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What'd I Say

"What'd I Say" is an American rhythm and blues song by Ray Charles, released in 1959. As a single divided into two parts, it was one of the first soul songs; the composition was improvised one evening late in 1958 when Charles, his orchestra, backup singers had played their entire set list at a show and still had time left. After his run of R&B hits, this song broke Charles into mainstream pop music and itself sparked a new subgenre of R&B titled soul putting together all the elements that Charles had been creating since he recorded "I Got a Woman" in 1954; the gospel and rhumba influences combined with the sexual innuendo in the song made it not only popular but controversial to both white and black audiences. It earned Ray Charles his first gold record and has been one of the most influential songs in R&B and rock and roll history. For the rest of his career, Charles closed every concert with the song, it was added to the National Recording Registry in 2002 and ranked at number 10 in Rolling Stone's "The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time".

Ray Charles was 28 years old in 1958, with ten years of experience recording rhythm and blues music for the Downbeat and Swingtime record labels, in a style similar to that of Nat King Cole and Charles Brown. Charles signed with Atlantic Records in 1954 where producers Ahmet Ertegun and Jerry Wexler encouraged him to broaden his repertoire. Wexler would remember that Atlantic Records' success came not from the artists' experience, but the enthusiasm for the music: "We didn't know shit about making records, but we were having fun". Ertegun and Wexler found. Wexler said, "I realized the best thing I could do with Ray was leave him alone". From 1954 into the 1960s Charles toured for 300 days a year with a seven-piece orchestra, he employed another Atlantic singing trio named the Cookies and renamed them the Raelettes when they backed him up on the road. In 1954 Charles began merging gospel sounds and instruments with lyrics that addressed more secular issues, his first attempt was in the song "I Got a Woman", based either on the melodies of gospel standards "My Jesus Is All the World to Me" or an uptempo "I Got a Savior".

It was the first Ray Charles record that got attention from white audiences, but it made some black audiences uncomfortable with its black gospel derivatives. In December 1958, he had a hit on the R&B charts with "Night Time Is the Right Time", an ode to carnality, sung between Charles and one of the Raelettes, Margie Hendricks, with whom Charles was having an affair. Since 1956 Charles had included a Wurlitzer electric piano on tour because he did not trust the tuning and quality of the pianos provided him at every venue. On the occasions he would play it, he was derided by other musicians. According to Charles' autobiography, "What'd I Say" was accidental when he improvised it to fill time at the end of a concert in December 1958, he asserts that he never tested songs on audiences before recording them, but "What'd I Say" is an exception. Charles himself does not recall where the concert took place, but Mike Evans in Ray Charles: The Birth of Soul places the show in Brownsville, Pennsylvania.

Shows were played at "meal dances" which ran four hours with a half-hour break, would end around 1 or 2 in the morning. Charles and his orchestra had exhausted their set list after midnight, but had 12 minutes left to fill, he told the Raelettes, "Listen, I'm going to fool around and y'all just follow me". Starting on the electric piano, Charles played what felt right: a series of riffs, switching to a regular piano for four choruses backed up by a unique Latin conga tumbao rhythm on drums; the song changed. Charles used gospel elements in a twelve-bar blues structure; some of the first lines are influenced by a boogie-woogie style that Ahmet Ertegun attributes to Clarence "Pinetop" Smith who used to call out to dancers on the dance floor instructing what to do through his lyrics. In the middle of the song, Charles indicated that the Raelettes should repeat what he was doing, the song transformed into a call and response between Charles, the Raelettes, the horn section in the orchestra as they called out to each other in ecstatic shouts and moans and blasts from the horns.

The audience reacted immediately. Many audience members approached Charles at the end of the show to ask where they could purchase the record. Charles and the orchestra performed it again several nights in a row with the same reaction at each show, he called Jerry Wexler to say he had something new to record writing, "I don't believe in giving myself advance notices, but I figured this song merited it". The Atlantic Records studio had just purchased an 8-track recorder, recording engineer Tom Dowd was familiarizing himself with how it worked. In February 1959 Charles and his orchestra recorded "What'd I Say" at Atlantic's small studio. Dowd recalled, it was second of two songs during the session and Charles, the producers, the band were more impressed with the first one at the session, "Tell the Truth": "We made it like we made all the others. Ray, the gals, t

Charles Satterlee

Charles Satterlee was an officer in the United States Coast Guard during World War I. Born in Essex, Satterlee was appointed a cadet in the Revenue Cutter Service on 19 November 1895 and graduated in 1898 with a commission. In 1908, he was assigned as supervisor of anchorages at Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan; this duty included command of the USRC Mackinac. In 1909, he was ordered to the USRC Tahoma fitting out at Baltimore, for a cruise to the Pacific. From 1910 to 1913, he was assistant inspector of lifesaving stations. Captain Satterlee was in command of USCGC Tampa, when that vessel was torpedoed and sunk with all hands on 26 September 1918 in the Bristol Channel while escorting a convoy. Two ships in the United States Navy have been named USS Satterlee for him. Satterlee Hall at the U. S. Coast Guard Academy is named after him; this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Charles Satterlee at Find a Grave

3rd Bengal Light Cavalry

The 3rd Bengal Light Cavalry known as the 3rd Bengal Native Cavalry, was a locally recruited regiment of the East India Company's Bengal Army. Raised in 1797, the regiment took part in conflicts throughout British India, serving with distinction in the Second Anglo-Maratha War, the First Anglo-Afghan War and the First Anglo-Sikh War, earning various battle honours. In April 1857, 85 men of the regiment refused to accept cartridges for their carbines and were tried by court-martial and sentenced to up to 10 years' hard labour. After the men were imprisoned, the regiment freed their jailed comrades and headed to Delhi, where their arrival led to the outbreak of the Indian Mutiny. Following the events of the mutiny, all the Bengal Light Cavalry regiments were disbanded. On 7 January 1796, the board of directors of the East India Company instructed the Governor-General to raise four 465-strong regiments of Native cavalry for its Bengal Army. In 1797, the 3rd Bengal Native Cavalry was raised in Oude by Captain J. P. Pigot.

At first, the terms "Bengal Native Cavalry" and "Bengal Light Cavalry" were used interchangeably, but by 1857 the regiment was referred to as the 3rd Bengal Light Cavalry in official paperwork. The regiment served with distinction during the Second Anglo-Maratha War, taking part in the Battle of Delhi and the Battle of Laswari in 1803, as part of a force commanded by General Gerard Lake against the forces of Daulat Rao Sindhia; the regiment earned "Leswarree" and "Deig" battle honours during this campaign. The 3rd Bengal Light Cavalry was present throughout the Siege of Bharatpur as part of a cavalry brigade, taking part in the final assault on the fortress and earning the "Bhurtpore" battle honour; the regiment took part in the 1839 First Anglo-Afghan War, participating in the Battle of Ghazni, earning the "Affghanistan 1839" and "Ghuznee 1839" battle honours. During the 1845–1846 First Anglo-Sikh War, the regiment fought in the Battle of Aliwal and the Battle of Sobraon and was awarded battle honours for both.

In 1857 the regiment had been stationed in Meerut for three years, forming part of the Meerut Division under Major General William Hewitt. The East India Company planned to supply its locally recruited "Native" regiments with the Pattern 1853 Enfield rifle during that year, accompanied by a new type of ammunition that came in the form of a greased paper cartridge; the standard drill for loading this ammunition required the user to bite the paper cartridge to open it. Rumours began to circulate within the Bengal Presidency that the grease for the cartridges was made from a mix of lard from pigs and tallow from cows, was therefore offensive to both Hindu and Muslim sepoy alike; these rumours reached Lieutenant Colonel George M. Carmichael-Smyth, in temporary command of the regiment, while he was on leave in Mussoorie. On his return to Meerut, Carmichael-Smyth received orders for the new drill, which applied to all weapons in use including those which did not take the new form of ammunition. Carmichael-Smyth modified the drill so that cartridges would be torn rather than biting.

On 23 April, Carmichael-Smyth announced a parade for the following day, during which the men of the regiment would be taught the new drill, using the muskets and ammunition which they had been using for years, rather than the new rifles or ammunition. During that evening, the men decided; these concerns were communicated to Carmichael-Smyth, who decided that the parade would go ahead as planned. The following morning, 90 men, the regiment's carabiniers or skirmishers, were lined up to carry out the new parade drill using blank ammunition; when Carmichael-Smyth arrived at the parade ground, he found that no man had taken their ammunition, he ordered the Havildar Major to carry out the drill. There was an attempt to distribute the cartridges to the rest of the carabiniers but this was refused, despite a speech from Carmichael-Smyth reminding the men that the cartridges were the type they had been using for years. Out of 90 men, 85 refused the order to accept the ammunition. Hewitt convened a Court of Inquiry, judged by Indian officers.

The inquiry found that the ammunition issued to the men was of the same type the men used, was in fact manufactured under the supervision of one of the five men who had accepted his ammunition during the parade. During the inquiry, only one man expressed a concern regarding the greased cartridges; the inquiry found that the men had no reasonable cause, no religious grounds, to refuse to accept the cartridges. A court martial was ordered, again composed of Indian officers, this took place over a three-day period with each of the 85 men giving a plea of "not guilty"; the men were found guilty, by 14 of 15 officers, of disobeying orders, were sentenced to 10 years' hard labour. The judges asked Hewitt to take into consideration the fact that the men were of good character and had been misled, but this was ignored as Hewitt felt there had been no expression of remorse