The breaking wheel or execution wheel known as the Catherine wheel or the Wheel, was a torture method used for public execution in Europe from antiquity through Middle Ages into the early modern period by breaking a criminal's bones and/or bludgeoning them to death. The practice was abolished in Bavaria in 1813 and in the Electorate of Hesse in 1836: the last known execution by the "Wheel" took place in Prussia in 1841. In the Holy Roman Empire, it was a "mirror punishment" for highwaymen and street thieves but was set out in the Sachsenspiegel for murder and arson; those convicted as murderers and/or robbers to be executed by the wheel, sometimes termed to be "wheeled" or "broken by the wheel", would be taken to a public stage scaffold site and tied to the floor. The execution wheel was a large wooden spoked wheel, the same as was used on wooden transport carts and carriages, sometimes purposely modified with a rectangular iron thrust attached and extending blade-like from part of the rim.
The primary goal of the first act was the agonizing mutilation of the body, not death. Therefore, the most common form would start with breaking the leg bones. To this end, the executioner dropped the execution wheel on the shinbones of the convicted person and worked his way up to the arms. Here and number of beatings were prescribed in each case, sometimes the number of spokes on the wheel. To increase its effect sharp-edged timbers were placed under the convict's joints. There were devices in which the convicted person could be "harnessed". Although not commonplace, the executioner could be instructed to execute the convicted person at the end of the first act, by aiming for the neck or heart in a "coup de grace". Less this occurred from the start. In the second act, the body was braided into another wooden spoked wheel, possible through the broken limbs, or tied to the wheel; the wheel was erected on a mast or pole, like a crucifixion. After this, the executioner was permitted to garrotte the convicted if need be.
Alternatively, fire was kindled under the wheel, or the "wheeled" convict was thrown into a fire. A small gallows was set up on the wheel, for example, if there were a guilty verdict for theft in addition to murder. Since the body remained on the wheel after execution, left to scavenging animals and decay, this form of punishment, like the ancient crucifixion, had a sacral function beyond death: according to the belief at that time, this would hinder transition from death to resurrection. If the convict fell from the wheel still alive or the execution failed in some other way, it was interpreted as God's intervention. There exist votive images of saved victims of the wheel, there is literature on how best to treat such sustained injuries; the survival time after being "wheeled" or "broken" could be extensive. Accounts exist of a 14th-century murderer who remained conscious for three days after undergoing the punishment. In 1348, during the time of the Black Death, a Jewish man named; the authorities stated he remained conscious for nights afterwards.
In 1581, the fictitious German serial killer Christman Genipperteinga remained conscious for nine days on the breaking wheel before expiring, having been deliberately kept alive with "strong drink". Alternatively, the condemned were spreadeagled and broken on a saltire, a cross consisting of two wooden beams nailed in an "X" shape, after which the victim's mangled body might be displayed on the wheel. Pieter Spierenburg mentions a reference in sixth-century author Gregory of Tours as a possible origin for the punishment of breaking someone on the wheel. In Gregory's time, a criminal could be placed in a deep track, a laden wagon was driven over him. Thus, the latter practice could be seen as a symbolic re-enactment of the previous penalty in which people were driven over by a wagon. In France, the condemned were placed on a cartwheel with their limbs stretched out along the spokes over two sturdy wooden beams; the wheel was made to revolve and a large hammer or an iron bar was applied to the limb over the gap between the beams, breaking the bones.
This process was repeated several times per limb. Sometimes it was "mercifully" ordered that the executioner should strike the condemned on the chest and abdomen, blows known as coups de grâce, which caused fatal injuries. Without those, the broken man could last hours and days, during which birds could peck at the helpless victim. Shock and dehydration caused death. In France, a special grace, the retentum, could be granted, by which the condemned was strangled after the second or third blow, or in special cases before the breaking began. In the Holy Roman Empire, the wheel was punishment reserved for men convicted of aggravated murder. Less severe offenders would be cudgelled "top down", with a lethal first blow to the neck. More heinous criminals were punished "bottom up", starting with the legs, sometimes being beaten for hours; the number and sequence of blows was specified in the court's sentence. Corpses were left for carrion-eaters, the criminals' heads placed on a spike; the "Zürcher Blutgerichtsordnung" dates from the 15th century and contains a detailed description of how the breaking on the wheel shall occur: Firstly, the del
Wheeling, West Virginia
Wheeling is a city in Ohio and Marshall counties in the U. S. state of West Virginia. Located entirely in Ohio County, of which it is the county seat, it lies along the Ohio River in the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains. Wheeling was a settlement in the British colony of Virginia and an important city in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Wheeling was the first state capital of West Virginia. Due to its location along major transportation routes, including the Ohio River, National Road, the B&O Railroad, Wheeling became a manufacturing center in the late nineteenth century. After experiencing the closing of factories and substantial population loss following World War II, Wheeling's major industries now include healthcare, education and legal services and tourism, energy. Wheeling is the principal city of WV-OH Metropolitan Statistical Area; as of the 2010 census, the MSA had a population of 147,950, the city itself had a population of 28,486. The origins of the name "Wheeling" are disputed. One of the more credible explanations is that the word comes from the Lenni-Lenape phrase wih link or wee lunk, which meant "place of the head" or "place of the skull."
This name referred to a white settler, scalped and decapitated. His severed head was displayed at the confluence of the Ohio River. Native Americans had inhabited the area for thousands of years. In the 17th century, the Iroquois from present-day New York state conquered the upper Ohio Valley, pushing out other tribes and maintaining the area as their hunting ground. Explored by the French, Wheeling still has a lead plate remnant that the explorer Céloron de Blainville buried in 1749 at the mouth of Wheeling Creek to mark his claim. Christopher Gist and George Washington surveyed the land in 1751 and 1770, respectively. During the fall of 1769, Ebenezer Zane explored the Wheeling area and established claim to the land via "tomahawk rights.". He returned the following spring with his wife Elizabeth and his younger brothers and Silas. Other families joined the settlement, including the Shepherds, the Wetzels, the McCollochs. In 1787, the United States gave Virginia this portion of lands west of the Appalachians, some to Pennsylvania at its western edge, to settle their claims.
By the Northwest Ordinance that year, it established the Northwest Territory to cover other lands north of the Ohio River and west to the Mississippi River. Settlers began to move into new areas along the Ohio. In 1793, Ebenezer Zane divided the town into lots, Wheeling was established as a town in 1795 by legislative enactment; the town was incorporated January 16, 1805. On March 11, 1836, the town of Wheeling was incorporated into the city of Wheeling. By an act of the Virginia General Assembly on December 27, 1797, Wheeling was named the county seat of Ohio County. Dubbed Fort Fincastle in 1774, the fort was renamed Fort Henry in honor of Virginia's American governor, Patrick Henry. In 1777, Native Americans of the Shawnee and Mingo tribes joined to attack pioneer settlements along the upper Ohio River, which were illegal according to the Crown's Proclamation of 1763, they hoped. Local men defended the fort joined by recruits from Fort Shepherd and Fort Holliday; the native force destroyed livestock.
During the first attack of the year, Major Samuel McColloch led a small force of men from Fort Vanmetre along Short Creek to assist the besieged Fort Henry. Separated from his men, McColloch was chased by attacking Indians. Upon his horse, McColloch charged up Wheeling Hill and made what is known as McColloch's Leap 300 feet down its eastern side. In 1782, a native army along with British soldiers attempted to take Fort Henry. During this siege, Fort Henry's supply of ammunition was exhausted; the defenders decided to dispatch a man to secure more ammunition from the Zane homestead. Betty Zane volunteered for the dangerous task. During her departing run, she was heckled by both British soldiers. After reaching the Zane homestead, she filled it with gunpowder. During her return, she was uninjured; as a result of her heroism, Fort Henry remained in American control. The National Road arrived in Wheeling in 1818, linking the Ohio River to the Potomac River, allowing goods from the Ohio Valley to flow through Wheeling and on to points east.
As the endpoint of National Road, Wheeling became a gateway to early western expansion. In 1849 the Wheeling Suspension Bridge crossed the Ohio River and allowed the city to expand onto Wheeling Island. Lessons learned constructing. Rail transportation reached Wheeling in 1853 when the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad connected Wheeling to Pennsylvania and markets in the Northeast. A bridge over the river connected it to Bellaire and western areas. Much of this area had been settled by yeomen farmers. With the railroad, a larger industrial or mercantile middle-class developed that depended on free labor; the Wheeling Intelligencer newspaper expressed the area's anti-secession sentiment as tensions rose over slavery and national issues. The city became part of the movement of western areas to secede from Vir
Fort Wheeling, or Wheeling, is the title of a comics series set in colonial North America, by Italian comics creator Hugo Pratt. Wheeling first appeared in the Argentine comics magazine Misterix in 1962; the series has since 1972 been reprinted in several editions, among these collections by publishers Florenzo Ivaldi and Les Humanoïdes Associés. Patrick Fitzgerald and Chris Kenton, are young soldiers serving on the frontier of Great Britain's American colonies just prior to the American Revolution. During the French and Indian war they fall in love with the beautiful Mohena, a captive rescued from the Shawnee Indians; when the American Revolution begins, the two friends choose different sides. Fort Wheeling French album publications Bedetheque Page sur Fort Wheeling du site www.archivespratt.com
Wheeling, Gibson County, Indiana
Wheeling is an unincorporated community in Washington Township, Gibson County, United States. The community contains a historic covered bridge over the Patoka River, the Wheeling Bridge, completed in 1877. Wheeling was named Kirksville, under the latter name was platted in 1856, it was once a thriving agricultural community on the banks of the Patoka River until the railroad bypassed the community and it lost business to nearby towns. The village of Wheeling was platted July 4, 1856, it was first called Kirksville, sometimes spelled Kirkville. It may have been named for an early judge. Locally it was called Bovine. A Post Office called Bovine was established on April 4, 1854 but closed July 14, 1902
Off-roading is the activity of driving or riding a vehicle on unsurfaced roads or tracks, made of materials such as sand, riverbeds, snow and other natural terrain. Types of off-roading range in intensity, from leisure drives with unmodified vehicles to competitions with customized vehicles and professional drivers. Off-roaders have been met with criticism for the environmental damage caused by their vehicles. There have been extensive debates over the role of government in regulating the sport, including a Supreme Court case brought against the Bureau of Land Management. Travelling on off-road terrains require vehicles capable of accommodating off-road driving such as ATVs; these vehicles accommodate off-road conditions with extended ground clearance, off-road tires and drive-train. Some manufacturers offer vehicles meant for off-road use; some examples of recreational off-roading include the following: Dune bashing is a form of off-roading on sand dunes. A Large sport utility vehicle such as the Toyota Land Cruiser is an example of vehicle used.
Vehicles driven on dunes may be equipped with a roll cage in case of an overturn. Before entering the desert in an everyday-use SUV or pickup, it is essential to reduce the tire pressure; this is done to gain more traction by increasing the footprint of the tire and, reducing the ground pressure of the vehicle on the sand as there is a greater surface area. For example, tires with a recommended pressure of 35 psi would be reduced to 12-14 psi. A common modification is to fit beadlock rims, which allow tire pressure to be lowered further, without risking tire and rim separation. Upon entering the desert, it is common to meet with a pack of vehicles and a group leader before proceeding; the group leader leads the pack through the stunts in single file. The main reason for this technique is to prevent vehicles from losing track of direction and getting lost. High speed racing in the open desert includes chases and racing on a rough desert terrain with numerous pots and bumps at the maximum speed.
Drivers use RWD and 4WD trucks with long travel suspension, wide stance on the front and large tires which allows to maintain optimal stability at the high speed. This type of trucks is called Prerunner. Rock Racing is similar to rock crawling in the fact that the vehicles are driven over rocks, the difference is that there are no penalties for hitting cones, backing up or winching as is done in rock crawling. Rock racing involves a degree of high-speed racing not seen in typical rock crawling. Unlike stationary dune bashing that tends to revolve around a single star dune or one obstacle, cross-country off-roading is an activity that lasts several days on routes with desert or other terrains. Routes in Africa have obstacles in uninhabited and uncharted terrain; these circuit routes are over 50 km and around 300 km long This is a type of travel undertaken with a 4x4 that goes over tracks and contains some bits of off-roading. Traditionally these trips are going through uninhabited areas. Popular are the deserts in Tunisia and other North African countries, continent crossing trips through Africa, trips through Mongolia or Northern Scandinavia.
Typical modifications to vehicles for this kind of travel are the addition of extra fuel tanks, roof rack tents, elaborate storage systems in the back for food, water/drinking, spare parts and other cargo. Due to the extra weight the suspension is reinforced with stronger springs, shock absorbers etc... Green laning is a leisure pursuit suitable for any four-wheel-drive vehicle those without modifications or additional equipment; the term green lane refers to the fact that the routes are predominantly along unsurfaced tracks, forest tracks, or older roadways that may have fallen into disuse. In the UK they are roads which are not maintained in any way and will include fords. Mudding is off-roading through an area of wet clay; the goal is to drive through as far as possible without becoming stuck. There are many types of tires; some tires are mud-terrain tires and paddle tires. This activity is popular in the United States, although it is illegal on public land due to the environmental impact. Rock crawling is a category of off-roading.
Vehicles used for rock crawling are modified with different tires, suspension components that allow greater axle articulation, changes in the differential gear ratio in order to obtain characteristics suitable for low speed operation for traversing obstacles. It is common for a rock crawler to have a "spotter", an assistant on foot by the vehicle to provide information to the driver about the areas out of sight to the driver. All progress is made at low speed and the emphasis is on skill, rather than finishing first although trialing can be competitive. There are three traditional forms of off-road trailing. RTV trialing is the most common form of trialing; as the name suggests, it is for vehicles. This excludes vehicles that are modified or specially built. RTV-class vehicles can carry a wide range of suspension modifications, as well as off-road tires, recovery winches, raised air intakes etc. Vehicles on RTV trials are usually
Wheeling and Lake Erie Railway (1990)
The Wheeling and Lake Erie Railway is a Class II regional railroad that provides freight service in the U. S. state of Ohio. It took its name from the former Wheeling and Lake Erie Railway, most of which it bought from the Norfolk and Western Railway in 1990. In 1990, the Norfolk and Western Railway, a subsidiary of the Norfolk Southern Railway, sold portions of its lines in Ohio and Pennsylvania, including most of the lines of the former W&LE and the Akron and Youngstown Railroad, as well as a lease on the Pittsburgh and West Virginia Railroad, to the Wheeling Acquisition Corporation; the name was changed to the Lake Erie Railway in May, before operations began. At its formation, trackage rights on Norfolk Southern were extended to the new organization to serve several limestone quarries in the Bellevue, Ohio area and with CSX Transportation from Connellsville, Pennsylvania to Hagerstown, Maryland, a remnant of the old Alphabet Route of which the original W&LE was a part. W&LE maintains trackage rights from Wellington to Cleveland on CSX.
The only portions of the original W&LE operated by companies other than the current W&LE are the NS line west of Bellevue. W&LE still serves the Huron Docks using trackage rights on NS's former Nickel Plate Road line from Bellevue and a connecting line to the docks built by the NKP in 1952. A few other small portions of the original W&LE and AC&Y have been abandoned and/or replaced with trackage rights on parallel lines by W&LE. W&LE has trackage rights to Lima, that used CSX lines from Carey to Upper Sandusky to Lima, but after the lease of the CSX line by RailAmerica's Chicago, Fort Wayne and Eastern Railroad, W&LE now uses trackage rights from its lines at New London to Crestline, Ohio on CSX west on the CF&E to Lima; these trackage rights were a result of the Conrail split. W&LE lines interchange with three major Class I railroads. Many of the major commodities remain the same as in the early days: coal from southeastern Ohio. Branch lines reach as far south as Benwood, West Virginia and as far east as Connellsville, Pennsylvania.
The W&LE joins the Southwest Pennsylvania Railroad at Pennsylvania. The W&LE owns 575 miles of track and retains trackage rights on another 265 miles. Media related to Wheeling and Lake Erie Railway at Wikimedia Commons Wheeling and Lake Erie Railway
The English wheel, in Britain known as a wheeling machine, is a metalworking tool that enables a craftsperson to form compound curves from flat sheets of metal such as aluminium or steel. The process of using an English wheel is known as wheeling. Panels produced this way are expensive, due to the skilled and labour-intensive production method, but it has the key advantage that it can flexibly produce different panels using the same machine, it is a forming machine that works by surface stretching and is related in action to panel beating processes. It is used. English wheel production is at its highest in low-volume sports car production when more formed aluminium alloy is used. Where high-volume production runs of panels are required, the wheel is replaced by a stamping press that has a much higher capital setup cost and longer development time than using an English wheel, but each panel in the production run can be produced in a matter of seconds; this cost is defrayed across a larger production run, but a stamping press is limited to only one model of panel per set of dies.
The English wheel model shown is manually operated, but when used on thicker sheet metals such as for ship hulls the machine may be powered and much larger than the one shown here. The machine is shaped like a large, closed letter "C". At the ends of the C, there are two wheels; the wheel on the top is called the rolling wheel, while the wheel on the bottom is called the anvil wheel. The anvil wheel has a smaller radius than the rolling wheel. Although larger machines exist, the rolling wheel is 8 cm wide or less, 25 cm in diameter, or less; the rolling wheel is flat in cross section. The depth of the C-shaped frame is called the throat; the largest machines have throat sizes of 120 cm, while smaller machines have throat sizes of about 60 cm. The C is supported by a frame; the throat size determines the largest size of metal sheet that the operator can place in the machine and work easily. On some machines, the operator can turn the top wheel and anvil 90 degrees to the frame to increase the maximum size of the work piece.
Because the machine works by an amount of pressure between the wheels through the material, because that pressure changes as the material becomes thinner, the lower jaw and cradle of the frame that holds the anvil roller is adjustable. It may move with a hydraulic jack on machines designed for steel plate, or a jackscrew on machines designed for sheet metals; as the material thins, the operator must adjust the pressure to compensate. Frame designs are the most significant element of this simple device. For the most part wheels have changed little since the 19th century; the early English machines, such as Edwards, Brown and Ranalah, etc. had cast iron frames. These wheels, made during the 19th Century, had Babbitt metal plain bearings, making them difficult to push and pull the metal through when operated at high pressures; when ball bearings came into use, the machines became more suitable for hard and thick material, such as 1/8” steel. Despite the advantages of cast iron, it has less than half the stiffness of steel and sometimes must be replaced by steel when a stiffer frame is needed.
Steel frames made of solid flame-cut plate, or frames built-up of cut-and-welded plates, are common designs. Steel tubing of square section, has been used for wheeling machine frames during the past 30 years, in the US where sheet metal shaping has become a hobby as well as a business. Tube-framed machines are reasonably-priced and are available either as kit-built machines or can be built from plans; the stiffest tubular frames have a triangulated external bracing truss. They are most effective on softer materials, such as 20 ga steel or.063" aluminum. Cast frame machines, like the one pictured, are still available. A properly equipped machine has an assortment of anvil wheels. Anvil wheels, like dollies used with hammers in panel beating should be used to match the desired crown or curvature of the work piece; the operator of the machine passes the sheet metal between the rolling wheel. This process causes it to become thinner; as the material stretches, it forms a convex surface over the anvil wheel.
This surface is known as "crown". A high crown surface is curved, a low crown surface is curved; the rigidity and strength in the surface of a workpiece is provided by the high crown areas. The radius of the surface, after working, depends on the degree that the metal in the middle of the work piece stretches relative to the edge of the piece. If the middle stretches too much, the operator can recover the shape by wheeling the edge of the piece. Wheeling the edge has the same effect in correcting mis-shape due to over-stretching in the middle, as does shrinking directly on the overstretched area by the use of heat shrinking or Eckold-type shrinking; this is. Shrinking the edge prior to wheeling aids the formation of shape during wheeling, reduces the amount of stretching and thinning needed to reach the final shape. Shrinking processes reduce the surface area by thickenin