Joseph "Fighting Joe" Wheeler was an American military commander and politician. He is known for having served both as a cavalry general in the Confederate States Army in the 1860s during the American Civil War, as a general in the United States Army during both the Spanish–American War and Philippine–American War near the turn of the twentieth century. For much of the Civil War he served as the senior cavalry general in the Army of Tennessee and fought in most of its battles in the Western Theater. Between the Civil War and the Spanish–American War, Wheeler served multiple terms as a United States Representative from the state of Alabama as a Democrat. Although of New England ancestry, Joseph Wheeler was born near Augusta and spent most of his early life growing up with relatives in Connecticut, his parents were Julia Knox Hull Wheeler. He was the grandson of Brigadier General William Hull, a veteran of the American Revolution, court-martialed for surrendering at Detroit early in the War of 1812.
Despite his northern upbringing, he was appointed to the United States Military Academy at West Point from the state of Georgia and always considered himself a Georgian and Southerner. Wheeler entered West Point in July 1854 meeting the height requirement at the time for entry, he graduated on July 1, 1859, placing 19th out of 22 cadets, was commissioned a brevet second lieutenant in the 1st U. S. Dragoons, he attended the U. S. Army Cavalry School located in Carlisle and upon completion was transferred on June 26, 1860, to the Regiment of Mounted Rifles stationed in the New Mexico Territory, it was while stationed in New Mexico and fighting in a skirmish with Indians that Joseph Wheeler picked up the nickname "Fighting Joe." On September 1, 1860, he was promoted to the rank of second lieutenant. At the start of the Civil War, Wheeler entered the Confederate Army on March 16 as a first lieutenant serving in the Georgia state militia artillery, was assigned to Fort Barrancas off of Pensacola, reporting to Maj. Gen. Braxton Bragg.
His resignation from the U. S. Army was accepted on April 22, 1861, he was ordered to Huntsville, Alabama, to take command of the newly formed 19th Alabama Infantry Regiment and was promoted to colonel on September 4. Wheeler and the 19th Alabama fought well under Bragg at the Battle of Shiloh in April 1862. During the Siege of Corinth in April and May, Wheeler's men on picket duty clashed with Union patrols. Serving as acting brigade commander, Wheeler burned the bridges over the Tuscumbia River to cover the Confederate withdrawal to Tupelo, Mississippi. Wheeler transferred to the cavalry branch and commanded the 2nd Cavalry Brigade of the Left Wing in the Army of Mississippi from September to October. During the Kentucky Campaign, Wheeler aggressively maintained contact with the enemy, he began to suffer from poor relations with the Confederacy's arguably greatest cavalryman, Nathan Bedford Forrest, when Bragg reassigned most of Forrest's men to Wheeler, sending Forrest to Murfreesboro to recruit a new brigade.
Wheeler fought at the Battle of Perryville in October and after the fight performed an excellent rearguard action protecting the army's withdrawal. He was promoted to brigadier general on October 30 and led the cavalry belonging to the Second Corps of the Army of Tennessee from November to December. During action at La Vergne, Tennessee, on November 27, Wheeler was wounded by an artillery shell that exploded near him. In December 1862, the Union Army of the Cumberland began to advance from Nashville against Bragg's army and Wheeler, now commanding all of the Army of Tennessee's cavalry, skirmished aggressively to delay their advance, he drove into the rear of the Union army, destroying hundreds of wagons and capturing more than 700 prisoners. After the Battle of Stones River, as Bragg's army withdrew to the Duck River line, Wheeler struck the Union supply lines at Harpeth Shoals on January 12–13, burning three steamboats and capturing more than 400 prisoners. Bragg recommended that Wheeler be promoted as a "just reward" and he became a major general on January 20, 1863.
Wheeler led the army's Cavalry Corps from January to November 24 again from December to November 15, 1864. For his actions on January 12–13, 1863, Wheeler and his troopers received the Thanks of the Confederate Congress on May 1, 1863. In February 1863, Wheeler and Forrest attacked Fort Donelson at Dover, but they were repulsed by the small Union garrison. Forrest angrily told Wheeler "Tell that I will be in my coffin before I will fight again under your command." Bragg dealt with this rivalry in the Tullahoma Campaign by assigning Wheeler to guard the army's right flank while Forrest guarded the left. A Union cavalry advance on Shelbyville on June 27 trapped Wheeler and 50 of his men on the north side of the Duck River, forcing Wheeler to plunge his horse over a 15-foot embankment and escape through the rain-swollen river. Wheeler and his troopers guarded the army's left flank at Chickamauga in September 1863, after the routed Union Army collected in Chattanooga, Gen. Bragg sent Wheeler's men into central Tennessee to destroy railroads and Federal supply lines in a major raid.
On October 2 his raid at Anderson's Cross Roads destroyed more than 700 Union supply wagons, tightening the Confederates siege on Chattanooga. Pursued by his Union counterparts, Wheeler advanced to McMinnville and captured its 600-man garrison. There were more actions at Murfreesboro and Farmington, but by October 9 Wheeler had safely crossed the Tennessee River at Muscle Shoals, Alabama; the extensive raid and a subsequent northern movement to assist Longstreet in his siege of Knoxville, would cause the mounted arm of
American Community Survey
The American Community Survey is an ongoing survey by the U. S. Census Bureau, it gathers information contained only in the long form of the decennial census, such as ancestry, educational attainment, language proficiency, disability and housing characteristics. These data are used by many public-sector, private-sector, not-for-profit stakeholders to allocate funding, track shifting demographics, plan for emergencies, learn about local communities. Sent to 295,000 addresses monthly, it is the largest household survey that the Census Bureau administers; the United States Constitution requires an enumeration of the population every ten years and “in such Manner as they shall by Law direct.” From the first census in 1790, legislators understood that the census should collect basic demographic information beyond the number of people in the household. James Madison first proposed including questions in the census to “enable them to adapt the public measures to the particular circumstances of the community.”
Such knowledge collected with each census, he said, “would give them an opportunity of marking the progress of the society." The number and type of questions included in censuses since 1790 have reflected current American societal trends and the growing nation’s expanded data needs. By 1940, advancements in statistical methods enabled the Census Bureau to start asking a sample of the population a subset of additional detailed questions without unduly increasing cost or respondent burden. In subsequent decades, questions, asked of all respondents, as well as new questions, moved to the subsample questionnaire form; as that form grew longer than the census form sent to most households, it became known as the census “long form.” Following the 1960 Census, federal and local government officials, as well as those working in the private sector, began demanding more timely long-form-type data. Lawmakers representing rural districts claimed they were at a data disadvantage, unable to self-fund additional surveys of their populations.
Congress explored the creation of a mid-decade census, holding hearings and authorizing a mid-decade census in 1976, but not funding it. Efforts to obtain data on a more frequent basis began again after the 1990 Census, when it became clear that the more burdensome long form was depressing overall census response rates and jeopardizing the accuracy of the count. At Congress's request, the Census Bureau tested a new design to obtain long-form data. U. S. statistician Leslie Kish had introduced the concept of a rolling sample design in 1981. This design featured ongoing, monthly data collection aggregated on a yearly basis, enabling annual data releases. By combining multiple years of this data, the Census Bureau could release "period" estimates to produce estimates for smaller areas. After a decade of testing, it launched as the American Community Survey in 2005, replacing the once-a-decade census long form; the ACS has an initial sample of 3.5 million housing unit addresses and group quarters in the United States.
The Census Bureau selects a random sample of addresses to be included in the ACS. Each address has about a 1-in-480 chance of being selected in a given month, no address should be selected more than once every five years. Data is collected by internet, telephone interviews and in-person interviews. One third of those who do not respond to the survey by mail or telephone are randomly selected for in-person interviews. About 95 percent of households across all response modes respond. Like the decennial census, ACS responses are confidential; every employee at the Census Bureau takes an oath of nondisclosure and is sworn for life to not disclose identifying information. Violations can result in a 5-year prison sentence and/or $250,000 fine. Under 13 U. S. C. § 9, census responses are "immune from legal process" and may not "be admitted as evidence or used for any purpose in any action, suit, or other judicial or administrative proceeding." The Census Bureau aggregates individual ACS responses into estimates at many geographic summary levels.
Among these summary levels are legal and administrative entities such as states, counties and congressional districts, as well as statistical entities such as metropolitan statistical areas, block groups, census designated places. Estimates for census blocks are not available from ACS. In order to balance geographic resolution, temporal frequency, statistical significance, respondent privacy, ACS estimates released each year are aggregated from responses received in the previous calendar year or previous five calendar years; the Census Bureau provides guidance for data users about which data set to use when analyzing different population and geography sizes. From 2007 to 2013, 3-year estimates were available for areas with 20,000 people or more; this data product was discontinued in 2015 due to budget cuts. The last 3-year release was the 2011-2013 ACS 3-year estimates. Current data releases include: 1-year estimates are available for areas with a population of at least 65,000 people; the 2015 ACS 1-year estimates were released in 2016 and summarize responses received in 2015 for all states but only 26% of counties due to the 65,000 minimum population threshold.
This is most suitable for data users interested in shorter-term changes at medium to large geographic scales. Supplemental estimates are shown in annual tables summarizing populations for geographies with populations of 20,000 or more. 5-year estimates are available for areas down to the block group scale, on the order of 600 to 3000 people. The 2015 ACS 5-yea
Mount Vernon, Georgia
Mount Vernon is a city in, the county seat of, Montgomery County, United States. The population was 2,451 at the 2010 census, it is home to Brewton–Parker College. Mount Vernon was founded in 1797, it became the county seat Montgomery County in 1813. It was incorporated as a town in 1872 and as a city in 1960; the city is named after the estate of George Washington. Mount Vernon is located at 32°10′53″N 82°35′38″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.1 square miles, all land. Mount Vernon is part of the Vidalia Micropolitan Statistical Area; as of the census of 2000, there were 2,082 people, 704 households, 461 families residing in the city. The population density was 505.4 people per square mile. There were 840 housing units at an average density of 203.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 56.34% White, 41.83% African American, 0.05% Native American, 0.62% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.82% from other races, 0.29% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.59% of the population.
There were 704 households out of which 35.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.5% were married couples living together, 19.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.4% were non-families. 28.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.19. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.4% under the age of 18, 22.0% from 18 to 24, 25.9% from 25 to 44, 16.9% from 45 to 64, 8.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 26 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $26,466, the median income for a family was $33,750. Males had a median income of $27,112 versus $19,766 for females; the per capita income for the city was $11,509. About 18.3% of families and 23.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.5% of those under age 18 and 22.3% of those age 65 or over.
Brewton–Parker College is a private, coeducational college whose main campus is located in Mount Vernon. The Montgomery County School District holds grades pre-school to grade twelve, consists of one elementary school, a middle school, a high school; the district has 83 full-time teachers and over 1,294 students. Montgomery County High School Montgomery County Middle School Montgomery County Elementary SchoolMontgomery County High School didn't have an integrated prom until 2010; the school received national attention in the New York Times for unofficially sponsoring separate, segregated proms for white and black students. It is one of 178 school districts in the United States with an active desegregation order. WYUM, 101.7 FM Radio Highways US 221 US 280 SR 30 SR 56 John Britton, third baseman in the Negro Leagues and the Japanese Pacific League. Theodore Johnson, member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives. Association of Georgia Klans
Confederate States of America
The Confederate States of America referred to as the Confederacy, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865. The Confederacy was formed by seven secessionist slave-holding states—South Carolina, Florida, Georgia and Texas—in the Lower South region of the United States, whose economy was dependent upon agriculture cotton, a plantation system that relied upon the labor of African-American slaves; each state declared its secession from the United States, which became known as the Union during the ensuing civil war, following the November 1860 election of Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln to the U. S. presidency on a platform which opposed the expansion of slavery into the western territories. Before Lincoln took office in March, a new Confederate government was established in February 1861, considered illegal by the government of the United States. States volunteered militia units and the new government hastened to form its own Confederate States Army from scratch overnight.
After the American Civil War began in April, four slave states of the Upper South—Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina—also declared their secession and joined the Confederacy. The Confederacy accepted Missouri and Kentucky as members, although neither declared secession nor were they largely controlled by Confederate forces; the government of the United States rejected the claims of secession and considered the Confederacy illegally founded. The War began with the Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861, a Union fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. No foreign government recognized the Confederacy as an independent country, although Great Britain and France granted it belligerent status, which allowed Confederate agents to contract with private concerns for arms and other supplies. In early 1865, after four years of heavy fighting which led to 620,000–850,000 military deaths, all the Confederate forces surrendered and the Confederacy vanished; the war lacked a formal end.
By 1865 Jefferson Davis, the President of the Confederate States of America for the duration of the civil war, lamented that the Confederacy had "disappeared". On February 22, 1862, the Confederate Constitution of seven state signatories – Mississippi, South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia and Texas – replaced the Provisional Constitution of February 8, 1861, with one stating in its preamble a desire for a "permanent federal government". Four additional slave-holding states – Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina – declared their secession and joined the Confederacy following a call by U. S. President Abraham Lincoln for troops from each state to recapture Sumter and other seized federal properties in the South. Missouri and Kentucky were represented by partisan factions adopting the forms of state governments without control of substantial territory or population in either case; the antebellum state governments in both maintained their representation in the Union. Fighting for the Confederacy were two of the "Five Civilized Tribes" – the Choctaw and the Chickasaw – in Indian Territory and a new, but uncontrolled, Confederate Territory of Arizona.
Efforts by certain factions in Maryland to secede were halted by federal imposition of martial law. A Unionist government was formed in opposition to the secessionist state government in Richmond and administered the western parts of Virginia, occupied by Federal troops; the Restored Government recognized the new state of West Virginia, admitted to the Union during the war on June 20, 1863, re-located to Alexandria for the rest of the war. Confederate control over its claimed territory and population in congressional districts shrank from 73% to 34% during the course of the American Civil War due to the Union's successful overland campaigns, its control of the inland waterways into the South, its blockade of the southern coast. With the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, the Union made abolition of slavery a war goal; as Union forces moved southward, large numbers of plantation slaves were freed. Many joined the Union lines, enrolling in service as soldiers and laborers; the most notable advance was Sherman's "March to the Sea" in late 1864.
Much of the Confederacy's infrastructure was destroyed, including telegraphs and bridges. Plantations in the path of Sherman's forces were damaged. Internal movement became difficult for Southerners, weakening the economy and limiting army mobility; these losses created an insurmountable disadvantage in men and finance. Public support for Confederate President Jefferson Davis's administration eroded over time due to repeated military reverses, economic hardships, allegations of autocratic government. After four years of campaigning, Richmond was captured by Union forces in April 1865. A few days General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant signalling the collapse of the Confederacy. President Davis was captured on May 10, 1865, jailed in preparation for a treason trial, never held; the initial Confederacy was established in the Montgomery Convention in February 1861 by seven states (South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana
The Ocmulgee River is a western tributary of the Altamaha River 255 mi long, in the U. S. state of Georgia. It is the westernmost major tributary of the Altamaha; the Ocmulgee River and its tributaries provide drainage for some 6,180 square miles in parts of 33 Georgia counties, a large section of the Piedmont and coastal plain of central Georgia. The Ocmulgee River basin has three river subbasins designated by the U. S. Geological Survey: the Upper Ocmulgee River subbasin; the name of the river may have come from a Hitchiti words oki plus molki meaning "where the water boils up." The river rises at a point in north central Georgia southeast of Atlanta, at the confluence of the Yellow and Alcovy rivers. Since the construction of the Lloyd Shoals Dam in the early 20th century, these rivers join as arms of the Jackson Lake reservoir; the river's source is formed at an elevation of around 530 feet above sea level. The Ocmulgee River flows from the dam southeast past Macon, founded on the Fall Line.
It joins the Oconee from the northwest to form the Altamaha near Lumber City. Four power plants in the Ocmulgee basin that use the river's water, including the coal-fired Plant Scherer in Juliette, operated by the Georgia Power Company. Plant Scherer is the seventh-largest power plant in the United States by capacity, the largest to be fueled by coal. A diverse array of fish—105 species in twenty-one families—inhabit the Ocmulgee River basin; the family with the largest representation in the river basin is Cyprinidae, with 27 species. It is followed by Centrarchidae; the Ocmulgee basin contains ten species in the family Ictaluridae and eight species of in the family Catostomidae. The river basin is inhabited by one State of Georgia-designated endangered fish species, the Altamaha shiner and two designated rare species, the goldstripe darter and redeye chub; the Ocmulgee River is popular with anglers for its excellent fishing for redbreast sunfish, redear sunfish, largemouth bass, black crappie, channel catfish, flathead catfish.
The world record for largest recorded catch of a largemouth bass was achieved in 1932 in Montgomery Lake, an oxbow lake off the Ocmulgee River in Telfair County. The record-setting fish, caught by farmer George Washington Perry, weighed 4 ounces; the International Game Fish Association declared the world record for largemouth bass tied in 2010, following Manabu Kurita's catch of a 22 pound, 4 ounce largemouth bass in Lake Biwa in Japan. There are some fifteen invasive species of fish. According to a Georgia Department of Natural Resources report, "many of these species are well-established and are detrimental to native fish populations; the fifteen invasives are threadfin shad, grass carp, blacktail shiner. Archeological evidence shows that Native Americans first inhabited the Ocmulgee basin about 10,000 to 15,000 years ago. Scraping tools and flint spearpoints from nomadic Paleoindians hunters have been discovered in the Ocmulgee floodplain. In the Archaic period which followed, hunter-gatherers in Ocmulgee basin used fiber-tempered pottery and stone tools.
During the Woodland period, there were various villages in the area, evidenced by earthen mounds and pottery sherds. There is evidence that the Mississippian culture reached the Ocmulgee basin by 900 CE; these areas are now part of the Ocmulgee National Monument, a National Park Service-administered protected area established in 1936. Europeans first explored the Ocmulgee basin in 1540, during the expedition of the Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto and his party, who visited the late Mississippian chiefdom of Ichisi, now identified by archeologists as the floodplain south of Macon; the Ichisi served corncakes, wild onion, roasted venison to De Soto and his party. Over the next hundred years, the Native Americans in the area were devastated from disease and chaos following European contract. Eli Whitney's invention of the cotton gin stimulated development of short-staple cotton plantations in the uplands, where it grew well; the gin made it profitable. Demand for land in the Southeast increased, as well as demand for slave labor in the Deep South.
In 1806, the U. S. acquired the area between the Oconee and Ocmulgee rivers from the Creek Indians by the First Treaty of Washington. That same year United States Army established Fort Benjamin Hawkins overlooking the Ocmulgee Fields. In 1819 the Creek held their last meeting at Ocmulgee Fields, they ceded this territory in 1821. In the same year, the McCall brother established a barge-building oper
Montgomery County, Georgia
Montgomery County is a county in the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 9,123; the county seat is Mount Vernon. Montgomery County is part of GA Micropolitan Statistical Area. Montgomery County is named in honor of Richard Montgomery, an American Revolutionary War general killed in 1775 while attempting to capture Quebec City, Canada, it was created on December 1793 from a southern portion of Washington County, Georgia. Arthur Lott's Plantation was designated the first county seat in 1797. In 1801, Tattnall County, Georgia was formed from the southern part of Montgomery County; the dividing line between Tatnall and Montgomery ran from the mouth of Limestone Creek on the Oconee River, just below modern Mount Vernon, Georgia, to the mouth of Wolf Creek on the Canoochee River below Metter, Georgia. On December 11, 1811, the county lines between Washington County, Montgomery County, Laurens County were adjusted by the Georgia General Assembly; the northern section of Montgomery between the Oconee River and the Ohoopee River was transferred to Laurens.
On December 10, 1812, the county line of Montgomery was adjusted as part of the creation of Emanuel County. Its new boundaries became from the Laurens and Telfair county line on the Oconee River to the north prong of the Little Ocmulgee River down the Little Ocmulgee River as it meanders to its confluence with the Ocmulgee River downstream as it meanders to the Oconee River North 30 degrees to Milligan's Creek in Tatnall County, with it to the Montgomery County line. Pendleton Creek was used as the border between Emanuel; because of these transitions Montgomery regained part of the land it had lost in the creation of Tatnall County in 1801, but lost land along the upper Oconee River to Laurens County. The creation of Emanuel County, put the old county seat within Emanuel's border. On December 12, the Georgia General Assembly appointed the justices of the inferior court of Montgomery county to a commission to designate a new county seat and called for county business to be held until at the home of James Alston.
In 1813, the General Assembly recognized Mount Vernon as the new county seat. The county line between Telfair County and Montgomery was adjusted once again in 1820 by the Georgia Genera Assembly; the new line differed in the upstream portion of the Little Ocmulgee River and better defined the line and gave Montgomery a small border with Pulaski County and Telfair County some land on the northeast side of the Little Ocmulgee River. The line was to go upstream to its fork to Browning's mill, a straight line to the mouth of Joiner's Creek at the second fork of the Little Ocmulgee River, up the second prong to Pulaski County Line; the land gained by Telfair County from Montgomery County on the northeast side of the Little Ocmulgee River was reversed by the Georgia General Assembly on December 18, 1833. At the time of the 1850 United States Census, Montgomery had 613 slaves. By the 1860 census, there were 2,014 whites, 977 slaves, 6 Free people of color; the pine barrens and soil quality outside of the river lands made the area unsuitable for slave-heavy cotton producing plantation culture.
Montgomery's status as a majority white county led the region developing different attitudes about secession from other areas of Georgia. On January 22, 1861, Montgomery County representatives, Thomas M. McRae and Solon Homer Latimer, were among the 89 delegates who voted no to Georgia's immediate secession from the Union at the state secession convention. In addition, McRae and Latimer were among the 6 delegates who voiced their protest by against the Ordinance of Secession in the published document. In the interior of the county around Gum Swamp near the Pulaski County, Telfair County, Montgomery County lines a deserter gang fought against Confederate forces. On August 18, 1905, Montgomery County gained and lost some territory during the creation of Toombs County. On August 14, 1912, the parts of Montgomery County between the Little Ocmulgee River and the Oconee River became Wheeler County. On August 21, 1917, Montgomery lost additional territory during the creation of Treutlen County, Georgia.
More the county was noted for its practice of organizing segregated proms, a practice that had continued since integration of its schools in the 1970s. Following publicity about this practice, Montgomery County students took the initiative to integrate the prom in 2010. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 245 square miles, of which 240 square miles is land and 5.2 square miles is water. The southeastern quarter of Montgomery County is located in the Altamaha River sub-basin of the larger river basin by the same name; the western half of the county, from Tarrytown south, is located in the Lower Oconee River sub-basin of the Altamaha River basin. The northeastern quarter of Montgomery County, northeast of a line from Tarrytown to Higgston, is located in the Ohoopee River sub-basin of the same Altamaha River basin. Treutlen County Toombs County Jeff Davis County Wheeler County As of the census of 2000, there were 8,270 people, 2,919 households, 2,063 families residing in the county.
The population density was 13/km². There were 3,492 housing units at an average density of 6/km²; the racial makeup of the county was 69.72% White, 27.24% Black or African American, 0.07% Native American, 0.19% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 2.13% from other races, 0.62% from two or more races. 3.28% of the population were