Kasaan is a city in the Prince of Wales-Hyder Census Area in the U. S. state of Alaska. The population was 49 at the 2010 census, up from 39 in 2000; the name "Kasaan" comes from Tlingit kasa'aan, meaning "pretty town". Kasaan is one of the main historical communities of the Kaigani Haida. Residents moved from their former village on Skowl Arm, now called Old Kasaan, starting in 1893 and in the period 1902-1904; this migration was prompted by the promise of jobs and a school occasioned by development of copper mining and a cannery near the present location. Kasaan was established as a city in 1976. Kasaan is located at 55°32′30″N 132°24′7″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.2 square miles, of which, 5.3 square miles of it is land and 0.9 square miles of it is water. Kasaan means "pretty town" in the Tlingit language. Kasaan first appeared on the 1910 U. S. Census as an unincorporated native village, it formally incorporated in 1976. As of the census of 2000, there were 39 people, 17 households, 12 families residing in the city.
The population density was 7.3 people per square mile. There were 39 housing units at an average density of 7.3 per square mile. The racial makeup was 20 White residents, 15 Native American, 4 from two or more races. There were 17 households out of which 3 had children under the age of 18 living with them, 11 were married couples living together, 1 had a female householder with no husband present, 5 were non-families. 4 households were made up of individuals and none had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.75. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 8 residents under the age of 18, 3 from 18 to 24, 9 from 25 to 44, 15 from 45 to 64, 4 who were 65 years of age or older; the median age was 45 years. There were 22 male residents and 17 female, with 18 and 13 over the age of 18, giving a ratio of 129.4 males per 100 females and 138.5 males per 100 females age 18 and over. The median income for a household was $43,500, the median income for a family was $42,500.
Males had a median income of $36,250 versus $0 for females. The per capita income was $19,743. No residents were living below the poverty line. A second-class city, Kasaan is administered by a mayor and city council, of which the mayor is a member. City elections are conducted on the first Tuesday of October, city council meetings are held on the third Tuesday of each month. Kasaan is part of the Southeast Island Schools district. List of Haida villages Chief Son-I-Hat's Whale House and Totems Historic District Kasaan Haida Heritage Foundation Historical collections Memories of Kasaan Ketchikan City Museum - Haida Frank Norris. A Victim of Nature and Bureaucracy: The Short, Sad History of Old Kasaan National Monument NPS, 2000 Company store and other buildings, Kasaan, ca 1912 Canadian Museum of Civilization Blackman, Margaret B. Haida, Traditional Cultures. Handbook of North American Indians. Smithsonian Institution Government Printing Office, Washington pp240–260
The Alaska Senate is the upper house in the Alaska Legislature, the state legislature of the U. S. state of Alaska. It convenes in the Alaska State Capitol in Juneau, Alaska and is responsible for making laws and confirming or rejecting gubernatorial appointments to the state cabinet and boards. With just twenty members, the Alaska Senate is the smallest state upper house legislative chamber in the United States, its members serve four-year terms and each represent an equal number of districts with populations of 35,512 people, per 2010 Census figures. They are not subject to term limits; the Alaska Senate shares the responsibility for making laws in the state of Alaska. Bills are developed by staff from information from the bill's sponsor. Bills undergo four readings during the legislative process. After the first reading, they are assigned to committee. Committees can hold legislation and prevent it from reaching the Senate floor. Once a committee has weighed in on a piece of legislation, the bill returns to the floor for second hearing and a third hearing, which happens just before the floor vote on it.
Once passed by the Senate, a bill is sent to the opposite legislative house for consideration. If approved, without amendment, it is sent to the governor. If there is amendment, the Senate may either reconsider the bill with amendments or ask for the establishment of a conference committee to work out differences in the versions of the bill passed by each chamber. Once a piece of legislation approved by both houses is forwarded to the governor, it may either be signed or vetoed. If it is signed, it takes effect on the effective date of the legislation. If it is vetoed, lawmakers in a joint session may override the veto with a two-thirds majority vote; the Alaska Senate has the sole responsibility in the state's legislative branch for confirming gubernatorial appointees to positions that require confirmation. Current committees include: Past partisan compositions can be found on Political party strength in Alaska. Senators must be a qualified voter and resident of Alaska for no less than three years, a resident of the district from which elected for one year preceding filing for office.
A senator must be at least 25 years old at the time. Senators may expel a member with the concurrence of two-thirds of the membership of the body; this has happened only once in Senate history. On February 5, 1982, the Senate of the 12th Legislature expelled Bethel senator George Hohman from the body. Hohman was convicted of bribery in conjunction with his legislative duties on December 24, 1981, had defiantly refused to resign from his seat. Expulsion was not a consideration during the 2003–2010 Alaska political corruption probe, as Ben Stevens and John Cowdery were the only Senators who were subjects of the probe and neither sought reelection in 2008. Legislative terms begin on the second Monday in January following a presidential election year and on the third Tuesday in January following a gubernatorial election; the term of senators is four years and half of the senators are up for election every two years. The President of the Senate presides over the body, appointing members to all of the Senate's committees and joint committees, may create other committees and subcommittees if desired.
Unlike many other states, the Lieutenant Governor of Alaska does not preside over the Senate. Instead, the Lieutenant Governor oversees the Alaska Division of Elections, fulfilling the role of Secretary of State. Only two other states and Utah, have similar constitutional arrangements for their lieutenant governors; the other partisan Senate leadership positions, such as the Majority and Minority leaders, are elected by their respective party caucuses to head their parties in the chamber. ↑: Senator was appointed^a: Caucuses with the Republican-led majority Alaska House of Representatives Alaska State Capitol List of Alaska State Legislatures Alaska State Senate official government website Project Vote Smart – State Senate of Alaska
An Indian reservation is a legal designation for an area of land managed by a federally recognized Native American tribe under the U. S. Bureau of Indian Affairs rather than the state governments of the United States in which they are physically located; each of the 326 Indian reservations in the United States is associated with a particular Native American nation. Not all of the country's 567 recognized tribes have a reservation—some tribes have more than one reservation, while some share reservations. In addition, because of past land allotments, leading to some sales to non–Native Americans, some reservations are fragmented, with each piece of tribal and held land being a separate enclave; this jumble of private and public real estate creates significant administrative and legal difficulties. The collective geographical area of all reservations is 56,200,000 acres the size of Idaho. While most reservations are small compared to U. S. states, there are 12 Indian reservations larger than the state of Rhode Island.
The largest reservation, the Navajo Nation Reservation, is similar in size to West Virginia. Reservations are unevenly distributed throughout the country; because tribes possess the concept of tribal sovereignty though it is limited, laws on tribal lands vary from those of the surrounding area. These laws can permit legal casinos for example, which attract tourists; the tribal council, not the local government or the United States federal government has jurisdiction over reservations. Different reservations have different systems of government, which may or may not replicate the forms of government found outside the reservation. Most Native American reservations were established by the federal government; the name "reservation" comes from the conception of the Native American tribes as independent sovereigns at the time the U. S. Constitution was ratified. Thus, the early peace treaties in which Native American tribes surrendered large portions of land to the U. S. designated parcels which the tribes, as sovereigns, "reserved" to themselves, those parcels came to be called "reservations".
The term remained in use after the federal government began to forcibly relocate tribes to parcels of land to which they had no historical connection. Today a majority of Native Americans and Alaska Natives live somewhere other than the reservations in larger western cities such as Phoenix and Los Angeles. In 2012, there were with about 1 million living on reservations. From the beginning of the European colonization of the Americas, Europeans removed native peoples from lands they wished to occupy; the means varied, including treaties made under considerable duress, forceful ejection, violence, in a few cases voluntary moves based on mutual agreement. The removal caused many problems such as tribes losing means of livelihood by being subjected to a defined area, farmers having inadmissible land for agriculture, hostility between tribes; the first reservation was established in southern New Jersey on 29 August 1758. It was called Brotherton Indian Reservation and Edgepillock or Edgepelick; the area was 3284 acres.
Today it is called Indian Mills in Shamong Township. In 1764 the "Plan for the Future Management of Indian Affairs" was proposed by the Board of Trade. Although never adopted formally, the plan established the imperial government's expectation that land would only be bought by colonial governments, not individuals, that land would only be purchased at public meetings. Additionally, this plan dictated that the Indians would be properly consulted when ascertaining and defining the boundaries of colonial settlement; the private contracts that once characterized the sale of Indian land to various individuals and groups—from farmers to towns—were replaced by treaties between sovereigns. This protocol was adopted by the United States Government after the American Revolution. On 11 March 1824, John C. Calhoun founded the Office of Indian Affairs as a division of the United States Department of War, to solve the land problem with 38 treaties with American Indian tribes; the document “Indian Treaties, Laws and Regulations Relating to Indian Affairs”’ published in 1825 in Washington City, America was signed by president Andrew Jackson.
He states that “we have placed the land reserves in a better state for the benefit of society” with approval of Indigenous reservations prior to 1850. The letter is signed by Isaac Shelby and the American President and discusses several regulations regarding Indigenous people of America and the approval of Indigenous segregation and the reservation system. President Martin Van Buren writes a Treaty with the Saginaw Tribe of Chippewas in 1837 to build a light house; the President of the United States of America was directly involved in the creation of new Treaties regarding Indian Reservations before 1850. He says Indigenous Reservations are “all their reserves of land in the state of Michigan, on the principle of said reserves being sold at the public land offices for their benefit and the actual proceeds being paid to them.” The agreement is for the Indigenous Tribe to sell their land, based on a Reservation to build a “lighthouse.” President, Martin Van Buren wants to buy Indigenous Reservation Land to build infrastructure.
A Treaty signed by John Forsyth, the Secretary of State on behalf of, President Martin Van Buren of the United
Naukati Bay, Alaska
Naukati Bay is a census-designated place in the Prince of Wales-Hyder Census Area of the Unorganized Borough of the U. S. state of Alaska. The population was 113 at the 2010 census, down from 135 in 2000. Known as Naukati or Naukati West, the community lies 30 miles north of Craig and 20 miles southwest of Coffman Cove on Prince of Wales Island, within the Unorganized Borough. Naukati Bay Subdivision East and West are located on the east side of Tuxekan Passage in Naukati Bay; the community of Naukati Bay has developed over the past 30 years from its original logging camp status to an independent community. Primary local access is via unpaved gravel logging roads; the area was extensively clear cut over the past 30 years, the resulting regrowth is quite dense. Vegetation is typical temperate rain forest; the area is dominated by a maritime climate. Average temperatures in the summer range from 46 to 70. Naukati Bay is located at 55°52′25″N 133°11′5″W, elevation: 207 feet between a pair of sheltered bays on the West coast of Prince of Wales Island in South-East Alaska.
Naukati Bay is located in the Ketchikan Recording District. Naukati Bay, census-designated place tract's Centroid is at 55°52′57″N 133°11′42″W, elevation: 13 feet The United States Census Bureau adjusted the census-designated place tract's boundaries from 1990 to 2008, resulting in the shift of the CDP's Centroid coordinates seen above, i.e. the ground has not moved, but the places where the Census counts has. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 5.1 square miles, of which, 4.8 square miles of it is land and 0.2 square miles of it is water. Naukati Bay is a natural sheltered harbor at Naukati Bay, Alaska, on the Western shores of Prince of Wales Island, on the Pacific Ocean at 55°52′34″N 133°9′27″W, elevation: 0 feet Naukati Bay is the largest indentation in the East shore of Tuxekan Passage, its entrance, about 2 miles North of Staney Island, is constricted by rocks and kelp, the entire area has numerous islets and rocks. In the narrow winding channel, 3 fathoms can be carried well in toward the head of the bay.
Naukati Creek is a stream with its mouth at 55°53′19″N 133°8′52″W, elevation: 16 feet, which originates from a small lake at 55°53′36″N 133°5′26″W, elevation:, flows 3.5 miles West to Naukati Bay. It was a logging camp at one time, but was settled as an Alaska Department of Natural Resources land disposal site. Named "Naukatee Bay" in 1904 by the U. S. Coast & Geodetic Survey, who recorded it as the local Indian name. Local name recorded in 1949 by United States Geological Survey. Little Naukati Bay is a natural sheltered harbor at Naukati Bay, Alaska, on the Western shores of Prince of Wales Island, on the Pacific Ocean at 55°52′36″N 133°12′45″W, elevation: 20 feet Little Naukati Bay, on the East side of Tuxekan Narrows and about 6.5 miles North of Kauda Point, is not recommended as a small-boat anchorage. At low water its entrance is closed by rocks and reefs; the best water into it is the North channel. The narrows North-West of Little Naukati Bay is clear and deep. Naukati Bay first reported on the 1990 U.
S. Census as a census-designated place; as of the census of 2000, there were 135 people, 60 households, 34 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 28.1 people per square mile. There were 78 housing units at an average density of 16.3/sq mi, 18 vacant housing units. The racial makeup of the CDP was 86.67% White, 0.74% Black or African American, 9.63% Native American, 2.22% Asian, 0.74% from other races. 0.74% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 60 households out of which 36.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.7% were married couples living together, 6.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 43.3% were non-families. 41.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 3.03. In the CDP, the age distribution of the population shows 32.6% under the age of 18, 1.5% from 18 to 24, 34.8% from 25 to 44, 28.9% from 45 to 64, 2.2% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 150.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 160.0 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $27,500, the median income for a family was $32,917. Males had a median income of $51,875 versus $0 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $15,950. There were 6.9% of families and 9.4% of the population living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and none of those over 64. Naukati residents are logging homesteaders. Two community non-profit associations have been organized for planning and local issue purposes. Sale of alcohol is restricted to the local package store. Water is derived from several small streams; the 9 logging camp homes are connected to a piped sewer system with full plumbing. The 27 homesteaders collect haul water and use outhouses. Funds have been requested to study alternatives for a treated community water source and sewage disposal system; the community burns ships the ash to Thorne Bay's landfill.
Electricity is provided by Alaska Power Company. There is one school located in the community, attended by 28 students. Auxiliary health care is provided by Naukati EMS. Small sawmills and related loggin
Area code 907
Area code 907 covers the state of Alaska, except for the small southeastern community of Hyder, which uses area codes 236, 250 and 778 of neighboring Stewart, British Columbia. Despite having telephone service to the contiguous US via a terrestrial line from Juneau since 1937, Alaska was not included in the North American Numbering Plan until after the Alaska submarine cable was opened for traffic in 1956; the Alaska numbering plan area was assigned the area code 907, entered service in 1957. The Alaska numbering plan area is geographically the largest of any in the United States, it is the second-largest on the NANP and on the entire North American continent behind 867, which serves Canada's northern territories. Because the Aleutian Islands of Alaska cross longitude 180, the Anti-Meridian, 907 may be considered to be both the farthest west and the farthest east of all area codes in the NANP. Due to Alaska's low population, 907 is one of only 12 remaining area codes serving an entire state.
It is not projected to be exhausted until 2029. Many calls within Alaska are long-distance calls and must be dialed with the leading 1-907, except for cellphone services. Local calls and cellphone calls for long-distance service within Alaska, only require seven-digit dialing. At the time of its creation, area code 907 was one of the two longest area codes to dial on a rotary phone, taking 26 pulses to dial out in an era before the first touch tone phones; this is the same number of pulses as Hawaii's area code 808, introduced the same year. List of NANP area codes NANPA Area Code Map of Alaska List of exchanges from AreaCodeDownload.com, 907 Area Code
Geographic coordinate system
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection; the invention of a geographic coordinate system is credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene, who composed his now-lost Geography at the Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century BC. A century Hipparchus of Nicaea improved on this system by determining latitude from stellar measurements rather than solar altitude and determining longitude by timings of lunar eclipses, rather than dead reckoning. In the 1st or 2nd century, Marinus of Tyre compiled an extensive gazetteer and mathematically-plotted world map using coordinates measured east from a prime meridian at the westernmost known land, designated the Fortunate Isles, off the coast of western Africa around the Canary or Cape Verde Islands, measured north or south of the island of Rhodes off Asia Minor.
Ptolemy credited him with the full adoption of longitude and latitude, rather than measuring latitude in terms of the length of the midsummer day. Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography used the same prime meridian but measured latitude from the Equator instead. After their work was translated into Arabic in the 9th century, Al-Khwārizmī's Book of the Description of the Earth corrected Marinus' and Ptolemy's errors regarding the length of the Mediterranean Sea, causing medieval Arabic cartography to use a prime meridian around 10° east of Ptolemy's line. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes' recovery of Ptolemy's text a little before 1300. In 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England as the zero-reference line; the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911.
In order to be unambiguous about the direction of "vertical" and the "horizontal" surface above which they are measuring, map-makers choose a reference ellipsoid with a given origin and orientation that best fits their need for the area they are mapping. They choose the most appropriate mapping of the spherical coordinate system onto that ellipsoid, called a terrestrial reference system or geodetic datum. Datums may be global, meaning that they represent the whole Earth, or they may be local, meaning that they represent an ellipsoid best-fit to only a portion of the Earth. Points on the Earth's surface move relative to each other due to continental plate motion and diurnal Earth tidal movement caused by the Moon and the Sun; this daily movement can be as much as a metre. Continental movement can be up to 10 m in a century. A weather system high-pressure area can cause a sinking of 5 mm. Scandinavia is rising by 1 cm a year as a result of the melting of the ice sheets of the last ice age, but neighbouring Scotland is rising by only 0.2 cm.
These changes are insignificant if a local datum is used, but are statistically significant if a global datum is used. Examples of global datums include World Geodetic System, the default datum used for the Global Positioning System, the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, used for estimating continental drift and crustal deformation; the distance to Earth's center can be used both for deep positions and for positions in space. Local datums chosen by a national cartographical organisation include the North American Datum, the European ED50, the British OSGB36. Given a location, the datum provides the latitude ϕ and longitude λ. In the United Kingdom there are three common latitude and height systems in use. WGS 84 differs at Greenwich from the one used on published maps OSGB36 by 112 m; the military system ED50, used by NATO, differs from about 120 m to 180 m. The latitude and longitude on a map made against a local datum may not be the same as one obtained from a GPS receiver. Coordinates from the mapping system can sometimes be changed into another datum using a simple translation.
For example, to convert from ETRF89 to the Irish Grid add 49 metres to the east, subtract 23.4 metres from the north. More one datum is changed into any other datum using a process called Helmert transformations; this involves converting the spherical coordinates into Cartesian coordinates and applying a seven parameter transformation, converting back. In popular GIS software, data projected in latitude/longitude is represented as a Geographic Coordinate System. For example, data in latitude/longitude if the datum is the North American Datum of 1983 is denoted by'GCS North American 1983'; the "latitude" of a point on Earth's surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the Equator and to each other; the North Pole is 90° N. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the Equator, the fun