1822 and Prussia had the tact to leave them in undisturbed possession of the liberal institutions to which they had become accustomed under the republican rule of the French. In 1920, the districts of Eupen and Malmedy were transferred to Belgium. Around AD 1, numerous incursions occurred through Westphalia and even some permanent Roman or Romanized settlements; the Battle of Teutoburg Forest took place near Osnabrück and some of the Germanic tribes who fought at this battle came from the area of Westphalia. Charlemagne is thought to have spent considerable time in nearby parts, his Saxon Wars partly took place in what is thought of as Westphalia today. Popular legends link his adversary Widukind to places near Detmold, Lemgo, Osnabrück, other places in Westphalia. Widukind was buried in Enger, a subject of a legend. Along with Eastphalia and Engern, Westphalia was a district of the Duchy of Saxony. In 1180, Westphalia was elevated to the rank of a duchy by Emperor Barbarossa.
The Duchy of Westphalia comprised only a small area
A Reichsgau was an administrative subdivision created in a number of areas annexed by Nazi Germany between 1938 and 1945. The term was formed from the words Reich and Gau, the latter a deliberately medieval-sounding word with a meaning equivalent to shire; the Reichsgaue were an attempt to resolve the administrative chaos resulting from the mutually overlapping jurisdictions and different boundaries of the NSDAP Party Gaue, placed under a Party Gauleiter, the federal states, under a Reichsstatthalter responsible to the Ministry of the Interior. Interior Minister Wilhelm Frick had long desired to streamline the German administration, the Reichsgaue were the result: the borders of party Gaue and those of the federal states were to be identical, the party Gauleiter occupied the post of Reichsstatthalter. Rival interests and the influence the Gauleiter wielded with Hitler prevented any reform from being undertaken in the "Old Reich" which meant Germany in its borders of 1937, before the annexation of other territories like Austria, the Sudetenland, Bohemia, the Reichsgau scheme was therefore implemented only in newly-acquired territories.
There were several Reichsgaue: Ostmark, formed from the independent Austria Sudetenland, formed from a substantial part of the German-speaking outer rim areas of the former Czechoslovakia occupied in 1938 Danzig-Westpreußen and Wartheland, formed from the Free City of Danzig and areas annexed from PolandThe Ostmark was subsequently subdivided into seven smaller Reichsgaue coterminous with the former Austrian Länder. Administrative divisions of Nazi Germany Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany Der große Atlas der Weltgeschichte, Historical map book, published: 1990, publisher: Orbis Verlag - Munich, ISBN 3-572-04755-2 Shoa.de - List of Gaue and Gauleiter Die NS-Gaue Deutsches Historisches Museum website
Witten is a university city in the Ennepe-Ruhr-Kreis in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is the home of the first private university in Germany. Witten is situated in the southern Ruhr area. Bochum Dortmund Herdecke Wetter Sprockhövel Hattingen Witten is divided into eight boroughs and each borough is further divided into two or more city-districts; every district has its own district-number: Witten-Mitte: 11 Innenstadt, 12 Oberdorf-Helenenberg, 13 Industriegebiet-West, 14 Krone, 15 Crengeldanz, 16 Hauptfriedhof, 17 Stadion, 18 Industriegebiet-Nord, 19 Hohenstein Düren: 21 Düren-Nord, 22 Düren-Sued Stockum: 31 Stockum-Mitte, 32 Dorney, 33 Stockumer Bruch, 34 Wilhelmshöhe Annen: 41 Tiefendorf, 42 Wullen, 43 Annen-Mitte-Nord, 44 Annen-Mitte-Süd, 45 Kohlensiepen, 46 Wartenberg, 47 Gedern Rüdinghausen: 51 Industriegebiet-Ost, 52 Rüdinghausen-Mitte, 53 Buchholz, 54 Schnee Bommern: 61 Steinhausen, 62 Bommerbank, 63 Bommerfeld, 64 Wettberg, 65 Buschey, 66 Bommeregge Heven: 71 Papenholz, 72 Hellweg, 73 Wannen, 74 Heven-Dorf, 75 Lake Herbede: 81 Herbede-Ort, 82 Vormholz, 83 Bommerholz-Muttental, 84 Durchholz, 85 Buchholz-Kaempen Witten was first mentioned in historic sources in 1214, however the borough Herbede dates back to 851.
The city was a mining town from 1578. In 1946, it was included in North Rhine-Westphalia on its establishment. In 1975 Witten was included in the administrative district Ennepe-Ruhr-Kreis and it is now its biggest city. 1975 was the year Witten was first counted to have more than 100,000 inhabitants, the threshold to be considered a large city in Germany. In the late 19th century Witten was known for the Roburit dynamite; this dynamite was once used by coal mines around the world. In 1906 an explosion occurred; the local council of Witten has 64 seats. In the local elections of 2004 the German Social Democratic Party, SPD, gained 24 seats and form the largest party represented on the council, it is followed by CDU with 18 and the Greens with 7 seats. They are followed by the WBG with 4, FDP 4, FLW 3, NPD 2, PDS/WAL 1 and AUF Witten 1. Since 2004 for the first time in its history the council is led by a female mayor: Sonja Leidemann, SPD. 2005–today: Thomas Stotko, MdL 1998–today: Dr. Ralf Brauksiepe, MdB 1998–today: Christel Humme, MdB 2005–today: Irmingard Schewe-Gerigk, 2005–today: Konrad Schily, Witten is connected to the Autobahn network by the A 43 and A 44 motorways.
It has a central station, connecting the city to the regional-train-network of Deutsche Bahn with direct connections to Hagen, Essen, Wuppertal, Düsseldorf, Aachen or Dortmund. Local service is carried out by the BOGESTRA, a joint venture between the cities of Bochum and Gelsenkirchen, to which most of the bus lines in Witten belong. There is a tram line connecting to Bochum. Public transport in the city is carried out according to the fare system of the VRR transport association; the coat of arms of Witten with its two lions once belong to the Everhards von Witten-Steinhausen and was first mentioned in 1283. The family of Witten-Steinhausen belongs to the founders of the town of Witten, their slogan was: "Sigillum Hermanni de Wittene". Because of its long history this Coat of arms was the only one in the Ruhr area, not forbidden by the Allies in May 1945, after the End of the Second World War. Hebezeug-Museum – a museum dedicated to cranes and hoist founded by J. D. Neuhaus and is located on the Route der Industriekultur.
Wittener Tage für neue Kammermusik, festival for contemporary chamber music, held annually at the end of April Märkisches Museum Witten is twinned with: Beauvais, since 1975 London Borough of Barking and Dagenham, United Kingdom, since 1979 Mallnitz, Austria, since 1979 Lev HaSharon district, since 1979 Wolfen, since 1990 Kursk, since 1990 Tczew, since 1990 San Carlos, Nicaragua Mek'ele, Ethiopia When Witten was first mentioned in historical documents, it was part of the Archdiocese of Cologne. Since 1821 it has been a part of the Diocese of Paderborn. In the 19th century the Ruhr area drew up to 500,000 Poles from East Prussia and Silesia, most of whom were Catholic. Hundreds settled in Witten. Today, between 40 per cent of the population is Catholic. In the 16th century Witten was influenced by Martin Luther's Reformation, until the late 19th century, Witten was a predominantly Protestant town with just a few Catholic inhabitants. Between 30 and 40 per cent of the population is Protestant today.
There are four mosques in Witten and Herbede today, founded by immigrants from Turkey who arrived in the 1970s and 1980s. Between five and eight per cent of the population is Muslim. In 1815 the first Jewish community was mentioned in Witten. In 1938 the synagogue was destroyed during the so-called "Reichspogromnacht" of 9–10 November 1938. Today, only about a dozen Jews live in Witten, they belong to the Jewish community in Dortmund. Since 1994 the place of the former synagogue is marked with a memorial. Notes
ABUS is a company based in Wetter-Volmarstein. It is a German manufacturer of preventative security technology; the name is an acronym formed from the original company name August Bremicker und Söhne. The company was founded in 1924, it was limited to the manufacture of padlocks. It is managed according to Christian corporate principles. Over the years, its product range has increased, to include: smoke alarms, video surveillance systems and boat security products, alarm systems and locking systems. ABUS operates the final two product segments via its subsidiary companies: Security-Center, founded in June 1999 and bought by ABUS in June 2001. Schließanlagen GmbH Pfaffenhain, bought in January 2003. SECCOR high security GmbH was bought in September 2010. In October 2003 the product area of escutcheon plates was taken over from the door hinge manufacturer Dr. Hahn in Mönchengladbach. Due to the close relationships with the parent company ABUS, the names of the subsidiaries were changed to ABUS Security-Center GmbH & Co.
KG, ABUS Pfaffenhain GmbH and ABUS Seccor GmbH. In addition to several production facilities in Germany, the ABUS Group operates around 20 foreign branches in Europe, the United States and China. In the area of padlocks and bike locks, ABUS is the world market leader. In November 2012 ABUS received the "Brand of the Century" award in the security technology category. Official website