Batman is a superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character was created by artist Bob Kane and writer Bill Finger, first appeared in Detective Comics #27 in 1939. Named the "Bat-Man," the character is referred to by such epithets as the Caped Crusader, the Dark Knight, the World's Greatest Detective. Batman's secret identity is Bruce Wayne, a wealthy American playboy and owner of Wayne Enterprises. After witnessing the murder of his parents Dr. Thomas Wayne and Martha Wayne as a child, he swore vengeance against criminals, an oath tempered by a sense of justice. Bruce Wayne trains himself physically and intellectually and crafts a bat-inspired persona to fight crime. Batman operates in the fictional Gotham City with assistance from various supporting characters, including his butler Alfred, police commissioner Jim Gordon, vigilante allies such as Robin. Unlike most superheroes, Batman does not possess any inhuman superpowers, he does, possess a genius-level intellect, is a peerless martial artist, his vast wealth affords him an extraordinary arsenal of weaponry and equipment.
A large assortment of villains make up Batman's rogues gallery, including the Joker. The character became popular soon after his introduction in 1939 and gained his own comic book title, the following year; as the decades went on, differing interpretations of the character emerged. The late 1960s Batman television series used a camp aesthetic, which continued to be associated with the character for years after the show ended. Various creators worked to return the character to his dark roots, culminating in 1986 with The Dark Knight Returns by Frank Miller; the success of Warner Bros. Pictures' live-action Batman feature films have helped maintain the character's prominence in mainstream culture. Batman has been licensed and featured in various adaptations, from radio to television and film, appears in merchandise sold around the world, such as apparel and video games. Kevin Conroy, Rino Romano, Anthony Ruivivar, Peter Weller, Bruce Greenwood, Jason O'Mara, Will Arnett, among others, have provided the character's voice for animated adaptations.
Batman has been depicted in both film and television by Lewis Wilson, Robert Lowery, Adam West, Michael Keaton, Val Kilmer, George Clooney, Christian Bale, Ben Affleck. In early 1939, the success of Superman in Action Comics prompted editors at National Comics Publications to request more superheroes for its titles. In response, Bob Kane created "the Bat-Man". Collaborator Bill Finger recalled that "Kane had an idea for a character called'Batman,' and he'd like me to see the drawings. I went over to Kane's, he had drawn a character who looked much like Superman with kind of... reddish tights, I believe, with boots... no gloves, no gauntlets... with a small domino mask, swinging on a rope. He had two stiff wings, and under it was a big sign... BATMAN"; the bat-wing-like cape was suggested by Bob Kane, inspired as a child by Leonardo Da Vinci's sketch of an ornithopter flying device. Finger suggested giving the character a cowl instead of a simple domino mask, a cape instead of wings, gloves. Finger said he devised the name Bruce Wayne for the character's secret identity: "Bruce Wayne's first name came from Robert Bruce, the Scottish patriot.
Wayne, being a playboy, was a man of gentry. I searched for a name. I tried Adams, Hancock... I thought of Mad Anthony Wayne." He said his suggestions were influenced by Lee Falk's popular The Phantom, a syndicated newspaper comic-strip character with which Kane was familiar. Kane and Finger drew upon contemporary 1930s popular culture for inspiration regarding much of the Bat-Man's look, personality and weaponry. Details find predecessors in pulp fiction, comic strips, newspaper headlines, autobiographical details referring to Kane himself; as an aristocratic hero with a double identity, Batman had predecessors in the Scarlet Pimpernel and Zorro. Like them, Batman performed his heroic deeds in secret, averted suspicion by playing aloof in public, marked his work with a signature symbol. Kane noted the influence of the films The Mark of Zorro and The Bat Whispers in the creation of the character's iconography. Finger, drawing inspiration from pulp heroes like Doc Savage, The Shadow, Dick Tracy, Sherlock Holmes, made the character a master sleuth.
In his 1989 autobiography, Kane detailed Finger's contributions to Batman's creation: One day I called Bill and said,'I have a new character called the Bat-Man and I've made some crude, elementary sketches I'd like you to look at.' He came over and I showed him the drawings. At the time, I only had a small domino mask, like the one Robin wore, on Batman's face. Bill said,'Why not make him look more like a bat and put a hood on him, take the eyeballs out and just put slits for eyes to make him look more mysterious?' At this point, the Bat-Man wore a red union suit. I thought that black would be a good combination. Bill said that the costume was too bright:'Color it dark grey to make it look more ominous.' The cape looked like two stiff bat wings attached to his arms. As Bill and I talked, we realized that these wings would get cumbersome when Bat-Man was in action and changed them into a cape, scalloped to look like bat wings when he was fighting or swinging down on a rope, he didn't have any gloves on, we added them so that he wouldn't leave fingerprints.
Kane signed away ownership in
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
A cult following comprises a group of fans who are dedicated to a work of culture referred to as a cult classic. A film, musical artist, television series or video game, among other things, is said to have a cult following when it has a small but passionate fanbase. A common component of cult followings is the emotional attachment the fans have to the object of the cult following identifying themselves and other fans as members of a community. Cult followings are commonly associated with niche markets. Cult media are associated with underground culture, are considered too eccentric or subversive to be appreciated by the general public or to be commercially successful. Many cult fans express a certain irony about their devotion. Sometimes, these cult followings cross the border to camp followings. Fans may become involved in a subculture of fandom, either via conventions, online communities or through activities such as writing series-related fiction, costume creation, replica prop and model building, or creating their own audio or video productions from the formats and characters.
There is not always a clear difference between mainstream media. Series such as Star Trek, Star Wars, Doctor Who, Harry Potter, The Lord of the Rings, Game of Thrones, Rocky Horror, Ethel & Ernest, The Dark Knight, Mean Girls attract mass audiences but have core groups of fanatical followers. Professors Xavier Mendik and Ernest Mathijs, authors of 100 Cult Films, argue that the devoted following among these films make them cult classics. In many cases, films that have cult followings may have been financial flops during their theatrical box office run, received mixed or negative reviews by mainstream media, but still be considered a major success by small core groups or communities of fans devoted to such films; some cults are only popular within a certain subculture. The film Woodstock is loved within the hippie subculture, while Hocus Pocus holds cult status among American women born in the 1980s. Certain mainstream icons can become cult icons in a different context for certain people. Reefer Madness was intended to warn youth against the use of marijuana, but because of its ridiculous plot, overwhelming amount of factual errors and cheap look, it is now watched by audiences of marijuana-smokers and has gained a cult following.
Quentin Tarantino's films borrow stylistically from classic cult films, but are appreciated by a large audience, therefore lie somewhere between cult and mainstream. Certain cult phenomena can grow to such proportions. Many cancelled television series see new life in a fan following. One notable example is Arrested Development, cancelled after three seasons and, because of the large fanbase, returned for a 15-episode season, released on Netflix on May 26, 2013. Futurama is another notable series, put on permanent hiatus after its initial 72-episode run. Strong DVD sales and consistent ratings on Cartoon Network's Adult Swim block led to four direct-to-DVD films which, in turn, led to the revival of the series in 2010 on Comedy Central following Adult Swim's expiration of the broadcast rights. Space Ghost Coast to Coast had a cult following throughout its eleven season run on television, help pave the wave of other shows of similar style, which had cult followings Aqua Teen Hunger Force. Star Trek: The Original Series is notable in that it was cancelled after three seasons but gained a cult following through broadcast syndication and spawned a successful media franchise.
Another cancelled series that has attained cult status is the NBC teen dramedy Freaks and Geeks which had an 18-episode run. Another series, cancelled but gained a second life with cult status is the FOX teen medical dramedy Red Band Society which had a 13-episode run. Other examples include Firefly, Community, Joan of Arcadia, Twin Peaks, Veronica Mars, Pushing Daisies, Young Justice and The Adventures of Pete & Pete, which had short lives, yet achieved large fanbases. In a BBC review of Farscape episode "Throne for a Loss", Richard Manning said "Farscape is now a cult series because it's being shown out of sequence"; the episode in question was shown as the second episode, after the premiere. Series considered cult classics include the long-running BBC series Doctor Who, The Prisoner and the Australian soap opera Prisoner: Cell Block H; some video games attract cult followings, which can influence the design of video games. An example of a cult video game is Ico, an initial commercial flop which gained a large following for its unique gameplay and minimalist aesthetics, was noted as influencing the design of Brothers: A Tale of Two Sons and Rime, among other games.
Other games which have cult followings include EarthBound, a commercial flop that resulted in the creation of a "cottage industry" selling memorabilia to the EarthBound fandom, Yume Nikki, a surreal free-to-play Japanese horror game. Another game with a large cult following is Crash Twinsanity, considered by fans to be the best Crash Bandicoot game post-Naughty Dog era despite only average critic reviews. In particular, it is well known as the turning point in theming for the series. Sleeper hit Underground music Jancik, Wayn
The PlayStation VR, known by the codename Project Morpheus during development, is a virtual reality headset developed by Sony Computer Entertainment, released in October 2016. It was designed to be functional with the PlayStation 4 home video game console. In certain games and demos for the VR, the player wearing the headset acts separately from other players without the headset; the PlayStation VR system can output a picture to both the PlayStation VR headset and a television with the television either mirroring the picture displayed on the headset, or displaying a separate image for competitive or cooperative gameplay. PlayStation VR works with either the standard DualShock 4 controller or the PlayStation Move controllers; the PlayStation VR has a 5.7 inch OLED panel, with a display resolution of 1080p. The headset has a processor box which enables the Social Screen video output to the television, as well as process the 3D audio effect, uses a 3.5mm headphone jack. The headset has nine positional LEDs on its surface for the PlayStation Camera to track 360 degree head movement.
As of March 3, 2019, PlayStation VR has sold-through over 4.2 million units worldwide. Sony's interest in head-mounted technology dates back to the 1990s, its first commercial unit, the Glasstron, was released in 1997. One application of this technology was in the game MechWarrior 2, which permitted users of the Glasstron or Virtual I/O's iGlasses to adopt a visual perspective from inside the cockpit of the craft, using their own eyes as visual and seeing the battlefield through their craft's own cockpit. In early 2014, Sony Computer Entertainment research and development engineer Anton Mikhailov said his team had been working on Project Morpheus for more than three years. According to Mikhailov, the PlayStation 3 Move peripheral, itself revealed in June 2009, was designed with unspecified, future head-mounted technology in mind. "We specced it and built it to be a VR controller though VR wasn't a commodity. As engineers, we just said. At the time, we didn't have a consumer-grade project that we could work on, but it was designed with that vision in mind."
Shuhei Yoshida, the president of Sony's worldwide studios said the project started as "grassroots" activity among engineers and programmers, which came into focus in 2010 once the Move controller had been released. Sony went on record to say it is mandatory for all games to have no less than 60 frames per second at all times. Project Morpheus was first announced at The 2014 Game Developers Conference. Sony Computer Entertainment Worldwide Studios president Shuhei Yoshida introduced the device on March 18, 2014 and stated Project Morpheus was "the next innovation from PlayStation that will the future of games."On September 15, 2015, it was announced that Project Morpheus would be named PlayStation VR. In 2015, Sony acquired SoftKinetic, a tech startup whose focus includes visual depth-sensing gesture recognition, for an undisclosed amount. On October 13, 2016, Sony released the PlayStation VR with the price of $399 in the US, €399 in Europe, £349 in the UK, ¥44,980 in Japan; the prototype revealed at GDC'15 included an OLED 1920 × 1080 pixel display with an RGB subpixel matrix, is capable of displaying content at 120fps.
It features an FOV of 100°, 6DOF head-tracking, stereoscopic 3D, unwarped output to a TV, either for others to view what the headset wearer sees, or a separate display to compete against the headset user using a standard PS4 controller. In September 2015 it was revealed the headset would have three rendering modes for developers to choose from: native 90 Hz, native 120 Hz, a mode where gameplay running at 60 Hz would be displayed at 120 Hz using a motion interpolation technique called asynchronous reprojection; the interpolation would be achieved with little system resources and a small latency of under 18 milliseconds. The technique would be utilised in the native 120 Hz mode to ensure consistent framerate. According to a Sony representative the company expects the interpolated 120 Hz mode to be a popular choice for games. PlayStation VR games can send different perspectives to the television. Shuhei Yoshida, president of SCE Worldwide Studios, explained in regards to a demo by SCE Japan Studio, Monster Escape, that this ability allowed VR to become an asymmetric "social experience" citing the existing game Keep Talking and Nobody Explodes as another example of a VR-compatible game that emphasizes interaction.
In October 2017, Sony released the CUH-ZVR2 model of the PlayStation VR headset which included minor changes, like a slimmer, more streamlined connection cable with different connectors from the CUH-ZVR1 model, integrated stereo headphones. The newer Processor Unit supports HDR video pass through. In March 2016, Sony said there were 230 developers working on content for PSVR, with 50 titles available by the end of the year. Existing, non-VR games can be played within PlayStation VR via "Cinematic Mode", which renders the content on a simulated projection screen in a 3D space; the mode has three screen size options, ranging up to 226 inches in virtual size. PlayStation VR supports the display of 360-degree photos and video. Other features, such as Share Play and Live from PlayStation, are compatible within the headset. Prior to release, Sony predicted that interest in the headset would build over time, through word of mouth. PlayStation VR was first demonstrated on The Tonight Show Starring Jimmy Fallon, as a playable concept during E3 2014.
The device was featured at Sony's
What Did I Do To Deserve This, My Lord? 2
What Did I Do To Deserve This My Lord!? 2" in Japan) is a real-time strategy/god game for the PlayStation Portable, sequel to What Did I Do to Deserve This, My Lord?. The game was released in Japan in 2008, was announced for a North American release during Tokyo Game Show 2009; this release was delayed until May 4, 2010, due to NIS America changing the game's name from Holy Invasion Of Privacy, Badman! 2: Time to Tighten Up Security! to What Did I Do to Deserve This, My Lord!? 2 to avoid conflict with the Batman license.. The UMD release includes the first game; the gameplay is identical to the first game, with a few different additions and changes. These include'Mutation' and'The Overlord's Chamber', where you can grow monsters and observe their evolution. What Did I Do To Deserve This, My Lord!? 2 contains "4 times more stages, 3.3 times more monsters and 2.3 times more heroes" than the first game. Official website
A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software is executed. It may be the hardware or the operating system a web browser and associated application programming interfaces, or other underlying software, as long as the program code is executed with it. Computing platforms have different abstraction levels, including a computer architecture, an OS, or runtime libraries. A computing platform is the stage. A platform can be seen both as a constraint on the software development process, in that different platforms provide different functionality and restrictions. For example, an OS may be a platform that abstracts the underlying differences in hardware and provides a generic command for saving files or accessing the network. Platforms may include: Hardware alone, in the case of small embedded systems. Embedded systems can access hardware directly, without an OS. A browser in the case of web-based software; the browser itself runs on a hardware+OS platform, but this is not relevant to software running within the browser.
An application, such as a spreadsheet or word processor, which hosts software written in an application-specific scripting language, such as an Excel macro. This can be extended to writing fully-fledged applications with the Microsoft Office suite as a platform. Software frameworks. Cloud computing and Platform as a Service. Extending the idea of a software framework, these allow application developers to build software out of components that are hosted not by the developer, but by the provider, with internet communication linking them together; the social networking sites Twitter and Facebook are considered development platforms. A virtual machine such as the Java virtual machine or. NET CLR. Applications are compiled into a format similar to machine code, known as bytecode, executed by the VM. A virtualized version of a complete system, including virtualized hardware, OS, storage; these allow, for instance, a typical Windows program to run on. Some architectures have multiple layers, with each layer acting as a platform to the one above it.
In general, a component only has to be adapted to the layer beneath it. For instance, a Java program has to be written to use the Java virtual machine and associated libraries as a platform but does not have to be adapted to run for the Windows, Linux or Macintosh OS platforms. However, the JVM, the layer beneath the application, does have to be built separately for each OS. AmigaOS, AmigaOS 4 FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD IBM i Linux Microsoft Windows OpenVMS Classic Mac OS macOS OS/2 Solaris Tru64 UNIX VM QNX z/OS Android Bada BlackBerry OS Firefox OS iOS Embedded Linux Palm OS Symbian Tizen WebOS LuneOS Windows Mobile Windows Phone Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless Cocoa Cocoa Touch Common Language Infrastructure Mono. NET Framework Silverlight Flash AIR GNU Java platform Java ME Java SE Java EE JavaFX JavaFX Mobile LiveCode Microsoft XNA Mozilla Prism, XUL and XULRunner Open Web Platform Oracle Database Qt SAP NetWeaver Shockwave Smartface Universal Windows Platform Windows Runtime Vexi Ordered from more common types to less common types: Commodity computing platforms Wintel, that is, Intel x86 or compatible personal computer hardware with Windows operating system Macintosh, custom Apple Inc. hardware and Classic Mac OS and macOS operating systems 68k-based PowerPC-based, now migrated to x86 ARM architecture based mobile devices iPhone smartphones and iPad tablet computers devices running iOS from Apple Gumstix or Raspberry Pi full function miniature computers with Linux Newton devices running the Newton OS from Apple x86 with Unix-like systems such as Linux or BSD variants CP/M computers based on the S-100 bus, maybe the earliest microcomputer platform Video game consoles, any variety 3DO Interactive Multiplayer, licensed to manufacturers Apple Pippin, a multimedia player platform for video game console development RISC processor based machines running Unix variants SPARC architecture computers running Solaris or illumos operating systems DEC Alpha cluster running OpenVMS or Tru64 UNIX Midrange computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM OS/400 Mainframe computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM z/OS Supercomputer architectures Cross-platform Platform virtualization Third platform Ryan Sarver: What is a platform
North America is a continent within the Northern Hemisphere and all within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40,000 to 17,000 years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, their culture reflects Western traditions; the Americas are accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil, he explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam.
For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America. Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and... the can mean... a spirit that breathes, life itself." The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, The Caribbean.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English, North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico, the United States, Canada, although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. In France, Portugal, Romania and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America designate a subcontinent of the Americas comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Bermuda. North America has been referred to by other names. Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement.
Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie