1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
Okolona is a town near the western edge of Clark County, United States. The population was 147 at the 2010 census; the Battle of Elkin's Ferry of the Civil War was fought here during April 3–4, 1864, as a part of the Camden Expedition. Union forces, led by Maj. Gen. Fred Steele, sought to ford the Little Missouri River, as the local roads were impassable; the force reached Elkin's Ferry before the Confederate cavalry brigades, led by Brig. Gen. John S. Marmaduke, the Confederates were defeated. Okolona has several churches. Okolona is located in western Clark County at 34°0′2″N 93°20′15″W. Arkansas Highway 51 passes through the community, leading northeast 21 miles to Arkadelphia, the county seat, south 8 miles to Interstate 30. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.77 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 160 people, 70 households, 45 families residing in the town; the population density was 79.2/km². There were 86 housing units at an average density of 42.6/km².
The racial makeup of the town was 68.12% White and 31.88% Black or African American. There were 70 households out of which 22.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.1% were married couples living together, 5.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.7% were non-families. 34.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.96. In the town, the population was spread out with 20.0% under the age of 18, 9.4% from 18 to 24, 24.4% from 25 to 44, 24.4% from 45 to 64, 21.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.0 males. The median income for a household in the town was $30,833, the median income for a family was $35,000. Males had a median income of $30,500 versus $17,500 for females; the per capita income for the town was $14,318.
None of the families and 0.6% of the population were living below the poverty line. Public education for elementary and secondary school students is provided by the Gurdon School District with area students graduating from Gurdon High School, it was served by the Okolona School District until that district was dissolved on July 1, 1987. The Gurdon district was one of several absorbing territory from the former Okolona district. List of towns in Arkansas Media related to Okolona, Arkansas at Wikimedia Commons
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Little Missouri River (Arkansas)
The Little Missouri River, or Little Mo, is a 147-mile-long waterway that runs from the Ouachita Mountains of southwest Arkansas into the rolling hills area in the surrounding countryside. The Little Missouri River is a rocky mountain river; this river has numerous small waterfalls, crystal clear water, outstanding scenery including towering rocky bluffs crowned with pine. The Little Missouri River was so named because its lower reaches were said to remind early French explorers of the Missouri River. Mouth Confluence with the Ouachita River in Ouachita County, Arkansas 33°48′30″N 92°54′01″W Source Mountains of Polk County, Arkansas 34°26′47″N 94°01′02″W The Little Missouri flows in a north-to-south direction through Pike and Montgomery on the western side of the Ouachita River; the Little Missouri River is south of, runs parallel to, the Caddo River, before flowing into the Ouachita River above Camden, Arkansas. The largest tributary of the Little Missouri River is the Antoine River; the Little Missouri River is intermittently navigable to small boats below its confluence with the Antoine River, although it is used.
The Little Missouri River is dammed by forms Lake Greeson. The upper stretches of the Little Missouri River above Lake Greeson descend 1,035 feet in 29 miles for an average drop of 35 feet per mile; this makes the upper waters of the river excellent for experienced canoers. There is a 4.4-mile long segment, designated as a wild river. This segment contains the Winding Stair Rapid, classified as a Class IV rapid on the International Scale of River Difficulty. Another attraction on the upper river is Little Missouri Falls, a staircasestep fall that attracts photographers and visitors; the upper reaches of the Little Missouri were considered so scenic that the area was once approved by Congress to become Ouachita National Park, until this action was vetoed by President Herbert Hoover. The watershed of the Little Missouri River is quite small, which means that its upper reaches ordinarily contain little water during the dry summer months; the Little Missouri River is a superior fishing stream for rainbow trout, green sunfish, longear sunfish, smallmouth bass, spotted bass, other species.
The area below the dam at Lake Greeson is most popular for trout fishermen. Portions of the Little Missouri River flow through the Ouachita National Forest, the lower segment flows past the Crater of Diamonds State Park; the Albert Pike Campground provides camping facilities for visitors to the area. The Little Missouri is listed as Scenic River" by the United States Forest Service; the upper reaches of the river are designated as an "Arkansas Natural and Scenic River" by the State. During the American Civil War the Battle of Elkin's Ferry was fought on the Little Missouri, 10 miles north of Prescott, Arkansas, at the Clark-Nevada County line. During the night of June 10–11, 2010 a flash flood along Little Missouri killed at least eighteen people in the campgrounds of the Albert Pike Recreational Area. In a matter of less than four hours water rose from three feet to over twenty-three feet. List of Arkansas rivers Little Missouri River and Lake Greeson
Amity is a city in Clark County, United States. The population was 723 at the 2010 census; the city began on the Caddo River in the mid-19th century when William F. Browning and others, including A. B. Clingman, at various times moved to the area. Amity was founded in 1847 by several pioneer families from the Mount Bethel area of Clark County under the leadership of William F. Browning, who served as the Clark County surveyor from 1846 until his death in 1854; the group settled along the Caddo River, drawn to the area by an abundance of rich bottomland and fresh water. Browning constructed a two-story log house just west of Caney Creek, which soon became the center of the expanding community, it was Browning. Together with other citizens, Browning formed the Caddo Valley Baptist Church of Christ, which before several other names would develop into the Bethel Missionary Baptist Church in Glenwood and First Baptist Church in Amity, it is thought to be the first religious organization in the area, though A.
B. Clingman, a physician and minister associated with the Church of Christ was in the area before Browning's group arrived. Browning's group built a large log house that would serve as the school house; the first school teacher was Captain Robert S. Burke, a former military officer and Browning's brother-in-law. A few months the first Amity Post Office was established nearby. With the outbreak of the Civil War, the community saw dark times. In support of the Confederacy, soon the community became divided, with the men of Amity leaving to fight in both the Confederate Army and the Union Army. In several cases, families were split by their loyalties, causing turmoil within the small community. Midway through the war, Union soldiers burned the Browning cotton press. Following the war's end, the center of the community shifted to a location 2 miles south of the Caddo River, first settled by John Hays Allen and Amariah Biggs. Biggs was known as a physician and Methodist minister, first settled in the area around 1850.
The Amity Post Office was soon after relocated to this area. In 1870, retired army Colonel Philander Curtis, a Connecticut native, settled in the area. Curtis built the first house where the town of Amity now stands, served for several years as the town's postmaster. In 1871, Col. Curtis and businessmen Riley Thompson and Jacob H. Lightsey purchased property from John Hays Allen, on that property they laid out plans for the town, centering on a public square. By 1874 Amity had become a thriving village, with churches. In 1877 an adjacent area became "Amity Township", in 1880 the town made a move to become incorporated, but it did not come to pass until 1907. In the late 1870s a new schoolhouse was built, its first teacher was son of Captain Robert Burke. The residents formed the Amity Male and Female Academy, which became Amity High School. Richard Burke died in 1883, the school struggled until 1888, when Samual M. Samson arrived in Amity. Samson spent the next twenty years as the head of the high school, which at that time was a private school.
After his departure, it was absorbed into the Amity Public School System. In 1887, a false rumor that gold had been discovered in an area known as the Trap Mountains resulted in a brief gold rush, which ended when the rumor proved false. Shortly after 1900, the Gurdon and Fort Smith Railroad was constructed through Amity improving the economy of the town. Soon, the logging industry began to thrive, with large sawmills opening in Glenwood. Amity became a main shipping and trade center for the area, in 1905 the Bank of Amity opened, which now is on the National Register of Historic Places. In 1899 the town's first newspaper, the Amity Enterprise, went into circulation, followed by the Four-County Courier in 1915 and the Amity Owl in 1922. Just before World War II, the shortage of cinnabar caused a brief but productive mining industry in the nearby mountains south of the town, a phenomenon which became known as the Quicksilver Rush. However, any significant mining had ended by 1940, following the war and an increased worldwide supply, the mines closed.
With the Bean Lumber Company opening in 1940, followed by the Barksdale Lumber Company, logging soon became the main source of employment for the town. At its peak, the Bean Lumber Company was producing more than 150 million board feet of pine lumber and 120 million board feet of treated lumber annually, making it one of the largest distributors of southern pine in the United States; the Bean Lumber Company would open mills in Glenwood and in Buckner, Missouri. A. J. Hunter, who had come to town in 1905 to manage the city's first telephone exchange and who would upon the closure of the city's newspaper, begin The Owl, sold the paper in the 1940s to Marvin C. Bass of Little Rock; the paper operated until the mid-1950s and closed, though no one remembers when or why it closed. By 2007 Bean Lumber was struggling financially, was under investigation for financial matters; the Amity mill closed, though the treatment plants remained open. The Glenwood mill, which employed many Amity residents and did not reopen until 2008.
All of these events affected the local economy, diminishing employment opportunities in the community, as well as diminishing the population of the town, with many people being forced to search for work elsewhere. In 1995, Amity School District merged with Glenwood School District to create Centerpoint High School, located midway between the two towns, in Rosboro, Pike County; the private Ouachita Hills Academy and Ouachita Hills College, associated with the Seventh-day Adventis
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi