Cambridge Guildhall is a civic building designed in 1939 by Charles Cowles-Voysey in the centre of the historic city of Cambridge, England. It includes two halls, The Large Hall and The Small Hall, is used for many disparate events such as comedy acts, craft fairs, live music and weddings, it is used by University of Cambridge for certain examinations. It is owned and managed by Cambridge City Council, it is their seat of government; the Guildhall is located on the south side of Market Hill, the market square in Cambridge, between Peas Hill to the west and Guildhall Street to the east. The earliest known property on the site was a house owned by a wealthy Jew called Benjamin; the building was granted to the town by King Henry III in the 1220s. Part of it was used as a prison. An adjoining synagogue was leased to the Franciscans who moved to a convent on a site where Sidney Sussex College now stands; the premises became the Cambridge Town Hall or "Tolbooth" as it was known since its main function concerned tolls for entry to the town and trading at the market.
The building was raised on arches with market stalls below. The current Market Square was filled with buildings at the time and not cleared until 1849 when a major fire occurred. In 1747, a Shire Hall was built on the open area on arches with stalls beneath; the Shire Hall and the Tollbooth were connected by a wooden bridge over Butter Row, a market street with stalls selling dairy products. In 1842, after the Law Courts were built on Castle Hill, the Shire Hall and a new Town Hall built in 1782 on the site of the old one were combined into a single Guildhall; the present Guildhall on the site of the two original buildings, was completed in 1939, after the designs of Charles Cowles-Voysey. In 2009 the Guildhall was refurbished and offers better facilities for disabled access and box office sales. Cambridge Corn Exchange in Wheeler Street Guild Guildhall Museum Guildhall School of Music and Drama Hanseatic League Marketplace Merchant Retail The Cambridge Guildhall website
Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam 50 miles north of London. At the United Kingdom Census 2011, its population was 123,867 including 24,506 students. Cambridge became an important trading centre during the Roman and Viking ages, there is archaeological evidence of settlement in the area as early as the Bronze Age; the first town charters were granted in the 12th century, although modern city status was not conferred until 1951. The world-renowned University of Cambridge was founded in 1209; the buildings of the university include King's College Chapel, Cavendish Laboratory, the Cambridge University Library, one of the largest legal deposit libraries in the world. The city's skyline is dominated by several college buildings, along with the spire of the Our Lady and the English Martyrs Church, the chimney of Addenbrooke's Hospital and St John's College Chapel tower. Anglia Ruskin University, which evolved from the Cambridge School of Art and the Cambridgeshire College of Arts and Technology has its main campus in the city.
Cambridge is at the heart of the high-technology Silicon Fen with industries such as software and bioscience and many start-up companies born out of the university. More than 40% of the workforce have a higher education qualification, more than twice the national average; the Cambridge Biomedical Campus, one of the largest biomedical research clusters in the world, is soon to house premises of AstraZeneca, a hotel and the relocated Papworth Hospital. The first game of association football took place at Parker's Piece; the Strawberry Fair music and arts festival and Midsummer Fair are held on Midsummer Common, the annual Cambridge Beer Festival takes place on Jesus Green. The city is adjacent to the A14 roads. Cambridge station is less than an hour from London King's Cross railway station. Settlements have existed around the Cambridge area since prehistoric times; the earliest clear evidence of occupation is the remains of a 3,500-year-old farmstead discovered at the site of Fitzwilliam College.
Archaeological evidence of occupation through the Iron Age is a settlement on Castle Hill from the 1st century BC relating to wider cultural changes occurring in southeastern Britain linked to the arrival of the Belgae. The principal Roman site is a small fort Duroliponte on Castle Hill, just northwest of the city centre around the location of the earlier British village; the fort was bounded on two sides by the lines formed by the present Mount Pleasant, continuing across Huntingdon Road into Clare Street. The eastern side followed Magrath Avenue, with the southern side running near to Chesterton Lane and Kettle's Yard before turning northwest at Honey Hill, it was converted to civilian use around 50 years later. Evidence of more widespread Roman settlement has been discovered including numerous farmsteads and a village in the Cambridge district of Newnham. Following the Roman withdrawal from Britain around 410, the location may have been abandoned by the Britons, although the site is identified as Cair Grauth listed among the 28 cities of Britain by the History of the Britons.
Evidence exists that the invading Anglo-Saxons had begun occupying the area by the end of the century. Their settlement – on and around Castle Hill – became known as Grantebrycge. Anglo-Saxon grave goods have been found in the area. During this period, Cambridge benefited from good trade links across the hard-to-travel fenlands. By the 7th century, the town was less significant and described by Bede as a "little ruined city" containing the burial site of Etheldreda. Cambridge was on the border between the East and Middle Anglian kingdoms and the settlement expanded on both sides of the river; the arrival of the Vikings was recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 875. Viking rule, the Danelaw, had been imposed by 878 Their vigorous trading habits caused the town to grow rapidly. During this period the centre of the town shifted from Castle Hill on the left bank of the river to the area now known as the Quayside on the right bank. After the Viking period, the Saxons enjoyed a return to power, building churches such as St Bene't's Church, merchant houses and a mint, which produced coins with the town's name abbreviated to "Grant".
In 1068, two years after his conquest of England, William of Normandy built a castle on Castle Hill. Like the rest of the newly conquered kingdom, Cambridge fell under the control of the King and his deputies; the first town charter was granted by Henry I between 1120 and 1131. It recognised the borough court; the distinctive Round Church dates from this period. In 1209, Cambridge University was founded by students escaping from hostile townspeople in Oxford; the oldest existing college, was founded in 1284. In 1349 Cambridge was affected by the Black Death. Few records survive; the town north of the river was affected being wiped out. Following further depopulation after a second national epidemic in 1361, a letter from the Bishop of Ely suggested that two parishes in Cambridge be merged as there were not enough people to fill one church. With more than a third of English clergy dying in the Black Death, four new colleges were established at the university over the following years to train new clergymen, namely Gonville Hall, Trinity Hall, Corpus Christi and Clare.
In 1382 a revised town charter effects a "diminution of the liberties that the community had enjoyed", due to Cambridge's pa
Corn Exchange Street
Corn Exchange Street is a street in central Cambridge, England. It runs between Wheeler Street to the northwest and Downing Street to the southeast. To the northeast, Guildhall Place, a cul-de-sac, runs parallel with Corn Exchange Street at the northern end, an extension of Guildhall Street. On the northwest corner of Corn Exchange Street is the Cambridge Corn Exchange, a music and theatrical venue. To the southwest is the New Museums Site, a site of the University of Cambridge with several museums, such as the Cambridge University Museum of Zoology near the corner with Downing Street; the street acts as the main vehicle access and exit for a large multi-storey car park used by shoppers in central Cambridge. Roman pottery has been found in the area of Corn Market Street. Evidence for a number of ditches over the centuries and medieval settlement has been found on the northeast side of the street. Corn Exchange Street has been a street since at least the 16th century when it was known as Slaughter Lane.
The street straddles the line of the medieval King's Ditch. By 1574, the ditch was filled in at this location. On the far side of the ditch from the town centre, to the east of Slaughterhouse Lane was the Beast Market and a slaughteryard. To the west was a White Friars monastic house, straddling the ditch; the Corn Exchange was built in the 19th century and the northeast side consisted of small shops and inns. In the 20th century, the character of the street was changed through the development of the Lion Yard shopping centre, the associated multi-storey car park, a hotel. List of museums in Cambridge
The Lion Yard Shopping Centre is a covered shopping centre in the city centre of Cambridge, England. Construction work on the centre, bounded by St Andrew's Street, Corn Exchange Street, Petty Cury, commenced in 1970 and the development contained a library, multi-storey car park and magistrates' court, it predates and is smaller than either the Grafton Centre or the Grand Arcade. The latter connects directly to Lion Yard; the Grafton Centre is situated just outside the city centre, however it boasts large shops such as Debenhams which the Lion Yard does not have, due to its confined location. For many years a central feature of the atrium was a large white pillar with the statue of a large red lion on the top of it, safely out of easy reach; this recalled the Red Lion pub which had occupied the site until demolished in 1969. The lion statue is now at the Cambridge University R. U. F. C. Ground on Grange Road. Lion Yard was refurbished in the late 1990s/early 2000s. A constructed covered mall, Grand Arcade, adjoins Lion Yard on its south side.
The main shopping mall is centred around an atrium which benefits from exits. The retail element is concentrated on the ground floor; the Centre consists of a three-storey office block, an undercover external colonnade taking up one half of Petty Cury, external boutique shops opposite St Andrew the Great Church, many high street retailers internally along with housing the seventh busiest library in the UK. Although it is the smallest and oldest of the three shopping centres, continual investment in the scheme has ensured that the Centre continues to draw in the crowds. Lion Yard website Lion Yard in the 1970s
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
For museums named "university museum" see, University Museum A university museum is a repository of collections run by a university founded to aid teaching and research within the institution of higher learning. The Ashmolean Museum at the University of Oxford in England is an early example housed in the building, now the Museum of the History of Science. A more recent example is the Holburne Museum of Art in Bath constructed as a hotel in 1796 it is now the official museum of the University of Bath; the focus of university museums and galleries included curatorial research into, as well as the display of, ceremonial and didactic collections. For academics, these collections served as a valuable research resource. For students, museums performed both a leisure and learning function, developing their visual literacy, critical thinking, creative skills. Aside from campus, museums served their perspective city and town's communities, spreading museological literacy among the different target audiences.
With decades, the role of the university museums changed as they started to become more open and receptive to the cultural needs of the public. Public educational outreach is considered now by many university museums as an integral part of their mission, some adopt a market approach. Changes and decentralization of the institutional values coinciding with budgeting shortfalls in some cases "gave rise to tensions and a lack of cohesive identity among a demoralized staff". Many campus museums "have critical needs for facilities and support". In the 21st century, despite the challenges brought by transition, the university museums not only continue to play important role in object-based learning but perform important civic and cultural functions for the larger society. Organizationally, university museums are represented by a variety of historical and novel entities, such as anatomical theaters and archeology museums, natural science and art museums, history museums, planetariums and aquariums, archives and house-museums and arts centers, hospital museums, contemporary art galleries, as well as discipline-specific collections hosted by academic departments and institutes.
In general, university museums and collections are classified based on disciplinary criteria or the nature of the artifacts. In Europe the number of the university museums and collections is estimated as 12,914; the first university museums can be traced to the medieval universities and their teaching collections to support medical education — the physic, or botanical and the anatomical theatre. The first hortus medicus was established in Italy in either Padua or Pisa in the 1540s and the first theatrum anatomicum in Padua in 1594 for the purpose of educating both the apothecaries and doctors. In the beginning of the 17th century, anatomical theaters were established at the universities of Bologna, Ferrara and Montpellier. There are records that document the use of Pisa’s hortus medicus opened in the 1590s as a teaching museum. Soon, the teaching museum model was adopted by painters and architects; the cabinets of physics and chemistry followed the suit. At the University of Oxford, the picture gallery of Christ Church College was founded in 1546.
In 1671, the University of Basel granted public access to the Basilius Amerbach’s cabinet, donated by the city of Basel. However, the Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology, opened in 1683 is perceived as the first university museum on record. In the following centuries the diversity and complexity of the university museums and collections increased. University Museums and Collections — an international association of university museums and collections. UNIVERSEUM - European Academic Heritage Network Danilov, V. J.. University and college museums and related facilities: A descriptive directory. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press. Marta C. Lourenço. Between two worlds: The distinct nature and contemporary significance of university museums and collections in Europe. PhD dissertation, Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers, October, 2005. UMAC Worldwide Database of University Museums & Collections The Best University Art Museums in America, Architectural Digest, August 31, 2015
Cambridge Corn Exchange
Cambridge Corn Exchange is a concert venue located in Cambridge, England with a capacity up to 1,738 people. The site, on the corner of Wheeler Street and Corn Exchange Street, was earmarked for a new Corn Exchange in 1868 to replace the existing corn exchange on St Andrew's Hill to the east. In the Middle Ages the Priory of Friars Hermits was located on the site, the remains of which were passed to a museum in New Zealand. Designed by Cambridge architect Richard Reynolds Rowe in the Florentine Gothic style, the foundation stone was laid by the Mayor in 1874 and the building was opened in 1875. A quarter of a million local bricks were used in various colours; the opening concert was a performance on 9 November by the Coldstream Guards and a local choral society. During the playing of the national anthem a mistake was made, angry crowds subsequently attacked the Mayor's house; the resulting trial attracted the world's press and resulted in crowds of sightseers making visits to the building, interfering with the corn trading.
The site was a popular location for events throughout the 20th centuries. The first Motor Show of many was held in 1898, the venue hosted the London Symphony Orchestra in 1925 and one thousand people were welcomed to a Tea For a Thousand in 1935. During the 1940s the venue was used to repair rifles by local women. After the war, the venue was popular for boxing and roller skating; the floor was marked out for badminton matches which were held in the building. A temporary wooden bridge across Wheeler Street was constructed in the 1950s to join it to the neighbouring Guildhall for balls and other events. In 1965, the venue ceased being used for trading after the Cattle Market site was opened as an alternative. In the 1970s the building was used for one-day exhibitions. In 1972 Syd Barrett made his last public appearance at the venue supporting MC5. In 1974 1,000 fans caused a riot; the venue was closed in 1981 after the roof was found to be unsafe and following complaints from local residents about noise levels.
The building was refitted following public pressure and various grants and donations, with the first concert taking place on 3 December 1986 starring Box Car Willie, though an official reopening occurred the following February with a performance by the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra. The venue is presently managed by Cambridge Live, a charity created by Cambridge City Council in 2015, it is used for numerous touring events, including music groups and theatre groups. Performers who have played at the venue include The Who, Pink Floyd, Jethro Tull, My Bloody Valentine, Manic Street Preachers, Barenaked Ladies, The Smiths, Iron Maiden, David Bowie, Tin Machine, Paul Rodgers, Gary Moore, Lily Allen, James Bay, Take That, NXT UK, Shane Filan of Westlife, it is used as an examination hall for students at the University of Cambridge, hosts the graduation ceremony for Anglia Ruskin University. Official website Venue history