The Quad Cities is a region of five cities in the U. S. states of Iowa and Illinois: Davenport and Bettendorf in southeastern Iowa, Rock Island and East Moline in northwestern Illinois. These cities are the center of the Quad Cities metropolitan area, which as of 2013 had a population estimate of 383,781 and a CSA population of 474,937, making it the 90th largest CSA in the nation. Before European settlers came to inhabit the Quad Cities, the confluence of rivers had attracted many varying cultures of indigenous peoples, who used the waterways and riverbanks for their settlements for thousands of years. At the time of European encounter, it was a home and principal trading place of the Sauk and Fox tribes of Native Americans. Saukenuk was the principal village of the Sauk tribe and birthplace of its 19th-century war chief, Black Hawk. In 1832, Sauk chief Keokuk and General Winfield Scott signed a treaty in Davenport after the US defeated the Sauk and their allies in the Black Hawk War; the treaty resulted in the Native Americans ceding six million acres of land to the United States in exchange for a much smaller reservation elsewhere.
Black Hawk State Historic Site in Rock Island preserves part of historic Saukenuk and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The history of urban settlements in the Quad Cities was stimulated by riverboat traffic. For 14 miles between LeClaire and Rock Island, the Mississippi River flowed across a series of finger-like rock projections protruding from either bank; these rapids were difficult for steamboats to traverse. As demand for river-based transportation increased along the upper Mississippi, the navigability of the river throughout the "Rock Island Rapids" became a greater concern. Over time, a minor industry grew up in the area to meet the steamboats' needs. Boat crews needed rest areas to stop before encountering the rapids, places to hire expert pilots such as Phillip Suiter, the first licensed pilot on the upper Mississippi River, to guide the boat through the rocky waters, or, when the water was low, places where goods could be removed and transported by wagon on land past the rapids.
Today, the rocks are submerged six feet underwater by a lake formed by dams. As the Industrial Revolution developed in the United States, many enterprising industrialists looked to the Mississippi River as a promising source of water power; the combination of energy and easy access to river transportation attracted entrepreneurs and industrialists to the Quad Cities for development. In 1848, John Deere moved his plough business to Moline, his business was incorporated as Deere & Company in 1868. Deere & Company is the largest employer today in the Quad Cities; the first railroad bridge built across the Mississippi River connected Davenport and Rock Island in 1856. It was built by the Rock Island Railroad Company, replaced the slow seasonal ferry service and winter ice bridges as the primary modes of transportation across the river. Steamboaters saw the nationwide railroads as a threat to their business. On May 6, 1856, just weeks after completion of the bridge, an angry steamboater crashed the Effie Afton into it.
John Hurd, the owner of the Effie Afton, filed a lawsuit against the Rock Island Railroad Company. The Rock Island Railroad Company selected Abraham Lincoln as their trial lawyer and won after he took the case to the US Supreme Court. Phillip Suiter was one of his expert witnesses, it was a pivotal trial in Lincoln's career. After the Civil War, the region began to gain a common identity; the river towns that were thoughtfully planned and competently led flourished, while other settlements get-rich-quick schemes for speculators, failed to pan out. By World War I, the towns of Davenport, Rock Island, Moline had begun to style themselves as the "Tri-Cities," a cluster of three more-or-less equally-sized river communities growing around the small bend of the Mississippi River where it flows west, but with the growth of Rock Island County, during the 1930s the term "Quad Cities" came into vogue, as East Moline was given "equal status." Despite the fact that the region had earned the name "Quad Cities," the National Basketball Association had a franchise in Moline, from 1946 to 1951 called the "Tri-Cities Blackhawks."
With the opening of an Alcoa plant east of Davenport in 1948, the town of Bettendorf underwent so much growth that many people in the community discussed the adoption of the name "Quint Cities", But by this time, the name "Quad Cities" had become known well beyond the area, "Quint Cities" never caught on, despite the efforts of WOC-TV and others. When Bettendorf passed East Moline in size, there was some debate about whether Bettendorf had "displaced" East Moline. Instead, local officials, such as the Chamber of Commerce, have chosen an inclusive approach, maintaining the name "Quad Cities" yet including all five cities. Beginning in the late 1970s, economic conditions caused major industrial restructuring, which disrupted the basis of the region's economy; the major companies, agricultural manufacturers, ceased or scaled back operations in the Quad Cities. Factories which closed included International Harvester in Case IH in Bettendorf. Moline-based John Deere cut its labor headcount by one half.
In the 1980s, Caterpillar Inc. closed its factories at Mount Joy and Bettendorf. Since the 1990s, the Quad Cities governments, non-profits and residents have worked hard to redevelop the region, they have achieved national attention for their accomplishments. Examples of revitalization and rebirth include: Davenport's River Renaissance (a downtown revitalization project that includes a river music history ce
Kevin McHale (basketball)
Kevin Edward McHale is an American retired basketball player who played his entire professional career for the Boston Celtics. He is a Basketball Hall of Fame inductee, is regarded as one of the best power forwards of all time, he was named to the NBA's 50th Anniversary All-Time Team. McHale began working for the Minnesota Timberwolves following his retirement in 1993, at different times, as a TV analyst, general manager, head coach, he was the head coach of the Houston Rockets from 2011–15, until being fired following a 4–7 start to the 2015–16 season. McHale works as an on-air analyst for NBA TV and Turner Sports's popular NBA on TNT studio show. McHale was born to Josephine Patricia Starcevic in Hibbing, Minnesota. In his senior season at Hibbing High School, he was named Minnesota Mr. Basketball in 1976 and led his team to a runner-up finish in the AA Minnesota State Championship game, he is of Croatian descent on his mother's side and Irish on his father's. The 6 ft 10 in McHale played basketball at the power forward position for the University of Minnesota from 1976 to 1980, with career averages of 15.2 points and 8.5 rebounds per game.
He was named All-Big Ten in 1979 and 1980 and still ranks second in school history in career points and rebounds. In 1995, to coincide with the University of Minnesota basketball's 100th anniversary, he was selected as the top player in the history of University of Minnesota men's basketball. McHale is famous for an encounter with Chuck Foreman in the Gopher locker room. Foreman, a famous Minnesota Viking at the time, was congratulating the Gophers on a hard-fought victory; as Foreman was shaking all the players' hands, when he arrived at the then-unknown power forward, McHale displayed his comic wit: "Nice to meet you, Mr. Foreman. What do you do for a living?" Entering the 1980 NBA draft, the Celtics held the number one overall pick, but in a pre-draft trade, considered by many to be among the most lopsided in NBA history, Celtics president Red Auerbach dealt the pick and an additional first-round pick to the Golden State Warriors for center Robert Parish and the Warriors' first-round pick, the third overall, which the Celtics used to draft McHale.
McHale's stay in Boston got off to a rocky start as he held out for a large contract threatening to play in Italy, before signing a three-year deal with the Celtics. Backing up Larry Bird and Cedric Maxwell at forward, McHale made an immediate impact and was named to the NBA's All-Rookie First Team in his rookie season. Boston finished McHale's rookie season with a league-leading record of 62-20. In the playoffs, the Celtics swept the Chicago Bulls in the first round. In the Eastern Conference Finals, the Celtics faced a 3–1 deficit against the Philadelphia 76ers. McHale helped save the Game 6 win by rejecting an Andrew Toney shot and corralling the rebound with 16 seconds left to protect the Celtics' one-point lead. In the NBA Finals, Boston defeated the Houston Rockets in six games to capture the team's fourteenth championship; the Celtics failed to advance to the NBA Finals the next two seasons. Philadelphia exacted a measure of revenge in the 1982 Eastern Conference Final, beating Boston at home in the seventh game.
In the 1983 Eastern Conference semifinals, the Celtics were swept by the Milwaukee Bucks. This embarrassing defeat led to the firing of head coach Bill Fitch and a temporarily unhappy McHale. Following the 1982–83 season, McHale's contract with the Celtics expired, the New York Knicks signed him to a contract offer sheet. Auerbach retaliated by signing three of New York's top free agent players to offer sheets; the Knicks elected to give up their pursuit of McHale. McHale re-signed with Boston, his $1 million per season contract making him the fourth-highest paid player in the NBA. McHale won the first of his consecutive NBA Sixth Man Awards as Boston won a league-best 62 games in the 1983–84 season. With the hiring of new head coach, former Celtic KC Jones and the acquisition of Phoenix Suns guard Dennis Johnson, Boston seemed primed to make yet another run at a fifteenth championship. After surviving a seven-game semifinal battle with the Knicks, the Celtics avenged the previous season's playoff loss to Milwaukee in the Eastern Conference Finals.
Boston would face the Los Angeles Lakers in the NBA Finals in a anticipated matchup. In Game 4 of the finals, with the Celtics trailing in both the game and the series, McHale delivered a hard foul to Kurt Rambis, violently flinging him down by his throat, as the Lakers' forward raced to the basket; the physical play touched off a bench-clearing scuffle. Boston came back to tie the series at two games apiece, they prevailed in seven games to win the franchise's fifteenth championship. McHale continued to come off the bench during first half of the 1984–1985 season, but moved into a starting role in February 1985 after Cedric Maxwell suffered a knee injury. On March 3 versus the Detroit Pistons McHale enjoyed his greatest scoring night, setting the Celtics' single-game scoring record with 56 points. Two nights McHale scored 42 points against the Knicks, the only other time in his career he topped 40 points in a game; the 98 points in consecutive games is still a Celtics' record. Nine days after McHale had scored 56 points, Larry Bird established a new Celtics' single-game scoring mark by pouring in 60 points versus the Atlanta Hawks.
Boston captured its second straight Eastern Conference title but was upended in the NBA Finals in six games by the rival Lakers. McHale led the Celtics in scoring and rebounding versus th
The TaxSlayer Center is a 12,000-seat multi-purpose arena located in Moline, Illinois. The arena has garnered numerous architectural industry awards since its construction; the facility opened in May 1993, under the name The MARK of the Quad Cities with the singer Neil Diamond as the opening act. The facility was renamed as the TaxSlayer Center on October 1, 2017, it is the home to the revived Quad City Steamwheelers of the Indoor Football League and the Quad City Storm in the Southern Professional Hockey League. The arena has hosted NCAA Division I college basketball games in addition to several NHL and NBA exhibition contests; the Missouri Valley Conference has hosted their Women's Basketball Tournament 2016, 2017, 2018. The now-defunct Quad City Thunder basketball team played all their home games at the TaxSlayer Center from 1993 until the Continental Basketball Association folded eight years later. Hockey has been played at the arena since 1995; the Quad City Mallards of the United Hockey League played the first 12 years.
They were replaced by the Quad City Flames of the American Hockey League for two seasons before moving to Abbotsford, British Columbia. After the Flames left, the Quad City Mallards were reincarnated in 2009 and played home games at the arena until 2018. In May 2018, two months after the Quad City Mallards ceased operations, TaxSlayer Center director Scott Mullen and former Mallards' owner Howard Cornfield announced a Southern Professional Hockey League team called the Quad City Storm would play the 2018–19 season. In 2009, Western Illinois University's club hockey team, the Fighting Leathernecks, began playing there for four games per season. From 2000 to 2009, the arena played host to arena football as the home of the af2's Quad City Steamwheelers, who won the first two Arena Cup championships in league history; the Steamwheelers came back in 2018 in Champions Indoor Football before joining the Indoor Football League for the 2019 season. The arena seats up to 12,000 for end-stage concerts along with center-stage concerts.
It takes only six hours to convert the center into a theater. The seating capacity is 3,000 for theater shows, including Broadway shows and family shows; the center has hosted professional wrestling events, including the 1997 Great American Bash and 2015 King of the Ring pay-per-views, numerous broadcasts of World Wrestling Entertainment programming, including Raw, ECW and SmackDown. The arena contains 31,000 square feet of arena floor space, allowing the arena to be used for trade shows and conventions; the attendance record was set in 1996. In August 2005, iWireless, announced a 10-year agreement with The MARK and the Illinois Quad City Civic Center Authority to secure naming rights to the arena; the name change to the "iWireless Center" occurred July 19, 2007. The naming rights agreement with iWireless was extended for two more years in July 2017. In September of the same year it was announced that TaxSlayer.com bought the naming rights and the facility would be known as the TaxSlayer Center beginning on October 1, 2017.
List of convention centers in the United States Official website
Thomas Francis Dorsey Jr. was an American jazz trombonist, composer and bandleader of the big band era. He was known as the "Sentimental Gentleman of Swing" because of his smooth-toned trombone playing, his technical skill on the trombone gave him renown among other musicians. He was the younger brother of bandleader Jimmy Dorsey. After Dorsey broke with his brother in the mid-1930s, he led an popular and successful band from the late 1930s into the 1950s, he is best remembered for standards such as "Opus One", "Song of India", "Marie", "On Treasure Island", his biggest hit single, "I'll Never Smile Again". Born in Mahanoy Plane, Thomas Francis Dorsey Jr. was the second of four children born to Thomas Francis Dorsey Sr. a bandleader, Theresa Dorsey. He and Jimmy, his older brother by less than two years, would become famous as the Dorsey Brothers; the two younger siblings were Edward, who died young. Tommy Dorsey studied the trumpet with his father but switched to trombone. At age 15, Jimmy recommended Tommy to replace Russ Morgan in The Scranton Sirens, a territory band in the 1920s.
Tommy and Jimmy worked in bands led by Tal Henry, Rudy Vallee, Vincent Lopez, Nathaniel Shilkret. In 1923, Dorsey followed Jimmy to Detroit to play in Jean Goldkette's band and returned to New York in 1925 to play with the California Ramblers. In 1927 he joined Paul Whiteman. In 1929, the Dorsey Brothers had their first hit with "Coquette" for OKeh Records. In 1934, the Dorsey Brothers band signed with Decca, having a hit with "I Believe in Miracles". Glenn Miller was a member of the Dorsey Brothers Orchestra in 1934 and 1935, composing "Annie's Cousin Fanny", "Tomorrow's Another Day", "Harlem Chapel Chimes", "Dese Dem Dose", all recorded for Decca, for the band. Acrimony between the brothers led to Tommy Dorsey's walking out to form his own band in 1935 as the orchestra was having a hit with "Every Little Moment". Dorsey's orchestra was known for its renderings of ballads at dance tempos with singers such as Jack Leonard and Frank Sinatra. Tommy Dorsey's first band was formed out of the remains of the Joe Haymes band, so began Dorsey's long-running practice of raiding other bands for talent.
If he admired a vocalist, musician or arranger, he would think nothing of taking over their contracts and careers. Dorsey had a reputation for being a perfectionist, he was known to hire and fire and sometimes rehire musicians based on his mood. The new band was popular from the moment it signed with RCA Victor with "On Treasure Island", the first of four hits in 1935. After his 1935 recording, Dorsey's manager dropped the "hot jazz" that Dorsey had mixed with his own lyrical style and instead had Dorsey play pop and vocal tunes. Dorsey would keep his Clambake Seven as a Dixieland group; the Dorsey band had a national radio presence in 1936, first from Dallas and from Los Angeles. Tommy Dorsey and his Orchestra took over comedian Jack Pearl's radio show in 1937. By 1939, Dorsey was aware of criticism, he hired arranger Sy Oliver away from the Jimmie Lunceford band. Sy Oliver's arrangements include "On The Sunny Side of the Street" and "T. D.'s Boogie Woogie". In 1940, Dorsey hired singer Frank Sinatra from bandleader Harry James.
Frank Sinatra made eighty recordings from 1940 to 1942 with the Dorsey band. Two of those eighty songs are "In the Blue of Evening" and "This Love of Mine". Frank Sinatra achieved his first great success as a vocalist in the Dorsey band and claimed he learned breath control from watching Dorsey play trombone. In turn, Dorsey said his trombone style was influenced by that of Jack Teagarden. Among Dorsey's staff of arrangers was Axel Stordahl who arranged for Frank Sinatra in his Columbia and Capitol years. Another member of the Dorsey band was trombonist Nelson Riddle, who had a partnership as one of Sinatra's arrangers and conductors in the 1950s and afterwards. Another noted Dorsey arranger, who, in the 1950s, married and was professionally associated with Dorsey veteran Jo Stafford, was Paul Weston. Bill Finegan, an arranger who left Glenn Miller's civilian band, arranged for the Tommy Dorsey band from 1942 to 1950; the band featured a number of instrumentalists and arrangers in the 1930s and'40s, including trumpeters Zeke Zarchy, Bunny Berigan, Ziggy Elman, Doc Severinsen, Charlie Shavers, pianists Milt Raskin, Jess Stacy, clarinetists Buddy DeFranco, Johnny Mince, Peanuts Hucko.
Others who played with Dorsey were drummers Buddy Rich, Louie Bellson, Dave Tough saxophonist Tommy Reed, singers Frank Sinatra, Jack Leonard, Edythe Wright, Jo Stafford with The Pied Pipers, Dick Haymes, Connie Haines. In 1944, Dorsey hired the Sentimentalists. Dorsey performed with singer Connee Boswell He hired ex-bandleader and drummer Gene Krupa after Krupa's arrest for marijuana possession in 1943. In 1942 Artie Shaw broke up his band, Dorsey hired the Shaw string section; as George Simon in Metronome magazine noted at the time, "They're used in the foreground and background for vocal effects and for Tommy's trombone."As Dorsey became successful, he made further business decisions in the music industry. He loaned Glenn Miller money to launch Miller's successful band of 1938, but Dorsey saw the loan as an investment, entitling him to a percentage of Miller's income; when Miller balked at this, the angry Dorsey got by sponsoring a new band led by Bob Chester, hiring arrangers who deliberately copied Miller's style and sound.
Larry Joe Bird is an American former professional basketball player, former coach, former executive who most served as President of Basketball Operations for the Indiana Pacers in the National Basketball Association. Nicknamed "The Hick from French Lick," Bird has been described as one of the greatest basketball players and greatest shooters of all time. Drafted into the NBA by the Boston Celtics with the sixth overall pick in the 1978 NBA draft, Bird started at small forward and power forward for the Celtics for 13 seasons. Bird was a 12-time NBA All-Star and received the NBA Most Valuable Player Award three consecutive times, he played his entire professional career for Boston, winning three NBA championships and two NBA Finals MVP awards. Bird was a member of the gold-medal-winning 1992 United States men's Olympic basketball team known as "The Dream Team", he was voted to the NBA's 50th Anniversary All-Time Team in 1996, was inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame in 1998, was inducted into the Hall of Fame again in 2010 as a member of "The Dream Team".
After retiring as a player, Bird served as head coach of the Indiana Pacers from 1997 to 2000. He was named NBA Coach of the Year for the 1997-1998 season and led the Pacers to a berth in the 2000 NBA Finals. In 2003, Bird was named President of Basketball Operations for the Pacers, holding the position until retiring in 2012, he was named NBA Executive of the Year for the 2012 season. Bird returned to the Pacers as President of Basketball Operations in 2013 and remained in that role until 2017; as of 2012, Bird is the only person in NBA history to be named Rookie of the Year, Most Valuable Player, NBA Finals MVP, All-Star MVP, Coach of the Year, Executive of the Year. Bird was born in West Baden Springs, Indiana, to Georgia and Claude Joseph "Joe" Bird, a veteran of the Korean War, he was raised in nearby French Lick, where his mother worked two jobs to support Larry and his five siblings. Bird has said that being poor as a child still motivates him "to this day". Georgia and Joe divorced when Larry was in high school, Joe committed suicide about a year later.
Larry used basketball as an escape from his family troubles, starring for Springs Valley High School and averaging 31 points, 21 rebounds, 4 assists as a senior on his way to becoming the school's all-time scoring leader. Bird received a scholarship to play college basketball for the Indiana University Hoosiers in 1974. After less than a month on campus he dropped out of school, finding the adjustment between his small hometown and the large student population of Bloomington to be overwhelming, he returned to French Lick, enrolling at Northwood Institute in nearby West Baden, working municipal jobs for a year before enrolling at Indiana State University in Terre Haute in 1975. He had a successful three-year career with the Sycamores, helping them reach the NCAA tournament for the first time in school history with a 33-0 record where they played the 1979 championship game against Michigan State. Indiana State lost the game 75 -- 64, with Bird scoring 19 points; the game achieved the highest television rating for a college basketball game, in large part because of the matchup between Bird and Spartans' point guard Earvin "Magic" Johnson, a rivalry that lasted throughout their professional careers.
Despite failing to win the championship, Bird earned numerous year-end awards and honors for his outstanding play, including the Naismith College Player of the Year Award. For his college career, he averaged 30.3 points, 13.3 rebounds, 4.6 assists per game, leading the Sycamores to an 81–13 record during his tenure. Bird appeared in one game for the baseball team, going 1-for-2 with 2 RBI. Bird was selected by the Boston Celtics with the sixth overall pick in the 1978 NBA draft, he did not sign with the Celtics immediately. Red Auerbach publicly stated that he would not pay Bird more than any Celtic on the current roster, but Bird's agent bluntly told Red that Bird would reject any sub-market offers and enter the 1979 NBA Draft instead, where Boston's rights would expire the second the draft began and Bird would have been the top pick. After protracted negotiations, Bird inked a five-year, $3.25 million contract with the team, making him the highest paid rookie in league history at the time.
Shortly afterwards, NBA draft eligibility rules were changed to prevent teams from drafting players before they were ready to sign, a rule known as the Bird Collegiate Rule. In his rookie season, Bird transformed the Celtics into a title contender; the team improved its win total by 32 games from the year before he was drafted and finished first in the Eastern Conference. With averages of 21.3 points, 10.4 rebounds, 4.5 assists, 1.7 steals per game for the season, he was selected to the All-Star Team and named Rookie of the Year. In the Conference Finals, Boston was eliminated by the Philadelphia 76ers. Before the 1980–81 season, the Celtics selected forward Kevin McHale in the draft and acquired center Robert Parish from the Golden State Warriors, forming a Hall of Fame trio for years to come. Behind Bird's leadership and Boston's upgraded roster, the Celtics again advanced to the Conference Finals for a rematch with the 76ers. Boston fell behind 3–1 to start the series but won the next three games to advance to the Finals against the Houston Rockets, winning in six games and earning Bird his first championship.
He averaged 21.9 points, 14 rebounds, 6.1 assists, 2.3
Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame
The Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame is an American history museum and hall of fame, located at 1000 Hall of Fame Avenue in Springfield, Massachusetts. It serves as the sport's most complete library, in addition to promoting and preserving the history of basketball. Dedicated to Canadian-American physician and inventor of the sport James Naismith, it was opened and inducted its first class in 1959; as of the induction of the Class of 2018, the Hall has formally inducted 389 individuals. The Naismith Hall of Fame was established in 1959 by Lee Williams, a former athletic director at Colby College. In the 1960s, the Basketball Hall of Fame struggled to raise enough money for the construction of its first facility. However, during the following half-decade the necessary amount was raised, the building opened on Feb. 17, 1968, less than one month after the National Basketball Association played its 18th All-Star Game. The Basketball Hall of Fame's Board named four inductees in its first year.
In addition to honoring those who contributed to basketball, the Hall of Fame sought to make contributions of its own. In 1979, the Hall of Fame sponsored a pre-season college basketball exhibition; this Tip-Off Classic has been the start to the college basketball season since, although it does not always take place in Springfield, Massachusetts it returns every few years. In the 17 years that the original Basketball Hall of Fame operated at Springfield College, it drew more than 630,000 visitors; the popularity of the Basketball Hall of Fame necessitated that a new facility be constructed, in 1985, an $11 million facility was built beside the scenic Connecticut River in Springfield. As the new hall opened, it recognized women for the first time, with inductees such as Senda Berenson Abbott, who first introduced basketball to women at Smith College. During the years following its construction, the Basketball Hall of Fame's second facility drew far more visitors than anticipated, due in large part to the increasing popularity of the game but to the scenic location beside the river and the second Hall's interesting modern architecture.
In 2002, the Basketball Hall of Fame moved again—albeit 100 yards south along Springfield's riverfront—into a $47 million facility designed by renowned architects Gwathmey Siegel & Associates. The building's architecture features a metallic silver, basketball-shaped sphere flanked by two symmetrical rhombuses; the dome is illuminated at night and features 80,000 square foot, including numerous restaurants and an extensive gift shop. The second Basketball Hall of Fame was not torn down but rather converted into an LA Fitness health clubs; the current Basketball Hall of Fame features Center Court, a full-sized basketball court on which visitors can play. Inside the building there are a game gallery, many interactive exhibits, several theaters, an honor ring of inductees. A large theater for ceremonies seats up to 300; the honorees inducted in 2002 included the Harlem Globetrotters and Magic Johnson, a five-time NBA champion, three-time NBA finals MVP and Olympic gold medalist. As of 2011, the current Basketball Hall of Fame has exceeded attendance expectations, with basketball fans traveling to the Hall of Fame from all over the world.
Despite the new facility's success, a logistical problem remains for the Basketball Hall of Fame and the City of Springfield. The two entities are separated by the Interstate 91 elevated highway—one of the eastern United States' busiest highways—which inhibits foot-traffic and other interaction between the Basketball Hall of Fame and Springfield's lively Metro Center. Both the Hall and Springfield have made public statements about cooperating further so as to facilitate more business and recreational growth for both. Urban planners at universities such as UMass Amherst have called for the I-91 to be moved, or to be re-configured so as to be pedestrian-friendly to Hall of Fame visitors. In 2010, the Urban Land Institute announced a plan to make the walk between Springfield's Metro Center and the Hall of Fame easier. In contrast to the Pro Football and the National Baseball Halls of Fame, Springfield honors international and American professionals, as well as American and international amateurs, making it arguably the most comprehensive Hall of Fame among major sports.
From 2011 to 2015 seven committees were, as of 2016 six committees are employed to both screen and elect candidates. Four of the committees screen prospective candidates: North American Screening Committee Women's Screening Committee International Screening Committee Veterans Screening Committee, with "Veterans" defined as individuals whose careers ended at least 35 years before they are considered for election. Since 2011, the Veterans and International Committees vote to directly induct one candidate for each induction class. Three committees were formed in 2011 to directly elect one candidate for each induction class: American Basketball Association Committee - This committee was permanently disbanded in 2015 because it had fulfilled its purpose over the previous five years. Contributor Direct Election Committee Other committees may choose to elect contributors. For example, the 2014 class included two contributors. Early African-American Pioneers of the Game CommitteeIndividuals who receive at least seven votes from the North American Screening Committee or five votes from one of the other screening committees in a given year are eligible to advance to an Honors Committee, composed of 12 members plus rotating groups of 12 specialists (one group for