This article is primarily about four-wheeled vehicle suspension. For information on two-wheeled vehicles suspensions see the motorcycle suspension, motorcycle fork, bicycle suspension, Suspension is the system of tires, tire air, shock absorbers and linkages that connects a vehicle to its wheels and allows relative motion between the two. Suspension systems must support both roadholding/handling and ride quality, which are at odds with each other, the tuning of suspensions involves finding the right compromise. The suspension protects the vehicle itself and any cargo or luggage from damage, the design of front and rear suspension of a car may be different. An early form of suspension on ox-drawn carts had the swing on iron chains attached to the wheeled frame of the carriage. This system remained the basis for all suspension systems until the turn of the 19th century, no modern automobiles use the strap suspension system. Automobiles were initially developed as self-propelled versions of horse-drawn vehicles, horse-drawn vehicles had been designed for relatively slow speeds, and their suspension was not well suited to the higher speeds permitted by the internal combustion engine.
The first workable spring-suspension required advanced metallurgical knowledge and skill, within a decade, most British horse carriages were equipped with springs, wooden springs in the case of light one-horse vehicles to avoid taxation, and steel springs in larger vehicles. These were often made of steel and usually took the form of multiple layer leaf springs. Leaf springs have been around since the early Egyptians, ancient military engineers used leaf springs in the form of bows to power their siege engines, with little success at first. The use of springs in catapults was refined and made to work years later. Springs were not only made of metal, a tree branch could be used as a spring. Horse-drawn carriages and the Ford Model T used this system, and it is used today in larger vehicles. This was the first modern system and, along with advances in the construction of roads. In 1901 Mors of Paris first fitted an automobile with shock absorbers, with the advantage of a damped suspension system on his Mors Machine, Henri Fournier won the prestigious Paris-to-Berlin race on 20 June 1901.
Fourniers superior time was 11 hrs 46 min 10 sec, while the best competitor was Léonce Girardot in a Panhard with a time of 12 hrs 15 min 40 sec. Coil springs first appeared on a vehicle in 1906 in the Brush Runabout made by the Brush Motor Company. Today, coil springs are used in most cars, in 1920, Leyland Motors used torsion bars in a suspension system
Luxury vehicle is a marketing term for a vehicle that provides luxury — pleasant or desirable features beyond strict necessity — at increased expense. The term is broad, highly variable and relative and it is a perceptual and subjective attribute that may be comprehended differently by different people, What is a luxury car to some. Therefore, automakers differentiate among their product lines in collusion with the car-buying public, while a high price is the most frequent factor, it is styling and even public opinion which cars had the highest and lowest status associated with them. Every era in history has had a group of car marques and models that have been expensive to purchase, due to their alleged superiority of their design. Aimed at wealthy buyers, such automobiles might be generically termed luxury cars and this term is used for unique vehicles produced during an era when luxury was individualistic consideration, and coachwork could be tailored to an owner like a bespoke suit. Although there is literature about specific marques, there is a lack of systematic.
Luxury vehicle makers may either be stand-alone companies in their own right, such as BMW and Mercedes-Benz, badge engineering is often used for cost savings, for example, the Lincoln vehicles that are based on Ford platforms or Acura models derived from Honda. Though widely used, the term luxury is broad and highly variable and it is a perceptual and subjective attribute and may be understood differently by different people, What is a luxury car to some. According to the European Commission, the luxury segment is classified as F-segment. However, the boundaries between the segments are increasingly becoming blurred and diluted as features once exclusive to luxury vehicles become standard equipment on even small cars. ACRISS is a system used by many car rental companies in the US for classifying vehicles. The system includes Luxury and Premium categories, Australia, In Australia, for taxation purposes a luxury car is defined as a passenger car whose value exceeds a certain threshold. France, In France the term voiture de luxe is used, Germany, In Germany the term Upper class is used.
Russia, Russian markets use the term representative class vehicle, the classification varies, for instance Consumer Guide Automotive in the U. S. The premium compact segment is targeted at a market of consumers who found the existing entry-level luxury offerings to be too expensive. By offering a smaller, more fuel-efficient, and less expensive vehicle, premium compacts introduces younger buyers to the luxury marque, in hopes of retaining the coveted customer loyalty. This includes the Acura CSX, Audi A3, Buick Verano, BMW2 Series, BMW i3, Cadillac ELR, Chrysler 200, Lexus CT, Mercedes-Benz CLA-Class, Mercedes-Benz B-Class, Saab 9-2X, and the Volvo V40. Premium compacts compete with well-equipped midsize cars, and with options they overlap much with compact executive cars, Premium compacts may share components with mass market cars from the marques parent company, and/or have less sophisticated platforms compared to upmarket vehicles in the lineup
The number of forward gear ratios is often expressed for manual transmissions as well. The most popular form found in automobiles is the automatic transmission. Similar but larger devices are used for heavy-duty commercial and industrial vehicles. This system uses a coupling in place of a friction clutch. These systems have a set of gear ranges, often with a parking pawl that locks the output shaft of the transmission to keep the vehicle from rolling either forward or backward. Some machines with limited speed ranges or fixed engine speeds, such as forklifts and lawn mowers. Despite superficial similarity to other transmissions, traditional automatic transmissions differ significantly in internal operation and drivers feel from semi-automatics and CVTs. In contrast to conventional automatic transmissions, a CVT uses a belt or other torque transmission scheme to allow a number of gear ratios instead of a fixed number of gear ratios. A semi-automatic retains a clutch like a transmission, but controls the clutch through electrohydraulic means.
The ability to shift gears manually, often via paddle shifters, can be found on certain automated transmissions, semi-automatics, the obvious advantage of an automatic transmission to the driver is the lack of a clutch pedal and manual shift pattern in normal driving. This allows the driver to operate the car with as few as two limbs, allowing amputees and other disabled individuals to drive, the automatic transmission was invented in 1921 by Alfred Horner Munro of Regina, Saskatchewan and patented under Canadian patent CA235757 in 1923. Being a steam engineer, Munro designed his device to use compressed air rather than hydraulic fluid and they were incorporated into GM-built tanks during World War II and, after the war, GM marketed them as being battle-tested. However, a Wall Street Journal article credits ZF Friedrichshafen with the invention, zFs origins were in manufacturing gears for airship engines beginning in 1915, the company was founded by Ferdinand von Zeppelin. Modern automatic transmissions can trace their origins to an early horseless carriage gearbox that was developed in 1904 by the Sturtevant brothers of Boston and this unit had two forward speeds, the ratio change being brought about by flyweights that were driven by the engine.
At higher engine speeds, high gear was engaged, as the vehicle slowed down and engine RPM decreased, the gearbox would shift back to low. Unfortunately, the metallurgy of the time wasnt up to the task, and owing to the abruptness of the gear change, the next significant phase in the automatic transmissions development occurred in 1908 with the introduction of Henry Fords remarkable Model T. The pedals actuated the transmissions friction elements to select the desired gear, in 1934, both REO and General Motors developed semi-automatic transmissions that were less difficult to operate than a fully manual unit. These designs, continued to use a clutch to engage the engine with the transmission, parallel to the development in the 1930s of an automatically shifting gearbox was Chryslers work on adapting the fluid coupling to automotive use
A full-size car is a marketing term used in North America for an automobile larger than a mid-size car. Traditional U. S. full-size passenger cars were designed to be comfortable for six occupants, the United States Environmental Protection Agency currently uses the term large car to denote full-size cars based on their combined interior passenger and luggage volume. The traditional full-size passenger cars that were built by the U. S. Full-size cars were denoted for their length, nearing 4,953 mm in basic low-priced, family sedans. The luxury models often tended to reach 5,350 mm. Previously, the term first appeared in the early 1960s to distinguish what became known as standard-size cars from the new compact and intermediate models being introduced. The U. S. EPA defines large size as 120 ft³ or more of combined passenger, a majority of U. S. automakers manufactured full size automobiles were constructed using a body-on-frame platform. This platform was phased out in 2011 when the Ford Panther vehicles ended production, use of the term in North America became popular after the introduction of compacts by the U. S.
Detroit Big Three for the 1960 model year, and a few years the introduction of what became known as mid-size cars. The term was most correctly applied to close to the width limit carrying nameplates of The Low Priced Three, Ford. Manufacturers contributed to the lack of distinction by marketing models of their brands into the lower price ranges with what had previously been considered medium-priced brands. For 1977, General Motors downsized its cars, with overall width cut from approximately 80 in to the mid-70 inch range. Chevrolet and the less expensive Oldsmobile and Buick models had a 116-inch wheelbase, more expensive Oldsmobile and Buick models, plus the Cadillac had a 119 in wheelbase, but no more width. Ford and Chrysler downsized for 1979, the latter even building its Chrysler R platform, by this time, a huge increase in gasoline prices had made it difficult to sell any large cars, downsized or not. Chrysler had the misfortune of introducing two consecutive new designs of its largest cars, in 1974 and 1979, during times when gasoline prices suddenly increased.
The EPA interior volumes for passenger and cargo for the most part resulted in mid-size, full-size, the 1980s Chrysler M platform, classified as large cars at the time, were derived from the Dodge Aspen/Plymouth Volare platform, originally marketed as large compacts. While many modern cars are referred to as full-size, they do not qualify for the term as used in the 1960s and 1970s. Consumer acceptance of large SUVs approaching 80 inches in width shows interest remains in vehicles capable of seating with reasonable comfort. Police cars in the United States are almost always full-size cars and this is usually due to the amount of interior space for an arrestee as well as trunk volume for computer and electrical equipment. Interior space and trunk volume make such vehicles popular for taxi use, since the discontinuation of the Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor the de facto replacement has been a variation of the Ford Taurus
Wheelies are usually associated with bicycles and motorcycles, but can be done with other vehicles such as cars, especially in drag racing and tractor pulling. The first wheelie was done in 1890 by trick bicyclist Daniel J. Canary, wheelies appear in popular culture as early as 1943, as U. S Army motorized cavalry are pictured in Life magazine performing high speed wheelies. Daredevil Evel Knievel performed motorcycle acrobatics including wheelies in his shows, doug The Wheelie King Domokos has accomplished such feats as a 145-mile wheelie. Types of wheelies can be divided into two categories,1. Wheelies in which the power is sufficient by itself, as described in the Physics section below. These include, Clutch wheelies, performed by disengaging the clutch and opening the throttle to let the engine race, power wheelies or roll-on wheelies, performed by simply opening the throttle. If the engine has sufficient power, it will be able to lift the front wheel, wheelies performed with the aid of suspension dynamics or rider motion.
These include, Bounce wheelies or slap wheelies, performed by opening and closing the throttle in time with suspension rebounding, tire rebounding, rider motion, wheelies are a common stunt in artistic cycling and freestyle BMX. The bike is balanced by the weight and sometimes use of the rear brake. A style of bicycle, the bike, has a seating position. A wheelie is a motorcycle stunt. The worlds fastest motorcycle wheelie record is 307.86 km/h by Patrik Furstenhoff, the world record for the fast wheelie over 1 km is 172.9 mph, set in September 2006 by Terry Calcott at Elvington airfield in Yorkshire, England. In Pakistan and some countries its illegal to perform these kinds of stunts. If someone is caught performing these acts, they can have their motorcycle impounded, wheelies are common in auto- or motorcycle drag racing, where they represent torque wasted lifting the front end, rather than moving the vehicle forward. They usually resulting in raising the center of mass, which limits the maximum acceleration, in the absence of wheelie bars, this effect is quantified in the physics section below.
If wheelie bars are present, a wheelie results in a reduction the load on the rear, driving wheels, wheelies are possible with some snowmobiles. This is where the skis are lifted off the ground, some wheelchair users can learn to balance their chair on its rear wheels and do a wheelie. This enables them to climb and descend curbs and maneuver over small obstacles, Wheelie bars help prevent a vehicles front end from raising too high or flipping over
The Jeep Wrangler is a compact and mid-size four-wheel drive off-road vehicle manufactured by Jeep, currently in its third generation. Neither AMC nor Chrysler have claimed that the Wrangler was a descendant of the original military model. Outwardly resembling the Jeep CJ-7, the Wrangler, which was announced in February 1986 at the 1986 Chicago Auto Show, was based on a new set of design parameters. The product philosophy behind the two vehicles François Castaing explained, is completely different. Just like the Willys MB and the Jeep CJ, Wranglers continue to use a body and frame. But its suspension and interior were borrowed from the new Cherokee model, the Wrangler debuted in 1986 as a new model after discontinuance of the famous Jeep model. It was revised in 1996, and completely redesigned in 2006, in addition to the model name Wrangler, each model received a designation corresponding to its generation, YJ, TJ, TJUs, JKU and JK. Foreign military versions of the Wrangler have carried the J8 designation which was initially dubbed TJL when first produced at Arab American Vehicles Egyptian plant, Jeep YJ models were manufactured between 1986 and 1995 at Brampton Assembly, and subsequently at the Toledo South Assembly plant.
A major difference in the 1987–1995 models were the rectangular headlights, in 2006, Wrangler production was moved to Toledo Complex. Post-2006 Wranglers were set apart from their predecessors by the angle of the grille, in all previous models, the grille was flat and even with the front fenders. The newer Wrangler was constructed with a grille which angled out from the top and this decreased the hood length, while increasing the length of the fenders. In more recent models, this angle has been lowered more toward the bottom of the grille, in Egypt, the YJ was produced as well as a long wheel-base version, dubbed LJ, and which has retained the 2-door design. The YJL is considered as the first predecessor of the JKs long wheel-base by continuing as TJL which has inspired the JKs 4-door. There is a Jeep Wrangler Pickup coming into production in 2017, development of a potential CJ7 replacement was green-lighted in 1982, with engineering and design work commencing. After approval earlier in 1983, a design freeze occurred by the fall of 1983, with CJ7-based mules being built in late 1983.
By late 1985, development concluded, as the transition from pilot to series production began, in February 1986, the 1987 Jeep Wrangler was unveiled, entering production that March, and going on sale on May 13,1986. The Jeep YJ, sold as the Wrangler in the United States, replaced the Jeep CJ in 1986 and was built in Brampton, Canada, production was moved to Toledo, using the same plant that produced the Willys Jeeps during World War II. American Motors Corporation had designed the new Jeep to be more comfortable on-road in an attempt to more daily drivers
A bicycle, often called a bike or cycle, is a human-powered, pedal-driven, single-track vehicle, having two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other. A bicycle rider is called a cyclist, or bicyclist, Bicycles were introduced in the 19th century in Europe and as of 2003, more than 1 billion have been produced worldwide, twice as many as the number of automobiles that have been produced. They are the means of transportation in many regions. They provide a form of recreation, and have been adapted for use as childrens toys, general fitness and police applications, courier services. The basic shape and configuration of an upright or safety bicycle, has changed little since the first chain-driven model was developed around 1885. But many details have been improved, especially since the advent of modern materials and these have allowed for a proliferation of specialized designs for many types of cycling. The bicycles invention has had an effect on society, both in terms of culture and of advancing modern industrial methods.
The word bicycle first appeared in English print in The Daily News in 1868, to describe Bysicles and trysicles on the Champs Elysées, the word was first used in 1847 in a French publication to describe an unidentified two-wheeled vehicle, possibly a carriage. The design of the bicycle was an advance on the velocipede, Other words for bicycle include bike, pedal cycle, or cycle. In Unicode, the point for bicycle is 0x1F6B2. The entity 🚲, in HTML produces
A sedan /sᵻˈdæn/ or saloon is a passenger car in a three-box configuration with A, B & C-pillars and principal volumes articulated in separate compartments for engine and cargo. The passenger compartment features two rows of seats and adequate passenger space in the compartment for adult passengers. The cargo compartment is typically in the rear, with the exception of some rear-engined models, such as the Renault Dauphine, Tatra T613, Volkswagen Type 3 and it is one of the most common car body styles. A battery electric sedan such as the Tesla Model S has no engine compartment, but a front cargo compartment, the primary purpose of the sedan is to transport people and their baggage on ordinary roads. Sedan versions of the body style have a central pillar that supports the roof and come in two-. Sedans usually have a two-box or three-box body, popular in the U. S. from the 1950s through the 1970s, true hardtop body designs have become increasingly rare. For example,1962 Rambler Classic sedans feature identical windshield, A-pillar, roof, C-pillar, and rear window. A two- or four-door design built on a chassis, but with a shorter roof and interior space.
Originating from the car on a Pullman passenger train that was well appointed. A notchback sedan is a sedan, where the passenger volume is clearly distinct from the trunk volume of the vehicle. The roof is on one plane, generally parallel to the ground, the window at a sharp angle to the roof. A fastback sedan is a sedan, with continuous slope from the roof to the base of the decklid. They are not fastbacks because their bodyline changes from the roof to the rear deck and their steeply raked rear windows end with a decklid that does not continue down to the bumper. Instead, their ends are tall — sometimes in a Kammback style — to increase trunk space. Typically this design is chosen for its aerodynamic advantages, automakers can no longer afford the penalty in fuel consumption produced by the traditional notchback three box form. In historic terminology, a sedan will have a frame around the door windows, a true hardtop design has no center or B pillar for roof support behind the front doors).
This pillarless body style offers greater visibility, however, it requires extra underbody strengthening for structural rigidity. The hardtop design can be considered separately, or it can be called a hardtop sedan, during the 1960s and 1970s, hardtop sedans were often sold as sport sedans by several American manufacturers and they were among the top selling body styles
Bicycle and motorcycle geometry
Bicycle and motorcycle geometry is the collection of key measurements that define a particular bike configuration. Primary among these are wheelbase, steering angle, fork offset. These parameters have an influence on how a bike handles. Wheelbase is the distance between the centers of the front and rear wheels. Wheelbase is a function of rear frame length, steering axis angle and it is similar to the term wheelbase used for automobiles and trains. Wheelbase has an influence on the longitudinal stability of a bike, along with the height of the center of mass of the combined bike. Short bikes are more suitable for performing wheelies and stoppies. The steering axis angle, called caster angle or head angle, is the angle that the steering axis makes with the horizontal or vertical, the steering axis is the axis about which the steering mechanism pivots. The steering axis angle usually matches the angle of the head tube, in bicycles, the steering axis angle is called the head angle and is measured from the horizontal, a 90° head angle would be vertical.
Due to front fork suspension, modern Mountain Bikes as opposed to Road Bikes, tend to have slacker head tube angles, at least one manufacturer, Cane Creek, offers an after-market threadless headset that enables changing the steering axis angle. When all else remains the same, this alters the trail of the bicycle, in motorcycles, the steering axis angle is called the rake angle or just rake and is measured from the vertical. A 0° rake would be vertical, in bicycles, fork offset is called fork rake. Road racing bicycle forks have an offset of 40–50 mm, the development of forks with curves is attributed to George Singer. Other, less-common motorcycle forks, such as trailing link or leading link forks, the length of a fork is measured parallel to the steer tube from the lower fork crown bearing to the axle center. Trail, or caster, is the distance from where the front wheel touches the ground to where the steering axis intersects the ground. The measurement is considered if the front wheel ground contact point is behind the steering axis intersection with the ground.
Most bikes have positive trail, though a few, such as the two-mass-skate bicycle, trail is a function of steering axis angle, fork offset, and wheel size. Trail can be increased by increasing the size, decreasing or slackening the head angle
A car is a wheeled, self-powered motor vehicle used for transportation and a product of the automotive industry. The year 1886 is regarded as the year of the modern car. In that year, German inventor Karl Benz built the Benz Patent-Motorwagen, cars did not become widely available until the early 20th century. One of the first cars that was accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were rapidly adopted in the United States of America, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, cars are equipped with controls used for driving, passenger comfort and safety, and controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, examples include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems, and in car entertainment. Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by a combustion engine. Both fuels cause air pollution and are blamed for contributing to climate change.
Vehicles using alternative fuels such as ethanol flexible-fuel vehicles and natural gas vehicles are gaining popularity in some countries, electric cars, which were invented early in the history of the car, began to become commercially available in 2008. There are costs and benefits to car use, the costs of car usage include the cost of, acquiring the vehicle, interest payments and auto maintenance, depreciation, driving time, parking fees and insurance. The costs to society of car use include, maintaining roads, land use, road congestion, air pollution, public health, health care, road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide. The benefits may include transportation, independence. The ability for humans to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of societies and it was estimated in 2010 that the number of cars had risen to over 1 billion vehicles, up from the 500 million of 1986. The numbers are increasing rapidly, especially in China, the word car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum, or the Middle English word carre.
In turn, these originated from the Gaulish word karros, the Gaulish language was a branch of the Brythoic language which used the word Karr, the Brythonig language evolved into Welsh where Car llusg and car rhyfel still survive. It originally referred to any wheeled vehicle, such as a cart, carriage. Motor car is attested from 1895, and is the formal name for cars in British English. Autocar is a variant that is attested from 1895
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. Often the term refers simply to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed. In British English, the term refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, prop shaft, differential. In American English, the term more specifically to the gearbox alone. The most common use is in vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a high rotational speed, which is inappropriate for starting, stopping. The transmission reduces the engine speed to the slower wheel speed. Transmissions are used on bicycles, fixed machines. Often, a transmission has multiple gear ratios with the ability to switch between them as speed varies and this switching may be done manually or automatically. Directional control may be provided, single-ratio transmissions exist, which simply change the speed and torque of motor output.
The output of the transmission is transmitted via the driveshaft to one or more differentials, while a differential may provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate at different speeds as it changes the direction of rotation. Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. Alternative mechanisms include torque converters and power transformation, automatic transmissions use a valve body to shift gears using fluid pressures in conjunction with an ecm. Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills, horse-powered devices, and steam engines, in support of pumping, most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft. This means that the shaft of a gearbox rotates at a slower rate than the input shaft. A gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and provide an increase in speed with a reduction of torque. Some of the simplest gearboxes merely change the rotational direction of power transmission.
Many typical automobile transmissions include the ability to select one of several gear ratios, in this case, most of the gear ratios are used to slow down the output speed of the engine and increase torque