A state funeral is a public funeral ceremony, observing the strict rules of protocol, held to honour people of national significance. State funerals include much pomp and ceremony as well as religious overtones and distinctive elements of military tradition. State funerals are held in order to involve the general public in a national day of mourning after the family of the deceased gives consent. A state funeral will generate mass publicity from both national and global media outlets. Ahmed Ben Bella Agostino Neto Sir Seretse Khama Sir Ketumile Masire Marc-Vivien Foe Laurent-Desire Kabila Gamal Abdel Nasser Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran who dies in exile in Egypt Anwar Sadat Meles Zenawi Edith Lucie Bongo Omar Bongo Mzee Jomo Kenyatta Michael Kijana Wamalwa Lucy Kibaki Bingu wa Mutharika Samora Machel Afonso Dhlakama Andimba Toivo ya Toivo Chris Hani Nelson Mandela Govan Mbeki Raymond Mhlaba Walter Sisulu Albertina Sisulu Senzo Meyiwa Joost van der Westhuizen Winnie Mandela Julius Nyerere Godfrey Binaisa Mutesa II of Buganda Milton Obote Levy Mwanawasa Frederick Chiluba Betty Kaunda Michael Sata Oliver Mtukudzi In 1952 Eva Perón died at age 33.
She held the title of Spiritual Leader of the Nation of Argentina, granted by the Congress of Argentina. Nearly three million people covered the funeral of Evita in the streets of Buenos Aires. A radio broadcast interrupted the broadcasting schedule, with the announcer reading, "The Press Secretary's Office of the Presidency of the Nation fulfills its sad duty to inform the people of the Republic that at 20:25 hours Mrs. Eva Perón, Spiritual Leader of the Nation, died." Eva Perón was granted a full Roman Catholic requiem mass. On Saturday 9 August, the body was transferred to the Congress Building for an additional day to be publicly viewed; the next day, after a final Sunday mass, the coffin was laid atop on a gun carriage pulled by CGT officials. Following next was Juan Perón, his cabinet, Eva's family and friends, the delegates and representatives of the Partido Peronista Femenino workers and students of the Eva Perón Foundation, her coffin was showered with carnations, chrysanthemums and roses thrown from the nearby balconies as the procession passed through the streets.
Juan Perón died at age 78 on 1 July 1974, after his health progressively deteriorated. His wife and vicepresident, Isabel Martínez de Perón, gave the announcement: "with great sorrow I must convey to the people of Argentina the death of this true apostle of peace and nonviolence." After several days of national mourning, in which the body laid in state at the Argentine National Congress for hundreds of thousands of people, the remains were moved to a crypt in the Quinta de Olivos Presidential. On 17 November 1974 the remains of Evita. While the body was in Congress, over 135,000 people filed past the coffin, while a million Argentines had to bid their farewell to their leader from the outside. Two thousand foreign journalists reported the details of the funeral. Raul Alfonsín died at age 82 on 31 March 2009 after a long battle against lung cancer and. in his last days, broncoaspirativa pneumonia. Argentina's government declared three days of national mourning for the death and his remains were veiled from the early hours of April 1, 2009 in the Blue Room of the National Congress, attended by authorities and politicians of different parties an estimated 80,000 people had to wait in line for five to six hours.
Among the political authorities who attended the event were former presidents Carlos Menem, Eduardo Duhalde, Fernando De la Rua and Nestor Kirchner, President Cristina Fernandez was unable to attend because they were in the G-20 London but sent its condolences. The next day they were taken to a military gun carriage escorted by the Mounted Grenadiers Regiment at Recoleta Cemetery in Buenos Aires; the remains of former President rested temporarily in the vault of the fallen in the Revolution of the Park until 16 May were transferred to a single monument in the cemetery in a place built of gray and beige marble, where there is a cross on top and a bright stained glass by entering a glimmer. Argentina's former President and Secretary General of UNASUR, Néstor Kirchner, died of heart failure on the morning of 27 October 2010 at the Jose Formenti hospital in El Calafate, Santa Cruz Province at the age of 60. Although there was some effort made to revive him, it did not do so His wife, President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, was present with him when he died.
He was expected to run for president in 2011. A state funeral was held on November 3, 2010 in Bridgetown for former Barbados Prime Minister David Thompson. State funerals were held for the President-elect of Brazil, Tancredo Neves, who died before taking office; the former Vice President of Brazil, José Alencar, was buried with a head of state's honor, after his passing due to cancer. Other than heads of state, personalities such as the Formula 1 racing champion Ayrton Senna, dead in 1994 after a crash during a race, the architect Oscar Niemeyer, who died in 2012 at the age of 104, among others. In Canada, state funerals are public events held to commemorate the memory of present and former governors general and former prime ministers, sitting members of the Ministry and other prominent Canadians at the discretion of the Prime Minister. With ceremonial and religious elements incorporated, state funerals are offered and executed by the Government of Canada which provides a dignified manner for the Canadian people to mourn a national public figure.
In 2006, the House of Commons voted unanimously, on a motion introduced by the NDP, to hold a state funeral when the last Canadian veteran of the First World War died
Ordnance Survey is the national mapping agency of the United Kingdom which covers the island of Great Britain. Since 1 April 2015 part of Ordnance Survey has operated as Ordnance Survey Ltd, a government-owned company, 100% in public ownership; the Ordnance Survey Board remains accountable to the Secretary of State for Business and Industrial Strategy. It is a member of the Public Data Group; the agency's name indicates its original military purpose, to map Scotland in the wake of the Jacobite rising of 1745. There was a more general and nationwide need in light of the potential threat of invasion during the Napoleonic Wars. Ordnance Survey mapping is classified as either "large-scale" or "small-scale"; the Survey's large-scale mapping comprises 1:2,500 maps for 1:10,000 more generally. These large scale maps are used in professional land-use contexts and were available as sheets until the 1980s, when they were digitised. Small-scale mapping for leisure use includes the 1:25,000 "Explorer" series, the 1:50,000 "Landranger" series and the 1:250,000 road maps.
These are still available in traditional sheet form. Ordnance Survey maps remain in copyright for fifty years after their publication; some of the Copyright Libraries hold complete or near-complete collections of pre-digital OS mapping. The origins of the Ordnance Survey lie in the aftermath of the Jacobite rising of 1745, defeated by forces loyal to the government at the Battle of Culloden in 1746. Prince William, Duke of Cumberland realised that the British Army did not have a good map of the Scottish Highlands to locate Jacobite dissenters such as Simon Fraser, 11th Lord Lovat so that they could be put on trial. In 1747, Lieutenant-Colonel David Watson proposed the compilation of a map of the Highlands to help to subjugate the clans. In response, King George II charged Watson with making a military survey of the Highlands under the command of the Duke of Cumberland. Among Watson's assistants were William Roy, Paul Sandby and John Manson; the survey was produced at a scale of 1 inch to 1000 yards and included "the Duke of Cumberland's Map", now held in the British Library.
Roy had an illustrious career in the Royal Engineers, rising to the rank of General, he was responsible for the British share of the work in determining the relative positions of the French and British royal observatories. This work was the starting point of the Principal Triangulation of Great Britain, led to the creation of the Ordnance Survey itself. Roy's technical skills and leadership set the high standard. Work was begun in earnest in 1790 under Roy's supervision, when the Board of Ordnance began a national military survey starting with the south coast of England. Roy's birthplace near Carluke in South Lanarkshire is today marked by a memorial in the form of a large OS trig point. By 1791 the Board received the newer Ramsden theodolite, work began on mapping southern Great Britain using a five-mile baseline on Hounslow Heath that Roy himself had measured. In 1991 Royal Mail marked the bicentenary by issuing a set of postage stamps featuring maps of the Kentish village of Hamstreet. In 1801 the first one-inch-to-the-mile map was published, detailing the county of Kent, with Essex following shortly afterwards.
The Kent map was published and stopped at the county border, while the Essex maps were published by Ordnance Survey and ignore the county border, setting the trend for future Ordnance Survey maps. In the next 20 years about a third of England and Wales was mapped at the same scale under the direction of William Mudge, as other military matters took precedence, it took until 1823 to re-establish a relationship with the French survey made by Roy in 1787. By 1810 one inch to the mile maps of most of the south of England were completed, but they were withdrawn from sale between 1811 and 1816 because of security fears. By 1840 the one-inch survey had covered all of Wales and all but the six northernmost counties of England, it was hard work: Major Thomas Colby, the longest-serving Director General of Ordnance Survey, walked 586 miles in 22 days on a reconnaissance in 1819. In 1824, Colby and most of his staff moved to Ireland to work on a six-inches-to-the-mile valuation survey; the survey of Ireland, county by county, was completed in 1846.
The suspicions and tensions it caused in rural Ireland are the subject of Brian Friel's play Translations. Colby was not only involved in the design of specialist measuring equipment, he established a systematic collection of place names, reorganised the map-making process to produce clear, accurate plans. Place names were recorded in "Name Books", a system first used in Ireland; the instructions for their use were: The persons employed on the survey are to endeavour to obtain the correct orthography of the names of places by diligently consulting the best authorities within their reach. The name of each place is to be inserted as it is spelt, in the first column of the name book and the various modes of spelling it used in books, writings &c. are to be inserted in the second column, with the authority placed in the third column opposite to each. Whilst these procedures produced excellent results, mistakes were made: for instance, the Pilgrims Way in the North Downs labelled the wrong route
Her Majesty's Naval Base, Portsmouth is one of three operating bases in the United Kingdom for the Royal Navy. Portsmouth Naval Base is part of the city of Portsmouth; until the early 1970s, it was known as Portsmouth Royal Dockyard. In 1984 Portsmouth's Royal Dockyard function was downgraded and it was formally renamed the'Fleet Maintenance and Repair Organisation'; the FMRO was privatized in 1998. Around the year 2000, the designation HMS Nelson was extended to cover the entire base; the base is the headquarters for two-thirds of the Royal Navy's surface fleet, employs up to 17,200 people. The base is home to a number of commercial shore activities. Portsmouth has built sections for, will be home port to, the two new Royal Navy aircraft carriers, HMS Queen Elizabeth and HMS Prince of Wales, they required the harbour to be dredged to allow safe exit. The project was intended to secure the base's future for the next forty years and would revitalise shipbuilding in the city, it has been speculated this was to help retain Scotland in the union during the 2014 Scottish independence referendum and it has been suggested by the BAE chairman that shipbuilding could return to the city if Scotland voted for independence.
Portsmouth naval base is the oldest in the Royal Navy, it has been an important part of the Senior Service's history and the defence of the British Isles for centuries. At one time it was the largest industrial site in the world, it is home to one of the oldest drydocks in the world. The former Block Mills are of international significance, having been the first factory in the world to employ steam-powered machine tools for mass production. In 1985 a partnership between the Ministry of Defence and Portsmouth City Council created the Portsmouth Naval Base Property Trust to manage part of the historic south-west corner of the Naval Base, under a 99-year lease, as a heritage area: Portsmouth Historic Dockyard, it allows members of the public to visit important maritime attractions such as Mary Rose, HMS Victory and HMS Warrior. Portsmouth naval base is home to two-thirds of the Royal Navy's surface ships, employs up to 17,200 people; the Naval Base Commander since June 2018 is Commodore Jim Higham The Captain of the Base, since September 2018, is Captain David George Royal Navy The harbour is under the control of the Queen's Harbour Master, working to the Captain of the Base, is Commander Steve Hopper, the regulatory authority of the Dockyard Port of Portsmouth, an area of 50 square miles that encompasses Portsmouth Harbour and the Eastern Solent.
QHM Harbour Control is based in the Semaphore Tower building. Shipping movements are handled by a team of admiralty pilots headed by the Chief Admiralty Pilot, Nick Randall. In 1836 the Commander-in-Chief, Portsmouth was given accommodation within the Dockyard and in 1889 he was given HMS Victory to be his ceremonial flagship; these privileges were inherited by the Commander-in-Chief Naval Home Command in 1969 and by the Second Sea Lord in 1994. The latter continued to fly his flag from HMS Victory until 2012. Since the post of Commander-in-Chief has reverted to the First Sea Lord, with it the use of Victory as flagship; the Second Sea Lord is now at Henry Leach Building on Whale Island, the headquarters of the Fleet Commander. The base plays host to a large part of the surface fleet of the Royal Navy including the Queen Elizabeth-class aircraft carrier, the Type 45 destroyers, six Type 23 frigates, the River-class patrol vessels and a squadron of mine counter-measures vessels, both minesweepers and minehunters.
Most of the vessels based in Portsmouth form part of the Portsmouth Flotilla, under the Fleet First reorganisation which saw the three port flotilla, Portsmouth and Faslane, replace the frigate and destroyer squadrons and other groupings. The flotilla is a component unit of the Royal Navy Surface Fleet. HMS Victory HMS Queen Elizabeth HMS Daring HMS Dauntless HMS Diamond HMS Dragon HMS Defender HMS Duncan HMS Kent HMS St Albans HMS Lancaster HMS Iron Duke HMS Westminster HMS RichmondIn changes to base porting arrangements announced in November 2017, HM Ships Richmond, Kent and St Albans will move to the Devonport Flotilla by 2023. HMS Ledbury HMS Cattistock HMS Brocklesby HMS Middleton HMS Chiddingfold HMS Hurworth HMS Clyde – in the Falklands as guard ship since 2007 HMS Tyne HMS Mersey HMS Forth The fourteen Archer class patrol vessels assigned to the First Patrol Boat Squadron supporting the University Royal Naval Units are formally part of the Portsmouth Flotilla, albeit many are permanently based elsewhere around the United Kingdom.
HMS Archer – E
Navy Command (Ministry of Defence)
Navy Command is the current headquarters body of the British Royal Navy, its major organisational grouping. It is a hybrid, neither a command, nor an installation. Royal Navy official writings describe Navy Command Headquarters both as a physical site, on Whale Island, a collective formed of the most senior RN officers, as a budgetary grouping. On 1 April 2006 the Fleet Top Level Budget was established. A Top Level Budget is the major financial accounting group of the MOD. On 1 April 2010 the Fleet TLB was renamed Navy Command following the merger of the Commander-in-Chief Fleet and the Chief-of-Naval Personnel/ Commander-in-Chief Naval Home Command, thus Navy Command is the Top Level Budget for the RN. Navy Command supports the First Sea Lord in the management of the Command, delivers the Service's current and future outputs as articulated in the Command Plan. Prior to 1964 responsibility for control and direction of the British Naval Affairs lay with Admiralty, naval command lay with the Admiralty Naval Staff.
Following the merger of the Admiralty in 1964 into the new Ministry of Defence it became known as the Navy Department. The Royal Navy was divided into a number of fleets and ashore commands, prominent examples being the Home Fleet and Portsmouth Command. By the 1960s a system was introduced to change the previous, globally dispersed assets, the fleet system was replaced at first by a Western Fleet and Eastern Fleet; however these were eventually abolished and their units amalgamated into CINCFLEET. At the same time, the commands established to manage individuals naval bases were replaced in 1969 after the post of Commander-in-Chief, Plymouth was merged with that of Commander-in-Chief, Portsmouth to form Naval Home Command; as overseas bases continued to be reduced, the Navy's shore establishments became more concentrated in the UK, under Naval Home Command. The Navy Command Headquarters is based at Whale Island, Portsmouth, it includes the Command Centre in Northwood, has support staff in Portsmouth Naval Base.
Henry Leach Building and West Battery Building, HMS Excellent, Portsmouth - Senior Naval staff Moore Building, HMS Excellent - Fleet Battle Staff. Command Centre, Northwood - Maritime operations staff. HMNB Portsmouth: - Support Staff Maritime Warfare Centre: - Operational Knowledge-Centered support service. Royal Navy Chaplaincy Service - Pastoral support. Office of the Flag Officer Sea Training - Training support; the purpose-built Headquarters at Whale Island was opened in 2002 was named after Admiral of the Fleet Sir Henry Leach, the First Sea Lord during the Falklands War. The purpose of the NCHQ, as the higher echelon of Navy Command, is the carry out three main tasks: Force Generation, Planning for the future and Advice and Accountability; the First Sea Lord and Chief of Naval Staff, is the Royal Navy's professional head and Chairman of the Navy Board. He is responsible to the Secretary of State for the fighting effectiveness and morale of the Naval Service, supports the Secretary of State for Defence in the management and direction of the Armed Forces.
The Fleet Commander exercises Full Command, on behalf of the First Sea Lord, over all Fleet Units, the Fleet Air Arm, Royal Fleet Auxiliary and the Royal Marines. He is responsible for the generation of units for tasking, the operation of the Fleet in meeting standing commitments, conduct of current operations, maintaining their contingent capability, as directed by Head Office and articulated in the Navy Command Plan; the Second Sea Lord leads Navy Command HQ and is responsible for the Development and Delivery of future and current capability in support of the Fleet Commander, as detailed in the Navy Command Plan. As of 6 April 2017: First Sea Lord and Chief of Naval Staff - based at the Ministry of Defence - as part of the Chiefs of the Defence Staff. Second Sea Lord and Deputy Chief of Naval Staff Fleet Commander Assistant Chief of the Naval Staff Finance Director Includes: First Sea Lord and Chief of Naval Staff Second Sea Lord and Deputy Chief of Naval Staff Fleet Commander Chief of Material and Chief Naval Engineer Officer - based at Defence Equipment and Support H.
Q. Chief of Fleet Support, now split between Chief of Materiel and Chief of Materiel As of 31 March 2016: Second Sea Lord and Deputy Chief of Naval Staff Assistant Chief of the Naval Staff, Assistant Chief of Staff Carrier Strike and Aviation, Assistant Chief of Staff Land and Littoral Manoeuvre and Deputy Commandant General Royal Marines, Commanding Officer Royal Naval Air Station Yeovilton, Assistant Chief of the Naval Staff, - Controller of the Navy Assistant Chief of Staff Warfare, Assistant Chief of Staff Information Warfare, Assistant Chief of Staff Maritime Capability, Assistant Chief of the Naval Staff, Assistant Chief of Staff Medical, - Surgeon Commodore Commodore Naval Legal Services, Commodore Naval Personnel Strategy, Commodore Naval Personnel, Commander Maritime Reserves, Assistant Chief of the Naval Staff, Assistant Chief of Staff Ships, Assistant Chief of Staff Afloat Support, Assistant Chief of the Naval Staff, - Assistant Chief of the Naval Staff, Assistant Chief of Staff Logistics and Infrastructure, Assistant Chief of Staff Engineering Support, Portsmouth, Naval Base, (NBC Commander, Naval Base, (NBC Commander, Naval Base, (NBC The Flag Officer Scotland an
Portsmouth Harbour is a large natural harbour in Hampshire, England. Geographically it is a ria: it was the valley of a stream flowing from Portsdown into the Solent; the city of Portsmouth lies to the east on Portsea Island, Gosport to the west on the mainland. At its north end is Portchester Castle, of Roman origin and the first fortress built to protect the harbour; the mouth of the harbour provides access to the Solent. It is best known as the home of HMNB Portsmouth; because of its strategic location on the south coast of England, protected by the natural defence of the Isle of Wight, it has since the Middle Ages been the home to England's navy. The narrow entrance, the forts surrounding it gave it a considerable advantage of being impregnable to attack from the sea. Before the fortifications were built the French burned Portsmouth in 1338. During the civil war parliamentary forces were able to carry out a successful cutting-out expedition within the harbour and capture the six-gunned Henrietta Marie.
In modern times, the harbour has become a major commercial ferry port, with regular services to Le Havre, Cherbourg, France, St Malo, The Channel Islands and the Isle of Wight. There is a passenger ferry to Gosport, it is a major area for leisure sailing. In 2006 the Gunwharf Quays development, including the Spinnaker Tower, was opened on the site of HMS Vernon. Portsmouth Harbour contains a number of islands. Whale Island is the home of the training establishment HMS Excellent. Horsea Island is now connected to the mainland due to land reclamation, it is part of HMS Excellent. Pewit Island is a small island located in the north western section of Portsmouth Harbour. Closer to the harbour entrance on the Gosport side is Burrow Island known as Rat Island. 50.791645°N 1.106565°W / 50.791645. Lying within the historic area of Old Portsmouth, it is part of Portsmouth Point that lies outside the original fortified boundaries of Portsmouth. After improvements in the King James's and Landport Gates and the areas military defences, civilian building of dockside storage and ancillary servicing facilities began from 1590.
With major ships anchored at Spithead, from the 18th century the surrounding area became noted as a popular but lewd area for visiting sailors. With advent of bigger steam powered ships, the physical restrictions of Camber Dock meant that it was bypassed for the larger capacity of the newer developed Portsmouth Harbour. Resultantly, Camber Quay became the home of the local fishing fleet, which it still remains today, together with the adjacent dockside development of the commercial fish market. Today it has a series of visiting berths for non-commercial craft. In 2015, the Land Rover BAR yacht racing headquarters was completed. Portsmouth investigated three locations for a ferry port at the end of the 1960s and the current location was chosen; the choice was based on cost and the benefit of cross-channel ferries. The site was at the end of the newly constructed M275. Built with two berths the site opened in 1976 with the Earl William running to the Channel Islands, the Viking Victory running to Cherbourg and the Brittany Ferries running to Saint-Malo.
All three operators increased their usage of the port during the mid-eighties, which led to expansion. An additional two berths were built, both twin tier. Berth 2 was filled and a new Berth 2 built, used by the Earl Granville running to both the Channel Islands and Cherbourg, Berth 1 become more tight to use and the newly roll-on, roll-off Commodore Shipping used it for their Channel Island freight services. Berth 3 was left incomplete; this was considered the Brittany Ferries berth. When Berth 3 was finished Townsend Thoresen moved their passenger operation from Southampton to Portsmouth. Shortly afterwards, Townsend Thoresen relocated them to Portsmouth; the old Southampton Ferry port was converted to a marina. The continued use of Portsmouth saw the final stage of development. Portsmouth had seen additional ferry companies Channel Island Ferries and Truckline and new routes to Caen and Bilbao. With the advent of the Channel Tunnel and the abolition of Duty Free most of the companies disappeared.
Sealink merged their Channel Island operations with the newly created Channel Island Ferries to create British Channel Island Ferries. They later relocated operations to Poole before merging into Condor Ferries. Sealink operated to Cherbourg with the Earl Granville for several further years until the Earl Granville violently ran aground off Cherbourg. Hoverspeed ran the HOVERSPEED GB from Portsmouth to Cherbourg intermittently one summer – the "new ferry of the future" was out of action and the now repaired but ageing Earl Granville would step into the breach – much to passenger annoyance. By 2000 Portsmouth only had ferries from Brittany Ferries, Condor and P&O. P&O replaced the ageing Super Vikings with a Ro-pax ship and a Sea-Cat on the Portsmouth-Cherbourg route, but by 2006 P&O had all but closed its operation from Portsmouth but retained the route to Bilbao and Portsmouth became a quiet port again. After P&O Ferries withdrawal from the Le Havre route in September 2005 a new company stepped in to replace them with LD Lines running one sailing a day to Le Havre with the Norman Spirit.
The Spanish ferry company Acciona tried in 2006 to compete on the northern Spain route to Bilbao using their ferry the Fortuny, but it lasted 3 months before closure. Today, Brittany Ferries operates a thr
HMS Excellent (shore establishment)
HMS Excellent is a Royal Navy "stone frigate" sited on Whale Island near Portsmouth in Hampshire. HMS Excellent is itself part of the Maritime Warfare School, with a Headquarters at HMS Collingwood, although a number of lodger units are resident within the site, the principal of, the Headquarters of Fleet Commander. In the 1829 a Commander George Smith advocated the establishment of a Naval School of Gunnery. Smith was given oversight and set up Excellent not only as a training establishment but as a platform for experimental firing of new weapons. In 1832 Smith was replaced in command by Captain Thomas Hastings, under whom the school grew both numerically and in reputation, as trained gunners began to prove their effectiveness in combat situations. In 1834 the original Excellent was replaced by the second rate HMS Boyne, duly renamed Excellent. In 1845 Captain Henry Ducie Chads took over command of Excellent in succession to Hastings, he remained in post until 1854, by which time the Admiralty had purchased'Whaley Island'.
Chads was succeeded first by Captain Thomas Maitland and in 1857, by Richard Hewlett. In December 1859 the first-rate Queen Charlotte took over the role of gunnery training ship and was renamed Excellent. In 1863 Hewlett was replaced by Captain Astley Cooper Key, in turn succeeded by Captain Arthur Hood some three years later. By this time, a rifle range had been established on the island for the use of HMS Excellent and the first building appeared there, the land having been somewhat drained and levelled. Under Hood's leadership a torpedo section was set up within the school, it was under Fisher's command, in the 1880s, that approval was given to move the gunnery school ashore, on to Whale Island. The initial proposal had come from a Lieutenant Percy Scott, who used the island as a running track; the island had grown in size since the 1850s: indeed, up until the early 1890s excavated spoil from the expansion of the Dockyard was conveyed there, using convict labour, to build the island up. Scott returned to Excellent as an instructor in 1883 and took the opportunity to submit a detailed proposal to Fisher, accepted.
The first buildings of the shore establishment were begun in 1885 and building work continued alongside the tasks of draining and levelling the land. By 1891 the whole operation had moved ashore and the old ship was paid off. Centred on a large open drill ground, the site includes the officers' mess in a range to the north with rows of barracks blocks for ratings arrayed behind. To the west, opposite the Quarterdeck, were long gun battery sheds. Firing training took place on the batteries and all different varieties of guns were kept on site for instruction on their maintenance and operation. Full-sized dummy gun turrets were provided for training purposes. Seagoing training took place up until 1957 on a series of battleships and destroyers that were attached to the facility. From the late 1950s guided missile training was provided; the Portsmouth Field Gun Crew, competing in the Royal Navy field gun competition at the Royal Tournament, used to be based at the site. A small museum in the Quarterdeck block preserves artefacts from Excellent's days as a gunnery school.
The gunnery school closed in 1985 whereupon HMS Excellent was decommissioned. The site became part of HMS Nelson; the establishment was recommissioned as HMS Excellent in 1994 following the closure of the old HMS Phoenix in nearby Tipner and Horsea Island, the relocation of the school of Fire Fighting and Damage Control from there to Whale Island. The following list goes as far as 1984, it shows the date of appointment, rank and decorations held at the time. In some cases a captain held several sequential appointments, it does not show captains held on the books of the Excellent who were not commanding officers of Excellent. Maritime Warfare School elements within the site are: MWS Phoenix school of Nuclear and Chemical Defence, damage control and fire fighting HMS Phoenix South East Naval Military Training Centre Defence Diving School Boat SectionHMS Excellent provides administrative and infrastructure support to the Maritime Warfare School elements at Defence Diving School, Horsea Island, small arms ranges at Tipner.
Lodger units are: Navy Command Headquarters – Fleet Commander Headquarters of UK Maritime Battle Staff HMS King Alfred Royal Naval Reserve Fleet Regional Photographic Unit Volunteer Cadet Corps Sea Cadet Corps National Training Centre HMS Bristol – Accommodation and Cadet Forces training ship TS Alamein Sea Cadet Corps DASA: Defence Analytical Services and Advice is a Division of the MOD t
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo