Mendip is a local government district of Somerset in England. The district covers a rural area of 285 square miles with a population of 112,500, ranging from the Wiltshire border in the east to part of the Somerset Levels in the west; the district takes its name from the Mendip Hills. The administrative centre of the district is Shepton Mallet but the largest town is Frome; the district was formed on 1 April 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972, by a merger of the municipal boroughs of Glastonbury and Wells, along with Frome, Shepton Mallet, Street urban districts, Frome Rural District, Shepton Mallet Rural District, Wells Rural District, part of Axbridge Rural District and part of Clutton Rural District. Several explanations for the name "Mendip" have been suggested, its earliest known form is Mendepe in 1185. One suggestion is that it is derived from the medieval term "Myne-deepes". However, A D Mills derives its meaning from Celtic monith, meaning mountain or hill, with an uncertain second element Old English yppe in the sense of upland, or plateau.
An alternative explanation is that the name is cognate with Mened, a Brythonic term for upland moorland. The suffix may be a contraction of the Anglo-Saxon hop. Possible further meanings have been identified; the first is'the stone pit' from the Celtic meyn and dyppa in reference to the collapsed cave systems of Cheddar. The second is ` Awesome' from the Old English moen and deop; the district falls under the jurisdiction of Mendip District Council. As of the 2015 Local elections the Council remained under Conservative control; the five main settlements in Mendip are: Frome Glastonbury Shepton Mallet Street WellsFrome and Shepton Mallet are the only towns in the district, as Wells has city status and Street has maintained its status as a village despite a population in excess of 11,000. Other villages and hamlets include: Ashwick Baltonsborough - Batcombe - Beckington - Binegar - Bleadney - Bowlish - Buckland Dinham - Burcott - Butleigh - Butleigh Wootton Chantry - Charterhouse - Chelynch - Chesterblake - Chewton Mendip - Chilcompton - Coleford - Coxley - Cranmore - Croscombe Dean - Dinder - Ditcheat - Doulting - Draycott - Dulcote East Lydford - East Pennard - Easton - Emborough - Evercreech Farleigh Hungerford - Faulkland Godney - Great Elm - Green Ore Henton - Highbury - Holcombe - Hornblotton - Horrington - Huxham Green Kilmersdon Lamyatt - Leigh-on-Mendip - Leighton - Litton - Lydford-on-Fosse Maesbury - Meare - Mells Nettlebridge - North Wootton - Norton St Philip - Nunney Oakhill - Oldford Pilton - Polsham - Prestleigh - Priddy - Pylle Rode - Rodney Stoke Southway - Standerwick - Ston Easton - Stratton-on-the-Fosse - Stoke St Michael - Stoney Stratton Thrupe - Trudoxhill Upton Noble Vobster Walton - Wanstrow - Waterlip - West Compton - West Lydford - West Pennard - West Woodlands - Westbury-sub-Mendip - Westcombe - Westhay - Whatley - Wookey - Wookey Hole - Worminster - Witham Friary Yarley A37 from Bristol to Yeovil A361 from the M5 to Frome A371 from Weston-super-Mare to Wincanton A39 from Bath to Bridgwater Frome railway station served by First Great Western on the Heart of Wessex Line and Reading to Taunton Line.
Cranmore railway station Cranmore West railway station Merryfield Lane railway station Mendip Vale railway stationserved by the East Somerset Railway. County schools in the five non-metropolitan districts of the county are operated by Somerset County Council. For a full list of schools see: List of schools in Somerset Grade I listed buildings in Mendip Grade II* listed buildings in Mendip List of Scheduled Monuments in Mendip Mendip District Council Mendip at Curlie
Bath is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Somerset, known for its Roman-built baths. In 2011, the population was 88,859. Bath is in the valley of the River Avon, 97 miles west of London and 11 miles south-east of Bristol; the city became a World Heritage site in 1987. The city became a spa with the Latin name Aquae Sulis c. 60 AD when the Romans built baths and a temple in the valley of the River Avon, although hot springs were known before then. Bath Abbey became a religious centre. In the 17th century, claims were made for the curative properties of water from the springs, Bath became popular as a spa town in the Georgian era. Georgian architecture, crafted from Bath stone, includes the Royal Crescent, Pump Room and Assembly Rooms where Beau Nash presided over the city's social life from 1705 until his death in 1761. Many of the streets and squares were laid out by John Wood, the Elder, in the 18th century the city became fashionable and the population grew. Jane Austen lived in Bath in the early 19th century.
Further building was undertaken in the 19th century and following the Bath Blitz in World War II. The city has software and service-oriented industries. Theatres and other cultural and sporting venues have helped make it a major centre for tourism, with more than one million staying visitors and 3.8 million day visitors to the city each year. There are several museums including the Museum of Bath Architecture, the Victoria Art Gallery, the Museum of East Asian Art, the Herschel Museum of Astronomy and the Holburne Museum; the city has two universities – the University of Bath and Bath Spa University – with Bath College providing further education. Sporting clubs include Bath Rugby and Bath City F. C.. Bath became part of the county of Avon in 1974, following Avon's abolition in 1996, has been the principal centre of Bath and North East Somerset; the hills in the locality such as Bathampton Down saw human activity from the Mesolithic period. Several Bronze Age round barrows were opened by John Skinner in the 18th century.
Solsbury Hill overlooking the current city was an Iron Age hill fort, the adjacent Bathampton Camp may have been one. A long barrow site believed to be from the Beaker people was flattened to make way for RAF Charmy Down. Archaeological evidence shows that the site of the Roman baths' main spring may have been treated as a shrine by the Britons, was dedicated to the goddess Sulis, whom the Romans identified with Minerva. Messages to her scratched onto metal, known as curse tablets, have been recovered from the sacred spring by archaeologists; the tablets were written in Latin, cursed people whom the writers felt had wronged them. For example, if a citizen had his clothes stolen at the baths, he might write a curse, naming the suspects, on a tablet to be read by the goddess. A temple was constructed in AD 60–70, a bathing complex was built up over the next 300 years. Engineers drove oak piles into the mud to provide a stable foundation, surrounded the spring with an irregular stone chamber lined with lead.
In the 2nd century, the spring was enclosed within a wooden barrel-vaulted structure that housed the caldarium and frigidarium. The town was given defensive walls in the 3rd century. After the failure of Roman authority in the first decade of the 5th century, the baths fell into disrepair and were lost as a result of rising water levels and silting. In March 2012 a hoard of 30,000 silver Roman coins, one of the largest discovered in Britain, was unearthed in an archaeological dig; the coins, believed to date from the 3rd century, were found about 150 m from the Roman baths. Bath may have been the site of the Battle of Badon, in which King Arthur is said to have defeated the Anglo-Saxons; the town was captured by the West Saxons in 577 after the Battle of Deorham. A monastery was founded at an early date – reputedly by Saint David although more in 675 by Osric, King of the Hwicce using the walled area as its precinct. Nennius, a 9th-century historian, mentions a "Hot Lake" in the land of the Hwicce along the River Severn, adds "It is surrounded by a wall, made of brick and stone, men may go there to bathe at any time, every man can have the kind of bath he likes.
If he wants, it will be a cold bath. Bede described hot baths in the geographical introduction to the Ecclesiastical History in terms similar to those of Nennius. King Offa of Mercia gained control of the monastery in 781 and rebuilt the church, dedicated to St. Peter. According to the Victorian churchman Edward Churton, during the Anglo-Saxon era Bath was known as Acemannesceastre, or'aching men's city', on account of the reputation these springs had for healing the sick. By the 9th century the old Roman street pattern was lost and Bath was a royal possession. King Alfred laid out the town afresh. In the Burghal Hidage, Bath is recorded as a burh and is described as having walls of 1,375 yards and was allocated 1000 men for defence. During the reign of Edward the Elder coins were minted in Bath based on a design from the Winchester mint but with'BAD' on the obverse relating to the Anglo-Saxon name for the town, Baðum, Baðan or Baðon, meaning "at the baths", this was the
Frome is a town and civil parish in eastern Somerset, England. Located at the eastern end of the Mendip Hills, the town is built on uneven high ground, centres on the River Frome; the town is 13 miles south of Bath, 43 miles east of the county town, Taunton and 107 miles west of London. In the 2011 census, the population was given as 26,203; the town is the largest town in the Mendip district of Somerset and is part of the parliamentary constituency of Somerton and Frome. In April 2010 a large hoard of third-century Roman coins was unearthed in a field near the town. Frome was one of the largest towns in Somerset until the Industrial Revolution, was larger than Bath from AD 950 until 1650; the town grew due to the wool and cloth industry. It diversified into metal-working and printing, although these have declined; the town was enlarged during the 20th century but still retains a large number of listed buildings, most of the centre falls within a conservation area. The town acts as an economic centre for the surrounding area.
It provides a centre for cultural and sporting activities, including the annual Frome Festival and Frome Museum. There are a twice monthly Celtic and Transatlantic music session. A number of notable individuals were born in, or have lived in, the town. In 2014, Frome was called the "sixth coolest town" in Britain by The Times newspaper. Frome has been shortlisted as one of three towns in the country for the 2016 Urbanism Awards in the'Great Town Award' category. In its 2018 report on the Best Places to Live in the UK, The Sunday Times listed Frome as the best in the South West. Finds from Whatley Quarry near Mells suggest the presence of late Pleistocene man. Neolithic bowl barrows have been located in nearby Trudoxhill. Within Frome itself, a long barrow was found, with pottery and a standing stone. Others from the bronze age have been identified in Berkley to the north-east and near Nunney to the south-west. Iron age hill forts lie to the east. There is some limited evidence of Roman settlement in the area.
The remains of a villa were found in the village of 3 miles to the west of Frome. Another villa is suggested at Selwood. Southill House in Cranmore, 10 miles southwest, has evidence of a villa with a hypocaust. A Roman road ran from the west of the Mendips passing south of Frome en route to Old Sarum and Clausentum for the export of lead from mines in the Mendips. Part of a Romano-British sculpted head and part of a Roman road surface were found near Clink, Frome: there was a Roman road running south from Aquae Sulis, but this has been traced only as far as Oldford Farm, just 2 miles north of Frome. In April 2010, the Frome Hoard, one of the largest-ever hoards of Roman coins discovered in Britain, was found by a metal detectorist; the hoard of 52,500 coins dated from the third century AD and was found buried in a field near the town, in a jar 14 inches below the surface. The coins were excavated by archaeologists from the Portable Antiquities Scheme, some are now on display in the British Museum.
The find was the subject of a BBC TV programme Digging for Britain in August 2010. Another hoard of 250 Dubonnic coins in an urn were found when ploughing near Nunney in 1860; the name Frome comes from the Brythonic word *frāmā meaning fair, fine or brisk and describing the flow of the river. A church built by St. Aldhelm in 685 is the earliest evidence of Saxon occupation of Frome; the name was first recorded in 701 when Pope Sergius gave permission to Bishop Aldhelm to found a monastery "close to the river, called From”. The Saxon kings appear to have used Frome as a base from. In 934 a witenagemot was held there, indicating that Frome must have been a significant settlement, with a royal palace; the charter names a Welsh sub-king, sixteen bishops and twenty five ministers, all called by Æthelstan, now regarded as the first king of England. Æthelstan's half-brother, King Eadred, died in Frome on 23 November 955. At the time of the Domesday Survey, the manor was owned by King William, was the principal settlement of the largest and wealthiest hundred in Somerset.
Over the following years, parts of the original manor were spun off as distinct manors. By the 13th century, the Abbey had bought up some of the other manors and was exploiting the profits from market and trade in the town. Local tradition asserts that Frome was a medieval borough, the reeve of Frome is mentioned in documents after the reign of Edward I, but there is no direct evidence that Frome was a borough and no trace of any charter granted to it. However, the Kyre Park Charters of Edward's reign note a Hugh, lord of Parva Frome, as well as other witnesses. Additionally, Henry VII did grant a charter to Edmund Leversedge lord of the manor, giving him the right to hold fairs on 22 July and 21 September; the parish was part of the hundred of Frome. Hales Castle was built in the years after the Norman conquest of England in 1066; the circular ringwork is 120 feet in diameter and stands on the northern slope of Roddenbury Hill, close to the Iron Age Roddenbury Hillfort, t
Nunney is a village and civil parish near Frome in the Mendip local government district within the English county of Somerset. The parish includes the hamlet of Holwell; the name of the village means Nunna's island. Today, the tourist attractions are the ruins of Nunney Castle, a historic church, ducks wandering the streets near the river; the village hall is host to Nunney Acoustic Cafe which provides live music, homemade food, a bar and children's art activities on the second Sunday of each month. On 30 September 2007, Nunney was the subject of a BBC Radio 4 report, asking whether "the prettiest village in England" is a place where we can learn "how to mend our broken society". Evidence of Roman settlement has been provided by the discovery of a hoard of Roman coins in 1869 at Westdown Farm and a villa with a mosaic floor. Nunney is mentioned as a manor belonging to William de Moyon in the Domesday Book in 1086, but the book does not mention a castle; the parish was part of the hundred of Frome.
For many years, from the medieval period until the 19th century, Nunney was the site of water-powered mills owned by the Hoddinotts and by James Fussell. The parish council has responsibility for local issues, including setting an annual precept to cover the council’s operating costs and producing annual accounts for public scrutiny; the parish council evaluates local planning applications and works with the local police, district council officers, neighbourhood watch groups on matters of crime and traffic. The parish council's role includes initiating projects for the maintenance and repair of parish facilities, as well as consulting with the district council on the maintenance and improvement of highways, footpaths, public transport, street cleaning. Conservation matters and environmental issues are the responsibility of the council; the village falls within the Non-metropolitan district of Mendip, formed on 1 April 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972, having been part of Frome Rural District, responsible for local planning and building control, local roads, council housing, environmental health and fairs, refuse collection and recycling and crematoria, leisure services and tourism.
Somerset County Council is responsible for running the largest and most expensive local services such as education, social services, main roads, public transport and fire services, trading standards, waste disposal and strategic planning. The village falls within ` Nunney' electoral ward. Starting at Doulting in the west the ward stretches eastwards through Cranmore and Nunney to finish in the east at Whatley; the total ward population taken at the 2011 census was 2,374. It is part of the Somerton and Frome county constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, it elects one Member of Parliament by the first past the post system of election, part of the South West England constituency of the European Parliament which elects seven MEPs using the d'Hondt method of party-list proportional representation. Cloford Quarry is a geological Site of Special Scientific Interest and Geological Conservation Review site important for the exposures of sediments of Triassic and Jurassic age which occur in major fissures within the Carboniferous Limestone laid down beneath the sea some 350 million years ago.
The Holwell Quarries are another geological Site of Special Scientific Interest which represent an internationally important geological locality. A comprehensive assemblage of Triassic, Lower Jurassic and Middle Jurassic fissure fillings are well displayed; the Rhaetic fissure fillings have yielded the richest assemblage of vertebrate faunas known from the British Triassic. Along with the rest of South West England, Nunney has a temperate climate, wetter and milder than the rest of England; the annual mean temperature is about 10 °C with seasonal and diurnal variations, but due to the modifying effect of the sea, the range is less than in most other parts of the United Kingdom. January is the coldest month with mean minimum temperatures between 1 °C and 2 °C. July and August are the warmest months in the region with mean daily maxima around 21 °C. In general, December is June the sunniest; the south west of England enjoys a favoured location in summer, when the Azores High extends its influence north-eastwards towards the UK.
Cloud forms inland near hills, reduces exposure to sunshine. The average annual sunshine totals around 1600 hours. Rainfall tends to be associated with convection. In summer, convection caused by solar surface heating sometimes forms shower clouds and a large proportion of the annual precipitation falls from showers and thunderstorms at this time of year. Average rainfall is around 800–900 mm. About 8–15 days of snowfall is typical. November to March have the highest mean wind speeds, with June to August having the lightest; the predominant wind direction is from the south west. The market cross across the road from the church is Grade II* listed, it was built around 1100, when stood in the churchyard of All Saints' Church. It was removed in 1869; the stone was discovered in a builders yard and rebuilt in his garden by the squire of Whatley and the Celtic cross added. After his death and a fire which destroyed his house, the cross was again dismantled and rebuilt on its present site in 1959. There are over 30 other listed buildings in the villag
Devon and Somerset Fire and Rescue Service
Devon and Somerset Fire and Rescue Service is the statutory fire and rescue service covering the county of Devon and the non-metropolitan county of Somerset in South West England. The service does not cover the unitary authorities of North Somerset and Bath and North East Somerset, which are covered by the Avon Fire and Rescue Service, it is the fifth largest rescue service in the United Kingdom. Devon and Somerset Fire and Rescue Service was founded on 1 April 2007, following the merger of Devon Fire and Rescue Service with Somerset Fire and Rescue Service; the Somerset service known as Somerset Fire Brigade, was formed on 1 April 1948. Devon Fire Brigade was formed in 1973, by the amalgamation of Exeter City Brigade, Plymouth City Brigade and Devon County Brigade, it became Devon Fire and Rescue Service in 1987. The Service's main headquarters is located at Clyst St George near Exeter, its main training centre is the Service Training Centre at Plympton fire station. The Service employs 1,850 staff, including 578 whole time firefighters and 36 control room staff, 930 retained firefighters and 300 non-uniformed staff.
Each county operated its own control room until 2012 but they now have a single control room at Service Headquarters, Exeter. The fire service operates 85 fire stations, the second largest number of fire stations in an English fire service after those of the London Fire Brigade. Water Ladder: P1 / P3 Water Tender: P2 / P5 Rapid Intervention Vehicle: P1 /P2 Light Rescue Pump: P1 / P2 Light 6x6 Pump: P9 Aerial Ladder Platform: A1 Fire Boat: B1 Command Support Unit: C1 Environmental Protection Unit: H2 Light 4x4 Pump: M1 Light 4x4 Vehicle: M5 / R2 / T5 Heavy Rescue Unit: R1 Specialist Rescue Unit: R5 Incident Support Unit: S4 Light Utility Vehicle: T2 Prime Mover: T2 / T8 / T9Pods: Bulk Foam Unit High Volume Pump High Volume Hose Layer Incident Support Unit Hose Layer Unit: W1 Water Carrier: W1 / W3 Co-Responder/Emergency Response Unit: V1 / V3 Trailers All Terrain Vehicle Inshore Rescue Boat Pump Water Bowser Urban Search & Rescue: Command Support Unit: C1 Light 4x4 Vehicle: M5 / M6 / R2 Specialist Rescue Unit: R5 Search & Rescue Dog Unit: R8 / R9 General Purpose Vehicle: T1 Light Utility Vehicle: T2 Personnel Carrier Vehicle: T3 Prime Mover: T6 / T7 / T8 / T9Modules: Module 1 - Technical Search Equipment Module 2 - Heavy Transport, Confined Space & Hot Cutting Equipment Module 3 - Breaching & Breaking Equipment Module 4 - Multi Purpose Vehicle Module 5 - Shoring Operations CBRN Response: Incident Response Unit: H9 Prime Mover + Mass Decontamination Disrobe: T9 Prime Mover + Mass Decontamination Rerobe: T9 Devon and Somerset Fire and Rescue Service works in partnership with South Western Ambulance Service to provide emergency medical cover to areas of Devon and Somerset.
These are areas. The aim of a co-responder team is to preserve life until the arrival of either a Rapid Response Vehicle or an ambulance. Co-responder vehicles are equipped with automatic external defibrillation equipment. Co-responder stations have a dedicated vehicle for Co-responder calls; the vehicle, known as the emergency response unit, attends in place of the fire appliance, allowing the fire appliance to remain available. Nineteen stations operate as co-responders: Axminster 34 Chagford 23 Cheddar 76 Combe Martin 07 Crediton 38 Dawlish 25 Dulverton 64 Hartland 08 Hatherleigh 09 Holsworthy 10 Ivybridge 53 Lynton 11 Moretonhampstead 27 Nether Stowey 67 Porlock 68 Princetown 56 Seaton 42 Williton 71 Woolacombe 16 The M5 motorway is the arterial route through Devon and Somerset, it is the main link road to the south west from the North. Devon and Somerset Fire and Rescue Service divide the M5 into sections so that the nearest appliances attend; the station grounds are: Northbound - Bravo J31–J30: 59 Middlemoor J30–J29: 59 Middlemoor J29–J28: 59 Middlemoor J28–J27: 39 Cullompton J27–J26: 39 Cullompton J26–J25: 70 Wellington J25–J24: 61 Taunton J24–J23: 62 Bridgwater J23–J22: 62 Bridgwater J22–J21: 63 Burnham-On-Sea Southbound - Alpha J21–J22: Avon FRS 18 Weston-super-Mare J22–J23: 63 Burnham-On-Sea J23–J24: 62 Bridgwater J24–J25: 62 Bridgwater J25–J26: 61 Taunton J26–J27: 70 Wellington J27–J28: 39 Cullompton J28–J29: 59 Middlemoor J29–J30: 59 Middlemoor J30–J31: 59 Middlemoor HMNB Devonport Dockyard, in Plymouth, is home to twenty one of the Royal Navy's fleet of ships and submarines.
The dockyard falls into the station ground of 48 Camels Head, is backed up by 49 Crownhill. Each part of the dockyard is divided into risk areas - this reflects in the level of attendance by the Fire Service; some parts of the dockyard are considered a high risk - therefore attract a high attendance - sometimes as many as four pumping appliances and the aerial ladder platform are mobilised to a fire alarm actuating. Hinkley Point is a headland on the coast of Somerset, it is the location of two nuclear power stations. Hinkley Point B is the only active site. Hinkley Point has its own fire station, backed up by 67 Nether Stowey and would be backed up by 62 Bridgwater. There is a planned new nuclear power station that will be Hinkley Point C. Devon and Somerset use a variety of special appliances. Operating from 85 fire stations, It has 121 fire engines a
Mells is a village and civil parish in Somerset, near the town of Frome. The parish includes the village of Vobster, which had a coal mine of the same name on the Somerset coalfield and a quarry, both of which are now disused; the old quarry is now used as a diving centre. The Church of St Edmund, at Vobster by Benjamin Ferrey, dates from 1846 and is a Grade II listed building. Vobster Inn Bridge, which carries the lane over the Mells River, is dated 1764, is Grade II listed. In the Domesday Book of 1086 the village was known as "Mulne" meaning several mills; the parish was part of the hundred of Frome. Around 1500 Mells seems to have been known as Iron Burgh, as a result of the iron ore extracted in the area; the village hall was built in the 14th century as a tithe barn for Glastonbury Abbey and now serves as the village hall. During the 19th and early 20th centuries Mells and surrounding villages had several coal mines on the Somerset coalfield, much of which may have supplied the iron works of James Fussell.
The Old Ironstone Works is a biological Site of Special Scientific Interest due to the population of Greater and Lesser Horseshoe bats. The site is a ruined iron works, which produced agricultural edge-tools which were exported all over the world, is now, in addition to its unique and major importance in relation to industrial archaeology; the block of buildings adjacent to the entrance is listed Grade II* and most of the rest of the site is a Scheduled Ancient Monument. It is included in the Heritage at Risk Register produced by English Heritage. Mells War Memorial is a grade II* listed building, it was designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens and is one of several structures in the village by the same architect. The memorial was unveiled in 1921 by Brigadier-General Arthur Asquith, whose brother—killed in action in the First World War—is listed on the memorial; the Asquith family have a long association with the village. The nearby former railway is now the route of the Colliers Way. Mells Road railway station opened in 1875 and closed in 1959.
Close to the church is the Grade I listed 16th-century Manor House in the Horner family and now the residence of Raymond Asquith, 3rd Earl of Oxford and Asquith. The other large house, Mells Park, was rebuilt by Lutyens in 1923; the Talbot Inn, a former coaching inn, is Grade II * listed. It was voted Sunday Times Hotel of the Year in 2013; the stone village lock-up was built in the 17th century. The Mells Post Office and Shop was refurbished and reopened in 2009 as a community social enterprise, following the retirement of the postmaster the previous year; the attached Mells Café was opened in 2011 by The Great British Bake Off star Mary Berry. The Walled Garden, part of a former monastery, is now a cafe and plant nursery. Mells Church of England First School, on the edge of the village green, was established in the mid-nineteenth century, it serves Mells and nearby villages and had 71 children on the roll in 2016. Mells Nursery School provides full day care for children from two years old to school age in a dedicated building, constructed adjacent to the school.
Mells holds on Easter Mondays a traditional event called Mells Daffodil Festival. Mells Manor was purportedly procured by Jack Horner upon discovering the deed in a pie given to him to carry to London by Richard Whiting, the last Abbot of Glastonbury; this act is referenced in the popular nursery rhyme "Little Jack Horner". An alternative explanation is that the manor was bought in 1543. After successive generations Thomas Strangways Horner moved out of the manor house in the village and commissioned Nathaniel Ireson to build Park House within Mells Park; the parish council has responsibility for local issues, including setting an annual precept to cover the council’s operating costs and producing annual accounts for public scrutiny. The parish council evaluates local planning applications and works with the local police, district council officers, neighbourhood watch groups on matters of crime and traffic; the parish council's role includes initiating projects for the maintenance and repair of parish facilities, as well as consulting with the district council on the maintenance and improvement of highways, footpaths, public transport, street cleaning.
Conservation matters and environmental issues are the responsibility of the council. The village falls within the Non-metropolitan district of Mendip, formed on 1 April 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972, having been part of Frome Rural District, responsible for local planning and building control, local roads, council housing, environmental health and fairs, refuse collection and recycling and crematoria, leisure services and tourism. Somerset County Council is responsible for running the largest and most expensive local services such as education, social services, main roads, public transport and fire services, trading standards, waste disposal and strategic planning; the village is part of the'Ammerdown' electoral ward. The ward stretches north to Hemington visiting Kilmersdon; the ward has a total population at the 2011 census of 2,371. It is part of the Somerton and Frome county constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, it elects one Member of Parliament by the first past the post system of election, part of the South West England constituency of the European Parliament which elects seven MEPs using the d'Hondt method of party-list proportional representation.
The village's most notable feature is St Andre
Environmental health is the branch of public health concerned with all aspects of the natural and built environment affecting human health. Environmental health is focused on the natural and built environments for the benefit of human health; the major subdisciplines of environmental health are: environmental science. Other terms referring to or concerning environmental health are environmental public health, public health protection/ environmental health protection. Environmental health has been defined in a 1999 document by the World Health Organization as: Those aspects of the human health and disease that are determined by factors in the environment is called environmental health, it refers to the theory and practice of assessing and controlling factors in the environment that can affect health. Environmental health as used by the WHO Regional Office for Europe, includes both the direct pathological effects of chemicals and some biological agents, the effects on health and well being of the broad physical, psychological and cultural environment, which includes housing, urban development, land use and transport.
As of 2016 the WHO website on environmental health states "Environmental health addresses all the physical and biological factors external to a person, all the related factors impacting behaviours. It encompasses the assessment and control of those environmental factors that can affect health, it is targeted towards creating health-supportive environments. This definition excludes behaviour not related to environment, as well as behaviour related to the social and cultural environment, as well as genetics."The WHO has defined environmental health services as "those services which implement environmental health policies through monitoring and control activities. They carry out that role by promoting the improvement of environmental parameters and by encouraging the use of environmentally friendly and healthy technologies and behaviors, they have a leading role in developing and suggesting new policy areas."The term environmental medicine may be seen as a medical specialty, or branch of the broader field of environmental health.
Terminology is not established, in many European countries they are used interchangeably. Five basic disciplines contribute to the field of environmental health: environmental epidemiology, exposure science, environmental engineering, environmental law; each of these disciplines contributes different information to describe problems and solutions in environmental health, but there is some overlap among them. Environmental epidemiology studies the relationship between environmental exposures and human health. Observational studies, which observe exposures that people have experienced, are common in environmental epidemiology because humans cannot ethically be exposed to agents that are known or suspected to cause disease. While the inability to use experimental study designs is a limitation of environmental epidemiology, this discipline directly observes effects on human health rather than estimating effects from animal studies. Toxicology studies how environmental exposures lead to specific health outcomes in animals, as a means to understand possible health outcomes in humans.
Toxicology has the advantage of being able to conduct randomized controlled trials and other experimental studies because they can use animal subjects. However there are many differences in animal and human biology, there can be a lot of uncertainty when interpreting the results of animal studies for their implications for human health. Exposure science studies human exposure to environmental contaminants by both identifying and quantifying exposures. Exposure science can be used to support environmental epidemiology by better describing environmental exposures that may lead to a particular health outcome,identify common exposures whose health outcomes may be better understood through a toxicology study, or can be used in a risk assessment to determine whether current levels of exposure might exceed recommended levels. Exposure science has the advantage of being able to accurately quantify exposures to specific chemicals, but it does not generate any information about health outcomes like environmental epidemiology or toxicology.
Environmental engineering applies scientific and engineering principles for protection of human populations from the effects of adverse environmental factors. Environmental law includes the network of treaties, regulations and customary laws addressing the effects of human activity on the natural environment. Information from epidemiology and exposure science can be combined to conduct a risk assessment for specific chemicals, mixtures of chemicals or other risk factors to determine whether an exposure poses significant risk to human health; this can in turn be used to develop and implement environmental health policy that, for example, regulates chemical emissions, or imposes standards for proper sanitation. Actions of engineering and law can be combined to provide risk management to minimize and otherwise manage the impact of exposure to protect human health to achieve the objectives of environmental health policy. Environmental health addresses all human-health-related aspects of the natural environment and the built environment.