In popular music, a cover version, cover song, revival, or cover, is a new performance or recording by someone other than the original artist or composer of a recorded, commercially released song. Before the onset of rock'n' roll in the 1950s, songs were published and several records of a song might be brought out by singers of the day, each giving it their individual treatment. Cover versions could be released as an effort to revive the song's popularity among younger generations of listeners after the popularity of the original version has long since declined over the years. On occasion, a cover can become more popular than the original, such as Elvis Presley's version of Carl Perkins' original "Blue Suede Shoes", Santana's 1970 version of Peter Green's and Fleetwood Mac's 1968 "Black Magic Woman", Johnny Cash's version of Nine Inch Nails' "Hurt", Whitney Houston's versions of Dolly Parton's "I Will Always Love You" and of George Benson's "The Greatest Love of All", Glenn Medeiros's version of George Benson's "Nothing's Gonna Change My Love for You" or Jimi Hendrix's version of Bob Dylan's "All Along the Watchtower".
The Hendrix recording, released six months after Dylan's original, became a Top 10 single in the UK in 1968 and was ranked 48th in Rolling Stone magazine's 500 Greatest Songs of All Time. Another famous example is the Beatles' cover of "Twist and Shout" by the Top Notes, their cover of the song, "Til There Was You", by Meredith Willson, among many others; the term "cover" goes back decades when cover version described a rival version of a tune recorded to compete with the released version. The Chicago Tribune described the term in 1952: "trade jargon meaning to record a tune that looks like a potential hit on someone else's label". Examples of records covered include Paul Williams' 1949 hit tune "The Hucklebuck" and Hank Williams' 1952 song "Jambalaya". Both had numerous hit versions. Before the mid-20th century, the notion of an original version of a popular tune would have seemed odd – the production of musical entertainment was seen as a live event if it was reproduced at home via a copy of the sheet music, learned by heart or captured on a gramophone record.
In fact, one of the principal objects of publishing sheet music was to have a composition performed by as many artists as possible. In previous generations, some artists made successful careers of presenting revivals or reworkings of once-popular tunes out of doing contemporary cover versions of current hits. Musicians now play what they call "cover versions" of songs as a tribute to the original performer or group. Using familiar material is an important method of learning music styles; until the mid-1960s most albums, or long playing records, contained a large number of evergreens or standards to present a fuller range of the artist's abilities and style. Artists might perform interpretations of a favorite artist's hit tunes for the simple pleasure of playing a familiar song or collection of tunes. A cover band plays such "cover versions" exclusively. Today three broad types of entertainers depend on cover versions for their principal repertoire: Tribute acts or bands are performers who make a living by recreating the music of one particular artist or band.
Bands such as Björn Again, Led Zepagain, The Fab Four, Australian Pink Floyd Show, The Iron Maidens and Glory Days are dedicated to playing the music of ABBA, Led Zeppelin, The Beatles, Pink Floyd, Iron Maiden and Bruce Springsteen respectively. Some tribute acts salute the Who, many other classic rock acts. Many tribute acts target artists who remain popular but no longer perform, allowing an audience to experience the "next best thing" to the original act; the formation of tribute acts is proportional to the enduring popularity of the original act. Many tribute bands attempt to recreate another band's music as faithfully as possible, but some such bands introduce a twist. Dread Zeppelin performs reggae versions of the Zeppelin catalog and Beatallica creates heavy metal fusions of songs by the Beatles and Metallica. There are situations in which a member of a tribute band will go on to greater success, sometimes with the original act they tribute. One notable example is Tim "Ripper" Owens who, once the lead singer of Judas Priest tribute band British Steel, went on to join Judas Priest himself.
Cover acts or bands are entertainers who perform a broad variety of crowd-pleasing cover songs for audiences who enjoy the familiarity of hit songs. Such bands draw from current Top 40 hits and/or those of previous decades to provide nostalgic entertainment in bars, on cruise ships and at such events as weddings, family celebrations and corporate functions. Since the advent of inexpensive computers, some cover bands use a computerized catalog of songs, so that the singer can have the lyrics to a song displayed on a computer screen; the use of a screen for lyrics as a memory aid can increase the number of songs a singer can perform. Revivalist artists or bands are performers who are inspired by an entire genre of music and dedicate themselves to curating and recreating the genre and introducing it to younger audiences who have not experienced that music first hand. Unlike tribute bands and cover bands who rely on audiences seeking a nostalgic experience, revivalist bands seek new young audiences for whom the music is fresh and has no nostalgic value.
For example, Sha Na Na
Showgirl: The Greatest Hits Tour
Showgirl: The Greatest Hits Tour was the eighth concert tour by Australian singer Kylie Minogue. The tour was launched in support of Ultimate Kylie. Beginning March 2005, over 30 concerts were performed in Europe. Performances in the United Kingdom grossed nearly $20 million and at the conclusion of 2005, it placed 46th on Pollstar's 2005 "Top 100 Worldwide Tours" having sold 339,105 tickets throughout the year. Minogue was scheduled to perform in Australia and Asia during the tour, but she was forced to cancel the tour when she was diagnosed with breast cancer, she resumed the tour – renamed Showgirl: The Homecoming Tour – on 11 November 2006, performing at the Sydney Entertainment Centre, with a revised set list and new costumes. On 24 October 2004, it was announced that Minogue would go on tour to promote her compilation album Ultimate Kylie. Minogue described the tour as "a celebration of pop songs and my career, but a long-term relationship with my audience"; the tour was set to visit both Australia and Asia in May and June 2005, with a further 35 shows scheduled for performance.
The shows in Australia were rescheduled for November in the following year under the new title of "Homecoming" and the Asian dates never came to fruition. Minogue was scheduled to be the first female to headline Glastonbury Festival since 1999 in June 2005 but was subsequently forced to withdraw. There were plans to record the show on Minogue's birthday at Melbourne's Rod Laver Arena but plans had to be cancelled after her breast cancer diagnosis; the show was released on DVD by using a recording at the Earls Court Exhibition Centre, meant to be used for UK TV broadcast only. The show was split into seven acts, being them Showgirl, Smiley Kylie, What Kylie Wants, Kylie Gets, Kyliesque, Minx in Space, with the addition of an encore; the show opens with an instrumental introduction that features writing on the video screen introducing Minogue. She rises out of the stage on a platform dressed in a blue showgirl outfit, she begins singing "Better the Devil You Know", followed by performances of "In Your Eyes" and "Giving You Up".
Minogue performs "On a Night Like This", which begins in the style of a ballad, before resuming with the original after the first chorus. The ending is in the same style as the beginning of the song, where Minogue is taken below the stage, closing the section; the second section begins with a dance interlude, that uses excerpts of "Shocked" and "Do You Dare?", before Minogue rises out of the centre of the stage as the DNA intro of "Shocked" is heard. She sings up to the middle eight, before a short segue is played using excerpts of "It's No Secret", "Keep on Pumpin' It", "Give Me Just a Little More Time" and "What Kind of Fool", which leads into a two-verse-two-chorus performance of "What Do I Have to Do", succeeded by another segue using an excerpt of "Over Dreaming" and a performance of "Spinning Around", followed by a dance interlude after the middle eight using excerpts of "Step Back in Time" and "Such a Good Feeling"; the third section begins with a virtual duet with Neil Tennant. This is followed by a performance of "Je Ne Sais Pas Pourquoi", before Minogue closes the act with a performance of "Confide in Me".
The fourth act begins with a spraying sound effect during which fake showers and gym equipment rises onto the stage, before Minogue appears on a box singing "Red Blooded Woman" which features a chorus of "Where the Wild Roses Grow" before the middle eight. Minogue performs "Slow", followed by a small flamenco interlude which precedes a performance of "Please Stay"; the fifth section begins with a cover of "Somewhere Over the Rainbow" where Minogue rises from behind the stage on a sequined moon. This is followed by a torch version of "Come into My World". Minogue performs "Chocolate" on the stage, which morphs at the end of the catwalk to form a "cake", from which Minogue performs "I Believe in You"; the act closes with a performance of "Dreams". The sixth section opens with a performance of "Hand on Your Heart", where Minogue emerges on stage in front of a big heart, she goes on to perform a jazz version of "The Locomotion", followed by a performance of "I Should Be So Lucky". Minogue closes the act with a performance of "Your Disco Needs You".
The penultimate section opens with a performance version of "Put Yourself in My Place", a performance of "Can't Get You Out of My Head" closes the main body of the show. Minogue performed a two-song encore, talking to the audience before performing a sing-a-long version of "Especially for You", with the audience invited to sing Jason Donovan's part. Minogue closed the show with a performance of "Love at First Sight", with a video montage of her career shown on the video screens behind her. Melody Club Act 1: Showgirl "Overture" "Better the Devil You Know" "In Your Eyes" "Giving You Up" "On a Night Like This"Act 2: Smiley Kylie "Shocked" "What Do I Have to Do" "Spinning Around" Act 3: Denial "In Denial" (virtual duet with Neil T
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
A phonograph record is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove. The groove starts near the periphery and ends near the center of the disc. At first, the discs were made from shellac. In recent decades, records have sometimes been called vinyl records, or vinyl; the phonograph disc record was the primary medium used for music reproduction throughout the 20th century. It had co-existed with the phonograph cylinder from the late 1880s and had superseded it by around 1912. Records retained the largest market share when new formats such as the compact cassette were mass-marketed. By the 1980s, digital media, in the form of the compact disc, had gained a larger market share, the vinyl record left the mainstream in 1991. Since the 1990s, records continue to be manufactured and sold on a smaller scale, are used by disc jockeys and released by artists in dance music genres, listened to by a growing niche market of audiophiles; the phonograph record has made a notable niche resurgence in the early 21st century – 9.2 million records were sold in the U.
S. in 2014, a 260% increase since 2009. In the UK sales have increased five-fold from 2009 to 2014; as of 2017, 48 record pressing facilities remain worldwide, 18 in the United States and 30 in other countries. The increased popularity of vinyl has led to the investment in new and modern record-pressing machines. Only two producers of lacquers remain: Apollo Masters in California, MDC in Japan. Phonograph records are described by their diameter in inches, the rotational speed in revolutions per minute at which they are played, their time capacity, determined by their diameter and speed. Vinyl records may be scratched or warped if stored incorrectly but if they are not exposed to high heat, carelessly handled or broken, a vinyl record has the potential to last for centuries; the large cover are valued by collectors and artists for the space given for visual expression when it comes to the long play vinyl LP. The phonautograph, patented by Léon Scott in 1857, used a vibrating diaphragm and stylus to graphically record sound waves as tracings on sheets of paper, purely for visual analysis and without any intent of playing them back.
In the 2000s, these tracings were first scanned by audio engineers and digitally converted into audible sound. Phonautograms of singing and speech made by Scott in 1860 were played back as sound for the first time in 2008. Along with a tuning fork tone and unintelligible snippets recorded as early as 1857, these are the earliest known recordings of sound. In 1877, Thomas Edison invented the phonograph. Unlike the phonautograph, it could both record and reproduce sound. Despite the similarity of name, there is no documentary evidence that Edison's phonograph was based on Scott's phonautograph. Edison first tried recording sound on a wax-impregnated paper tape, with the idea of creating a "telephone repeater" analogous to the telegraph repeater he had been working on. Although the visible results made him confident that sound could be physically recorded and reproduced, his notes do not indicate that he reproduced sound before his first experiment in which he used tinfoil as a recording medium several months later.
The tinfoil was wrapped around a grooved metal cylinder and a sound-vibrated stylus indented the tinfoil while the cylinder was rotated. The recording could be played back immediately; the Scientific American article that introduced the tinfoil phonograph to the public mentioned Marey and Barlow as well as Scott as creators of devices for recording but not reproducing sound. Edison invented variations of the phonograph that used tape and disc formats. Numerous applications for the phonograph were envisioned, but although it enjoyed a brief vogue as a startling novelty at public demonstrations, the tinfoil phonograph proved too crude to be put to any practical use. A decade Edison developed a improved phonograph that used a hollow wax cylinder instead of a foil sheet; this proved to be both a better-sounding and far more useful and durable device. The wax phonograph cylinder created the recorded sound market at the end of the 1880s and dominated it through the early years of the 20th century. Lateral-cut disc records were developed in the United States by Emile Berliner, who named his system the "gramophone", distinguishing it from Edison's wax cylinder "phonograph" and American Graphophone's wax cylinder "graphophone".
Berliner's earliest discs, first marketed in 1889, only in Europe, were 12.5 cm in diameter, were played with a small hand-propelled machine. Both the records and the machine were adequate only for use as a toy or curiosity, due to the limited sound quality. In the United States in 1894, under the Berliner Gramophone trademark, Berliner started marketing records of 7 inches diameter with somewhat more substantial entertainment value, along with somewhat more substantial gramophones to play them. Berliner's records had poor sound quality compared to wax cylinders, but his manufacturing associate Eldridge R. Johnson improved it. Abandoning Berliner's "Gramophone" tradem
Showgirl: The Homecoming Tour
Showgirl: The Homecoming Tour was the ninth concert tour by Australian singer Kylie Minogue. Minogue was scheduled to perform in Australia and Asia during Showgirl: The Greatest Hits Tour in 2005, but she was forced to cancel the tour when she was diagnosed with breast cancer. Minogue resumed the tour on 11 November 2006, performing at the Sydney Entertainment Centre, with a new set list and costumes; the dance routines from Showgirl: The Homecoming Tour were reworked to accommodate her medical condition and longer breaks were introduced between sections of the show to conserve her strength. For the Homecoming Tour, the show was re-structured into a new production; the tour started as an Australian-only tour, to compensate those shows cancelled from the previous tour. The show was split into seven acts, being them Homecoming, Everything Taboo, Athletica, Pop Paradiso, Dance of the Cybermen, with the addition of an encore; the show opens with an instrumental introduction, that features writing on the video screen introducing Minogue.
She rises out of the stage on a platform dressed in a pink showgirl outfit. She opens the show with "Better the Devil You Know", followed by a performance of "In Your Eyes". After addressing the audience, Minogue introduced and sang new song "White Diamond". Minogue performed "On a Night Like This", which begins in the style of a ballad, before resuming with the original after the first chorus; the ending is in the same style as the beginning of the song, where Minogue is taken below the stage, closing the section. The second section begins with a dance interlude, that uses excerpts of "Shocked" and "Do You Dare?", before Minogue rises out of the centre of the stage as the DNA intro of "Shocked" is heard. She sings up to the middle eight, before a short segue is played using excerpts of "It's No Secret", "Keep on Pumpin' It", "Give Me Just a Little More Time" and "What Kind of Fool", which leads into a one-verse-one-chorus performance of "What Do I Have to Do", followed by another segue using an excerpt of "Over Dreaming" and a performance of "Spinning Around", followed by a dance interlude after the middle eight using excerpts of "Step Back in Time" and "Such a Good Feeling".
The third section begins with a dance interlude dubbed the "Temple Prequel", followed by a performance of "Confide in Me", where the dancers treat Minogue as if she were a puppet. This is followed by a performance of "Cowboy Style", followed by a small interlude of "Finer Feelings", where the backing vocalists sing whilst Minogue performs a dance; the fourth act begins with a dance interlude of the Sandstorm Dub of "Butterfly", where acrobat Terry Kvasnik dances round the stage. Minogue performed "Slow", followed by a performance of "Kids"; the fifth section begins with a cover of "Somewhere Over the Rainbow" where Minogue rises from behind the stage on a sequined moon. This is followed by a torch version of "Come into My World". Minogue performed a shortened version "Chocolate" on the stage, which morphs at the end of the catwalk to form a "cake", from which Minogue performs "I Believe in You"; the act closes with a performance of "Dreams". The next act opens with an interlude of Minogue's song "Burning Up", mashed with Madonna's "Vogue".
She goes on to perform a jazz version of "The Locomotion", followed by a performance of "I Should Be So Lucky", which samples "The Only Way Is Up". Minogue closed the section with a remix of "Hand on Your Heart"; the penultimate section opens with a remix of "Can't Get You Out of My Head", leading into the countdown of "Light Years". Minogue performed a two-song encore, performing a sing-a-long version of "Especially for You", inviting the audience to sing Jason Donovan's part. Minogue closed the show with a performance of "Love at First Sight". with a video montage of her career shown on the video screens behind her. Showgirl: The Homecoming Tour received positive reviews from critics. Christine Sams in a review for The Sydney Morning Herald described the show as an "extravaganza" and wrote that it was "nothing less than a triumph"; the Age's Patrick Donovan wrote that Minogue "looked fit and healthy and was in good voice". He wrote that she was "at her best prowling the stage in a catsuit, playing up to the crowd".
CBBC Newsround described the tour as the "perfect comeback" due to its "range of songs, excellent dancers, stage lighting and Kylie's love of performing". Minogue's performance in Melbourne, Australia on 11 December 2006 was filmed for television and DVD release; the concert premiered on 13 January 2007 in the United Kingdom on Channel 4. On 4 March 2007, the Australian Broadcasting Corporation broadcast the performance without commercial interruptions; the concert was released to DVD on 10 December 2007 as a double disc set with Minogue's documentary film White Diamond. Minogue's second Australian concert in Sydney on 12 November 2006 was recorded and released as a live album in January 2007. Showgirl Homecoming Live featured a guest appearance by U2 lead singer Bono on the song "Kids"; the album was certified silver. Act 1: Homecoming "Showgirl Theme" "Better the
Music journalism is media criticism and reporting about music topics, including popular music, classical music and traditional music. Journalists began writing about music in the eighteenth century, providing commentary on what is now regarded as classical music. In the 1960s, music journalism began more prominently covering popular music like rock and pop after the breakthrough of The Beatles. With the rise of the internet in the 2000s, music criticism developed an large online presence with music bloggers, aspiring music critics, established critics supplementing print media online. Music journalism today includes reviews of songs and live concerts, profiles of recording artists, reporting of artist news and music events. Music journalism has its roots in classical music criticism, which has traditionally comprised the study, discussion and interpretation of music, composed and notated in a score and the evaluation of the performance of classical songs and pieces, such as symphonies and concertos.
Before about the 1840s, reporting on music was either done by musical journals, such as the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung and the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik, in London journals such as The Musical Times. An influential English 19th-century music critic, for example, was James William Davison of The Times; the composer Hector Berlioz wrote reviews and criticisms for the Paris press of the 1830s and 1840s. Modern art music journalism is informed by music theory consideration of the many diverse elements of a musical piece or performance, including its form and style, for performance, standards of technique and expression; these standards were expressed, for example, in journals such as Neue Zeitschrift für Musik founded by Robert Schumann, are continued today in the columns of serious newspapers and journals such as The Musical Times. Several factors—including growth of education, the influence of the Romantic movement and in music, among others—led to an increasing interest in music among non-specialist journals, an increase in the number of critics by profession of varying degrees of competence and integrity.
The 1840s could be considered a turning point, in that music critics after the 1840s were not practicing musicians. However, counterexamples include Alfred Brendel, Charles Rosen, Paul Hindemith, Ernst Krenek. In the early 1980s, a decline in the quantity of classical criticism began occurring "when classical-music criticism visibly started to disappear" from the media. At that time, magazines such as Time and Vanity Fair employed classical music critics, but by the early 1990s, classical critics were dropped in many magazines, in part due to "a decline of interest in classical music among younger people". Of concern in classical music journalism was how American reviewers can write about ethnic and folk music from cultures other than their own, such as Indian ragas and traditional Japanese works. In 1990, the World Music Institute interviewed four New York Times music critics who came up with the following criteria on how to approach ethnic music: A review should relate the music to other kinds of music that readers know, to help them understand better what the program was about.
"The performers be treated as human beings and their music be treated as human activity rather than a mystical or mysterious phenomenon." The review should show an understanding of the music's cultural intentions. A key finding in a 2005 study of arts journalism in America was that the profile of the "average classical music critic is a white, 52-year old male, with a graduate degree". Demographics indicated that the group was 74% male, 92% white, 64% had earned a graduate degree. One critic of the study pointed out that because all newspapers were included, including low-circulation regional papers, the female representation of 26% misrepresented the actual scarcity, in that the "large US papers, which are the ones that influence public opinion, have no women classical music critics", with the notable exceptions of Anne Midgette in the New York Times and Wynne Delacoma in the Chicago Sun-Times. In 2007, The New York Times wrote that classical music criticism, which it characterized as "a high-minded endeavor, around at least as long as newspapers", had undergone "a series of hits in recent months" with the elimination, downgrading, or redefinition of critics' jobs at newspapers in Atlanta and elsewhere, citing New York magazine's Peter G. Davis, "one of the most respected voices of the craft, said he had been forced out after 26 years".
Viewing "robust analysis and reportage as vital to the health of the art form", The New York Times stated in 2007 that it continued to maintain "a staff of three full-time classical music critics and three freelancers", noting that classical music criticism had become available on blogs, that a number of other major newspapers "still have full-time classical music critics", including the Los Angeles Times, The Washington Post, The Baltimore Sun, The Philadelphia Inquirer, The Boston Globe. Music writers only started "treating pop and rock music seriously" in 1964 "after the breakthrough of the Beatles". In their
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro