Moneyball: The Art of Winning an Unfair Game is a book by Michael Lewis, published in 2003, about the Oakland Athletics baseball team and its general manager Billy Beane. Its focus is the team's analytical, evidence-based, sabermetric approach to assembling a competitive baseball team despite Oakland's small budget. A film based on the book, starring Brad Pitt and Jonah Hill, was released in 2011; the central premise of Moneyball is that the collective wisdom of baseball insiders over the past century is subjective and flawed. Statistics such as stolen bases, runs batted in, batting average used to gauge players, are relics of a 19th-century view of the game and the statistics available at that time. Before sabermetrics was introduced to baseball, teams were dependent on the skills of their scouts to find and evaluate players. Scouts are experienced in the sport having been players or coaches; the book argues that the Oakland A's' front office took advantage of more analytical gauges of player performance to field a team that could better compete against richer competitors in Major League Baseball.
Rigorous statistical analysis had demonstrated that on-base percentage and slugging percentage are better indicators of offensive success, the A's became convinced that these qualities were cheaper to obtain on the open market than more valued qualities such as speed and contact. These observations flew in the face of conventional baseball wisdom and the beliefs of many baseball scouts and executives. By re-evaluating their strategy in this way, the 2002 Athletics, with $44 million in salary, were competitive with larger market teams such as the New York Yankees, who spent over $125 million in payroll that season; because of its smaller budget, Oakland had to find players undervalued by the market, their system has proven itself thus far. The approach brought the A's to the playoffs in 2002 and 2003. Lewis explored several themes in the book, such as insiders vs. outsiders, the democratization of information causing a flattening of hierarchies, "the ruthless drive for efficiency that capitalism demands".
The book touches on Oakland's underlying economic need to stay ahead of the curve. Moneyball touches on the A's' methods of prospect selection. Sabermetricians argue that a college baseball player's chance of MLB success is much higher than a traditional high school draft pick. Beane maintains that high draft picks spent on high school prospects, regardless of talent or physical potential as evaluated by traditional scouting, are riskier than those spent on more polished college players. Lewis cites A's minor leaguer Jeremy Bonderman, drafted out of high school in 2001 over Beane's objections, as an example of the type of draft pick Beane would avoid. Bonderman had all of the traditional "tools" that scouts look for, but thousands of such players have been signed by MLB organizations out of high school over the years and failed to develop. Lewis explores the A's approach to the 2002 MLB draft; the book documents Beane's tense discussions with his scouting staff in preparation for the draft to the actual draft, which defied all expectations and was considered at the time a wildly successful effort by Beane.
Moneyball traces the history of the sabermetric movement back to such people as Bill James and Craig R. Wright. Lewis explores how James's seminal Baseball Abstract, published annually from the late 1970s through the late 1980s, influenced many of the young, up-and-coming baseball minds that are now joining the ranks of baseball management. Moneyball has entered baseball's lexicon. Baseball traditionalists, in particular some scouts and media members, decry the sabermetric revolution and have disparaged Moneyball for emphasizing sabermetrics over more traditional methods of player evaluation. Moneyball changed the way many major league front offices do business. In its wake, teams such as the New York Mets, New York Yankees, San Diego Padres, St. Louis Cardinals, Boston Red Sox, Washington Nationals, Arizona Diamondbacks, Cleveland Indians, the Toronto Blue Jays have hired full-time sabermetric analysts; when the Mets hired Sandy Alderson – Beane's predecessor and mentor with the A's – as their general manager after the 2010 season, hired Beane's former associates Paul DePodesta and J.
P. Ricciardi to the front office, the team was jokingly referred to as the "Moneyball Mets". Like the Oakland A's in the 1990s, the Mets have been directed by their ownership to slash payroll. Under Alderson's tenure, the team payroll dropped below $100 million per year from 2012 to 2014, the Mets reached the 2015 World Series. Lewis has acknowledged that the book's success may have hurt the Athletics' fortunes as other teams accepted sabermetrics, reducing Oakland's edge. Daryl Morey's own unorthodox approaches in the NBA have been called "Moreyball". Since the book's publication and success, Lewis has discussed plans for a sequel to Moneyball called Underdogs, revisiting the players and their relative success several years into their careers, although only four players from the 2002 draft played much at
George William James is an American baseball writer and statistician whose work has been influential. Since 1977, James has written more than two dozen books devoted to baseball history and statistics, his approach, which he termed sabermetrics in reference to the Society for American Baseball Research, scientifically analyzes and studies baseball through the use of statistical data, in an attempt to determine why teams win and lose. In 2006, Time named him in the Time 100 as one of the most influential people in the world, he is a senior advisor on Baseball Operations for the Boston Red Sox. James was born in Kansas, his father was a handyman. After four years at the University of Kansas residing at Stephenson Scholarship hall, James joined the Army in 1971, he was the last person in Kansas to be sent to fight in the Vietnam War, although he never saw action there. Instead, he spent two years stationed in South Korea, during which time he wrote to KU about taking his final class, he was told he had met all his graduation requirements, so he returned to Lawrence in 1973 with degrees in English and economics.
He finished an Education degree in 1975 from the University of Kansas. An aspiring writer and obsessive fan, James began writing baseball articles after leaving the United States Army in his mid-twenties. Many of his first baseball writings came while he was doing night shifts as a security guard at the Stokely-Van Camp's pork and beans cannery. Unlike most writers, his pieces did not recount games in epic terms or offer insights gleaned from interviews with players. A typical James piece posed a question, presented data and analysis written in a lively and witty style that offered an answer. Editors considered James's pieces so unusual. In an effort to reach a wider audience, James began self-publishing an annual book titled The Bill James Baseball Abstract beginning in 1977; the first edition, titled 1977 Baseball Abstract: Featuring 18 categories of statistical information that you just can't find anywhere else, presented 68 pages of in-depth statistics compiled from James's study of box scores from the preceding season and was offered for sale through a small advertisement in The Sporting News.
Seventy-five people purchased the booklet. The 1978 edition, subtitled The 2nd annual edition of baseball's most informative and imaginative review, sold 250 copies. Beginning in 1979, James wrote an annual preview of the baseball season for Esquire, continued to do so through 1984; the first three editions of the Baseball Abstract garnered respect for James's work, including a favorable review by Daniel Okrent in Sports Illustrated. New annual editions added essays on players. By 1982 sales had increased tenfold, a media conglomerate agreed to publish and distribute future editions. While writers had published books about baseball statistics before, few had reached a mass audience. Attempts to imitate James's work spawned a flood of articles that continues to this day. In 1988, James ceased writing the Abstract, citing workload-related burnout and concern about the volume of statistics on the market, he has continued to publish hardcover books about baseball history, which have sold well and received admiring reviews.
These books include three editions of The Bill James Historical Baseball Abstract James has written several series of new annuals: The Baseball Book was a loosely organized collection of commentary, historical articles, occasional pieces of research. James' assistant Rob Neyer was responsible for much of the research, wrote several short pieces. Neyer went on to become a featured baseball columnist at SB Nation; the Player Ratings Book offered statistics and 50-word profiles aimed at the fantasy baseball enthusiast. The Bill James Handbook provides past-season statistics and next-season projections for Major League players and teams, career data for all current Major League players. Results for the Fielding Bible Awards, an alternative to the Gold Glove Awards voted on by a 10-person panel that includes James, are included; the Bill James Gold Mine was a collection of new essays and never-before-seen statistics, as well as profiles of players and teams. Playing off the name of the earlier series, Solid Fool's Gold: Detours on the Way to Conventional Wisdom was a mixed collection of both baseball-related and miscellaneous pieces, culled from the Bill James Online archives.
In 2008, James launched Bill James Online. Subscribers can read James's new, original writing and interact with one another —- as well as with James —- in a question-and-answer format; the web site offers new "profiles" of teams and players full of facts and statistics that hope to one day map what James has termed "the lost island of baseball statistics." In an essay published in the 1984 Abstract, James vented his frustration about Major League Baseball's refusal to publish play-by-play accounts of every game. James proposed the creation of Project Scoresheet, a network of fans that would work together to collect and distribute this information. While the resulting non-profit organization never functioned smoothly, it worked well enough to collect accounts of every game from 1984 through 1991. James's publisher agreed to distribute two annuals of essays and data – the 1987 and 1988 editions of Bill James Presents
National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum
The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum is an American history museum and hall of fame, located in Cooperstown, New York, operated by private interests. It serves as the central point for the study of the history of baseball in the United States and beyond, displays baseball-related artifacts and exhibits, honors those who have excelled in playing and serving the sport; the Hall's motto is "Preserving History, Honoring Excellence, Connecting Generations." The word Cooperstown is used as shorthand for the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum to Canton for the Pro Football Hall of Fame in Canton, Ohio. The Hall of Fame was established in 1939 by the owner of a local hotel. Clark had sought to bring tourists to a city hurt by the Great Depression, which reduced the local tourist trade, Prohibition, which devastated the local hops industry. A new building was constructed, the Hall of Fame was dedicated on June 12, 1939; the erroneous claim that Civil War hero Abner Doubleday invented baseball in Cooperstown was instrumental in the early marketing of the Hall.
An expanded library and research facility opened in 1994. Dale Petroskey became the organization's president in 1999. In 2002, the Hall launched Baseball As America, a traveling exhibit that toured ten American museums over six years; the Hall of Fame has since sponsored educational programming on the Internet to bring the Hall of Fame to schoolchildren who might not visit. The Hall and Museum completed a series of renovations in spring 2005; the Hall of Fame presents an annual exhibit at FanFest at the Major League Baseball All-Star Game. Jeff Idelson replaced Petroskey as president on April 16, 2008, he had been acting as president since March 25, 2008, when Petroskey was forced to resign for having "failed to exercise proper fiduciary responsibility" and making "judgments that were not in the best interest of the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum." Among baseball fans, "Hall of Fame" means not only the museum and facility in Cooperstown, New York, but the pantheon of players, umpires and pioneers who have been enshrined in the Hall.
The first five men elected were Ty Cobb, Babe Ruth, Honus Wagner, Christy Mathewson and Walter Johnson, chosen in 1936. As of January 2018, 323 people had been elected to the Hall of Fame, including 226 former Major League Baseball players, 35 Negro league baseball players and executives, 22 managers, 10 umpires, 30 pioneers and organizers. 114 members of the Hall of Fame have been inducted posthumously, including four who died after their selection was announced. Of the 35 Negro league members, 29 were inducted posthumously, including all 24 selected since the 1990s; the Hall of Fame includes Effa Manley. The newest members elected on January 22, 2019, are players Edgar Martínez, Roy Halladay, Mike Mussina and Mariano Rivera, with Rivera becoming the first player to be elected unanimously. Players are inducted into the Hall of Fame through election by either the Baseball Writers' Association of America, or the Veterans Committee, which now consists of four subcommittees, each of which considers and votes for candidates from a separate era of baseball.
Five years after retirement, any player with 10 years of major league experience who passes a screening committee is eligible to be elected by BBWAA members with 10 years' membership or more who have been covering MLB at any time in the 10 years preceding the election. From a final ballot including 25–40 candidates, each writer may vote for up to 10 players. Any player named on 75% or more of all ballots cast is elected. A player, named on fewer than 5% of ballots is dropped from future elections. In some instances, the screening committee had restored their names to ballots, but in the mid-1990s, dropped players were made permanently ineligible for Hall of Fame consideration by the Veterans Committee. A 2001 change in the election procedures restored. Players receiving 5% or more of the votes but fewer than 75% are reconsidered annually until a maximum of ten years of eligibility. Under special circumstances, certain players may be deemed eligible for induction though they have not met all requirements.
Addie Joss was elected despite only playing nine seasons before he died of meningitis. Additionally, if an otherwise eligible player dies before his fifth year of retirement that player may be placed on the ballot at the first election at least six months after his death. Roberto Clemente's induction in 1973 set the precedent when the writers chose to put him up for consideration after his death on New Year's Eve, 1972; the five-year waiting period was established in 1954 after an evolutionary process. In 1936 all players were eligible, including active ones. From the 1937 election until the 1945 election, there was no waiting period, so any retired player was eligible, but writers were discouraged from voting for current major leaguers. Since there was no formal rule preventing a writer from casting a ballot for an active player, the scribes did not always comply with the informal guideline.
The Veterans Committee is the popular name of various committees of the National Baseball Hall of Fame that elect participants other than retired players. It referenced the National Baseball Hall of Fame Committee to Consider Managers, Umpires and Long-Retired Players. S. Baseball Hall of Fame that provided an opportunity for Hall of Fame enshrinement to all individuals who are eligible for induction but ineligible for consideration by the Baseball Writers' Association of America; the term "Veterans Committee" is taken from the body's former official name: National Baseball Hall of Fame Committee on Baseball Veterans. In July 2010, the Veterans Committee name was changed by the Hall of Fame Board of Directors and its name was no longer used by the Hall of Fame, which called three new 16-member voting committees by era: the Expansion Era Committee, the Golden Era Committee, the Pre-Integration Era Committee – each, "The Committee"; the three committees met on a rotating cycle once every three years to elect candidates from each era to the Hall of Fame that have been "identified" by a BBWAA-appointed "Screening Committee" named the "Historical Overview Committee".
Beginning in 2010, 2011, 2012, the three separate era committees had been responsible for considering a total of thirty-two candidates from three eras in the following categories: Managers, umpires and long-retired players. In July 2016, the Hall of Fame announced a restructuring of the timeframes to be considered, with a much greater emphasis on modern eras: Today's Game, Modern Baseball, Golden Days, Early Baseball; those major league players, managers and executives who excelled before 1950, as well Negro Leagues stars, will still have an opportunity to have their careers reviewed, but with less frequency. The Veterans Committee can be traced back to 1939 when Commissioner Landis formed the Old-Timers Committee to put players from the 19th century in the Hall of Fame. In 1939, the committee selected five players. In 1944, after Landis' death, they put him in the Hall. After Landis, they put twenty-three additional players in the Hall. In 1953, the Veterans Committee met for the first time under the name Committee on Baseball Veterans.
With eleven members, they elected six players in their first vote in 1953. Starting in 1955, they would meet to elect up to two players in odd-numbered years. In 1962, they went back to annual elections to the Hall of Fame, with the continued mandate to elect up to two players a year; the Hall of Fame suffered in the 1970s. The old Hall of Famer, backed by former teammate Bill Terry and sportswriters J. Roy Stockton and Fred Lieb, who covered Frisch's teams, managed to get five of his teammates elected to the Hall by the committee. Additionally, in the three years after his death, two more teammates were elected. After Frisch died and Terry left the Committee, elections were normalized. In 1978, membership increased to fifteen members, five Hall of Famers, five owners and executives, five sportswriters; the members would meet in Florida during spring training to elect two every year. The Veterans Committee mandate of up to two players was increased from 1995 to 2001. In these years, the committee could elect one extra player from the Negro leagues and one from the 19th century in addition to the two regular players.
During much of its existence, the Veterans Committee consisted of fifteen members selected by the Hall of Fame for defined terms. A six-man subcommittee of this group met as a screening committee to determine who would be on the ballot; the committee met annually to consider candidates in four separate categories: Players Managers Umpires ExecutivesThe Veterans Committee met and its ballots and voting results were not revealed prior to 2003. From the mid-1970s until 2001, the top candidate in each category was elected to the Hall of Fame if he earned at least 75% of the committee's votes. In 1936, a total of 78 ballots were cast by players, writers and officials who had first-hand familiarity with 19th-century baseball, resulting in 371 individual votes for 57 specific candidates. No candidates were elected because of a great deal of confusion regarding the voting procedure; the ballots which were issued in this vote featured a list of suggested candidates, amended after complaints that Ed Delahanty, Willie Keeler and Cy Young should be on this ballot as well as that for the 20th century.
Many voters were under the impression that they were to select an "All-Star team" of ten players, with one at each position. The results were delayed for several days until early February while these reminders and revisions took place, it was further decided, during the tabulations and after the voting, that voters would each be restricted to five total votes in order to limit the initial 19th-century selections to five players.
George Herman "Babe" Ruth Jr. was an American professional baseball player whose career in Major League Baseball spanned 22 seasons, from 1914 through 1935. Nicknamed "The Bambino" and "The Sultan of Swat", he began his MLB career as a stellar left-handed pitcher for the Boston Red Sox, but achieved his greatest fame as a slugging outfielder for the New York Yankees. Ruth established many MLB batting records, including career home runs, runs batted in, bases on balls, slugging percentage, on-base plus slugging. Ruth is regarded as one of the greatest sports heroes in American culture and is considered by many to be the greatest baseball player of all time. In 1936, Ruth was elected into the Baseball Hall of Fame as one of its "first five" inaugural members. At age 7, Ruth was sent to St. Mary's Industrial School for Boys, a reformatory where he learned life lessons and baseball skills from Brother Matthias Boutlier of the Xaverian Brothers, the school's disciplinarian and a capable baseball player.
In 1914, Ruth was signed to play minor-league baseball for the Baltimore Orioles but was soon sold to the Red Sox. By 1916, he had built a reputation as an outstanding pitcher who sometimes hit long home runs, a feat unusual for any player in the pre-1920 dead-ball era. Although Ruth twice won 23 games in a season as a pitcher and was a member of three World Series championship teams with the Red Sox, he wanted to play every day and was allowed to convert to an outfielder. With regular playing time, he broke the MLB single-season home run record in 1919. After that season, Red Sox owner Harry Frazee sold Ruth to the Yankees amid controversy; the trade fueled Boston's subsequent 86 year championship drought and popularized the "Curse of the Bambino" superstition. In his 15 years with the Yankees, Ruth helped the team win seven American League pennants and four World Series championships, his big swing led to escalating home run totals that not only drew fans to the ballpark and boosted the sport's popularity but helped usher in baseball's live-ball era, which evolved from a low-scoring game of strategy to a sport where the home run was a major factor.
As part of the Yankees' vaunted "Murderers' Row" lineup of 1927, Ruth hit 60 home runs, which extended his MLB single-season record by a single home run. Ruth's last season with the Yankees was 1934. During his career, Ruth led the AL in home runs during a season 12 times. Ruth's legendary power and charismatic personality made him a larger-than-life figure during the Roaring Twenties. During his career, he was the target of intense press and public attention for his baseball exploits and off-field penchants for drinking and womanizing, his reckless lifestyle was tempered by his willingness to do good by visiting children at hospitals and orphanages. After his retirement as a player, he was denied the opportunity to manage a major league club, most due to poor behavior during parts of his playing career. In his final years, Ruth made many public appearances in support of American efforts in World War II. In 1946, he died from it two years later. Ruth remains a part of American culture and in 2018, President Donald Trump posthumously awarded him the Presidential Medal of Freedom.
George Herman Ruth Jr. was born in 1895 at 216 Emory Street in the Pigtown section of Baltimore, Maryland. Ruth's parents and George Herman Ruth Sr. were both of German ancestry. According to the 1880 census, his parents were born in Maryland, his paternal grandparents were from Hanover. Ruth Sr. worked a series of jobs that included streetcar operator. The elder Ruth became a counterman in a family-owned combination grocery and saloon business on Frederick Street. George Ruth Jr. was born in the house of his maternal grandfather, Pius Schamberger, a German immigrant and trade unionist. Only one of young George's seven siblings, his younger sister Mamie, survived infancy. Many details of Ruth's childhood are unknown, including the date of his parents' marriage; as a child, Ruth spoke German. When young George was a toddler, the family moved to 339 South Woodyear Street, not far from the rail yards. Details are scanty about why young George was sent at the age of 7 to St. Mary's Industrial School for Boys, a reformatory and orphanage.
As an adult, Babe Ruth reminisced that as a youth he had been running the streets and attending school, as well was drinking beer when his father was not looking. Some accounts say that following a violent incident at his father's saloon, the city authorities decided that this environment was unsuitable for a small child. George, Jr. entered St. Mary's on June 13, 1902, he was spent much of the next 12 years there. Although St. Mary's boys received an education, students were expected to learn work skills and help operate the school once the boys turned 12. Ruth became a shirtmaker and was proficient as a carpenter, he would adjust his own shirt collars, rather than having a tailor do so during his well-paid baseball career. The boys, aged 5 to 21, did most work around the facility, from cooking to shoemaking, renovated St. Mary's in 1912; the food was simple, the Xaverian Brothers who ran the school insisted on strict discipline. Ruth's nickname there was "Niggerlips", as he had large facial features and was darker than most boys at the all-whi
Christopher Mathewson, nicknamed "Big Six", "The Christian Gentleman", "Matty", "The Gentleman's Hurler", was a Major League Baseball right-handed pitcher who played 17 seasons with the New York Giants. He weighed 195 pounds, he was among the most dominant pitchers in baseball history, ranks in the all-time top ten in several key pitching categories, including wins, ERA. In fact, he is the only professional pitcher in history to rank in the top ten both in career wins and in career ERA, if taking 19th century pitchers statistics into account. Otherwise, both Mathewson and Walter Johnson would hold that distinction. In 1936 Mathewson was elected into the Baseball Hall of Fame as one of its first five members. Mathewson grew up in Factoryville and began playing semiprofessional baseball when he was 14 years old, he played in the minor leagues in 1899, recording a record of two losses. He was sent back to the minors, he would return to the Giants and go on to win 373 games in his career, a National League record.
He led the Giants to victory in the 1905 World Series by pitching three shutouts. Mathewson never pitched on Sundays. Mathewson served in the United States Army's Chemical Warfare Service in World War I, was accidentally exposed to chemical weapons during training, his respiratory system was weakened from the exposure, causing him to contract tuberculosis, from which he died in Saranac Lake, New York in 1925. Mathewson was born in Factoryville and attended high school at Keystone Academy, he attended college at Bucknell University, where he served as class president and played on the school's football and baseball teams. He was a member of the fraternity of Phi Gamma Delta, his first experience of semiprofessional baseball came in 1895. The manager of the Factoryville ball club asked him to pitch in a game with a rival team in Mill City, Pennsylvania. Mathewson helped his hometown team to a 19-17 victory, but with his batting rather than his pitching, he continued to play baseball during his years at Bucknell, pitching for minor league teams in Honesdale and Meridian, Pennsylvania.
Mathewson was selected to the Walter Camp All-American football team in 1900. He was a drop-kicker. In 1899, Mathewson signed to play professional baseball with Taunton of the New England League; the next season, he moved on to play on the Norfolk team of the Virginia-North Carolina League. He finished that season with a 20–2 record, he continued to attend Bucknell during that time period. In July of that year, the New York Giants purchased his contract from Norfolk for $1,500. Between July and September 1900 Mathewson appeared in six games for the Giants, he compiled a 0 -- 3 record. Displeased with his performance, the Giants demanded their money back; that month, the Cincinnati Reds picked up Mathewson off the Norfolk roster. On December 15, 1900, the Reds traded Mathewson back to the Giants for Amos Rusie. Mathewson played football at Keystone Academy from 1895 to 1897, he turned pro in 1898. While a member of the New York Giants, Mathewson played fullback for the Pittsburgh Stars of the first National Football League.
However, Mathewson disappeared from the team in the middle of the team's 1902 season. Some historians speculate that the Giants got word that their star pitcher was risking his life and baseball career for the Stars and ordered him to stop, while others feel that the Stars' coach, Willis Richardson, got rid of Mathewson because he felt that, since the fullback's punting skills were hardly used, he could replace him with a local player, Shirley Ellis. During his 17-year career, Mathewson lost 188 for a. 665 winning percentage. His career ERA of 2.13 and 79 career shutouts are among the best all time for pitchers, his 373 wins is still number one in the National League, tied with Grover Cleveland Alexander. He employed a good fastball, outstanding control, a new pitch he termed the "fadeaway", which he learned from teammate Dave Williams in 1898; this reference is challenged by Ken Burns documentary Baseball in which it is stated that Mathewson learned his "fadeaway" from Andrew "Rube" Foster when New York Giants manager John Joseph McGraw hired Rube to show the Giants bullpen what he knew.
Many baseball historians consider this story apocryphal. Mathewson recorded, he is famous for his 25 pitching duels with Mordecai "Three Finger" Brown, who won 13 of the duels against Mathewson's 11, with one no-decision. From 1900 to 1904, Mathewson established himself as a premier pitcher. Posting low ERAs and winning nearly 100 games, Mathewson helped McGraw raise the Giants' place in the standings. Though no World Series was held in 1904, the Giants captured the pennant, prompting McGraw to proclaim them as the best team in the world. Mathewson strove harder in 1905. After switching to catcher, Roger Bresnahan had begun collaborating with Mathewson, whose advanced memory of hitter weaknesses paved the way for a historic season. Pinpoint control guided Mathewson's pitches to Bresnahan's glove. In 338 innings, Mathewson walked only 64 batters, he shut out opposing teams eight times. Besides winning 31 games, Mathewson allowed, his 206 strikeouts led the league. Mathewson's Gi
Fibonacci was an Italian mathematician from the Republic of Pisa, considered to be "the most talented Western mathematician of the Middle Ages". The name he is called, "Fibonacci", was made up in 1838 by the Franco-Italian historian Guillaume Libri and is short for filius Bonacci, he is known as Leonardo Bonacci, Leonardo of Pisa, or Leonardo Bigollo Pisano. Fibonacci popularized the Hindu–Arabic numeral system in the Western World through his composition in 1202 of Liber Abaci, he introduced Europe to the sequence of Fibonacci numbers, which he used as an example in Liber Abaci. Fibonacci was born around 1170 to an Italian merchant and customs official. Guglielmo directed a trading post in Algeria. Fibonacci travelled with him as a young boy, it was in Bugia that he learned about the Hindu–Arabic numeral system. Fibonacci travelled around the Mediterranean coast, meeting with many merchants and learning about their systems of doing arithmetic, he soon realised the many advantages of the Hindu-Arabic system which, unlike the Roman numerals used at the time, allowed easy calculation using a place-value system.
In 1202, he completed the Liber Abaci. Fibonacci became a guest of Emperor Frederick II. In 1240, the Republic of Pisa honored Fibonacci by granting him a salary in a decree that recognized him for the services that he had given to the city as an advisor on matters of accounting and instruction to citizens; the date of Fibonacci's death is not known, but it has been estimated to be between 1240 and 1250, most in Pisa. In the Liber Abaci, Fibonacci introduced the so-called modus Indorum, today known as the Hindu–Arabic numeral system; the book advocated numeration with the digits place value. The book showed the practical use and value of the new Hindu-Arabic numeral system by applying the numerals to commercial bookkeeping, converting weights and measures, calculation of interest, money-changing, other applications; the book had a profound impact on European thought. No copies of the 1202 edition are known to exist; the 1228 edition, first section introduces the Hindu-Arabic numeral system and compares the system with other systems, such as Roman numerals, methods to convert the other numeral systems into Hindu-Arabic numerals.
Replacing the Roman numeral system, its ancient Egyptian multiplication method, using an abacus for calculations, with a Hindu-Arabic numeral system was an advance in making business calculations easier and faster, which led to the growth of banking and accounting in Europe. The second section explains the uses of Hindu-Arabic numerals in business, for example converting different currencies, calculating profit and interest, which were important to the growing banking industry; the book discusses irrational numbers and prime numbers. Liber Abaci posed and solved a problem involving the growth of a population of rabbits based on idealized assumptions; the solution, generation by generation, was a sequence of numbers known as Fibonacci numbers. Although Fibonacci's Liber Abaci contains the earliest known description of the sequence outside of India, the sequence had been described by Indian mathematicians as early as the sixth century. In the Fibonacci sequence, each number is the sum of the previous two numbers.
Fibonacci omitted the "0" included today and began the sequence with 1, 1, 2.... He carried the calculation up to the thirteenth place, the value 233, though another manuscript carries it to the next place, the value 377. Fibonacci did not speak about the golden ratio as the limit of the ratio of consecutive numbers in this sequence. In the 19th century, a statue of Fibonacci was raised in Pisa. Today it is located in the western gallery of the Camposanto, historical cemetery on the Piazza dei Miracoli. There are many mathematical concepts named after Fibonacci because of a connection to the Fibonacci numbers. Examples include the Brahmagupta–Fibonacci identity, the Fibonacci search technique, the Pisano period. Beyond mathematics, namesakes of Fibonacci include the asteroid 6765 Fibonacci and the art rock band The Fibonaccis. Liber Abaci, a book on calculations Practica Geometriae, a compendium of techniques in surveying, the measurement and partition of areas and volumes, other topics in practical geometry.
Flos, solutions to problems posed by Johannes of Palermo Liber quadratorum on Diophantine equations, dedicated to Emperor Frederick II. See in particular congruum and the Brahmagupta–Fibonacci identity. Di minor guisa Commentary on Book X of Euclid's Elements Fibonacci numbers in popular culture Republic of Pisa Adelard of Bath Footnotes Citations Devlin, Keith; the Man of Numbers: Fibonacci's Arithmetic Revolution. Walker Books. ISBN 978-0802779083. Goetzmann, William N. and Rouwenhorst, K. Geert, The Origins of Value: The Financial Innovations That Created Modern Capital Markets, ISBN 0-19-517571-9. Goetzmann, William N. Fibonacci and the Financial Revolution, Yale School of Management International Center for Finance Working Paper No. 03–28 Grimm, R. E. "The Autobiography of Leonardo Pisano", Fibonacci Quarterly, Vol. 11, No. 1, February 1973, pp. 99–104. Horadam, A. F. "Eight hundred years young," The Australian Mathematics Teacher 31 (1975