The Remains of the Day
The Remains of the Day is a 1989 novel by the Nobel Prize-winning British author Kazuo Ishiguro. The story is told from a first-person point of view; the narrator, Stevens, is a butler with a long record of service at Darlington Hall, a stately home near Oxford, England. In the mid-1950s, he takes a road trip to visit a former colleague, reminisces about events at Darlington Hall in the 1920s and 1930s; the work received the Man Booker Prize for Fiction in 1989. A film adaptation of the novel, made in 1993 and starring Anthony Hopkins and Emma Thompson, was nominated for eight Academy Awards; the novel tells, in first-person narration, the story of Stevens, an English butler who has dedicated his life to the loyal service of Lord Darlington. The novel begins in 1956, with Stevens receiving a letter from a former colleague, the housekeeper Miss Kenton, describing her married life, which Stevens believes hints at an unhappy marriage. Furthermore, Darlington Hall is short-staffed and could use a skilled housekeeper like Miss Kenton.
Stevens starts to consider paying Miss Kenton a visit. His employer, a wealthy American named Mr. Farraday, encourages Stevens to borrow his car to take a well-earned vacation-—a "motoring trip". Stevens accepts, sets out for Cornwall, where Miss Kenton lives. During his journey, Stevens reflects on his unshakable loyalty to Lord Darlington, who had hosted lavish meetings between German sympathizers and English aristocrats in an effort to influence international affairs in the years leading up to World War II. Stevens is forced to ponder Lord Darlington's character and reputation, as well as the true nature of his relationship with Miss Kenton; as the book progresses, evidence mounts of Miss Kenton's and Stevens' past mutual attraction and affection. While they worked together during the years leading up to the Second World War and Miss Kenton failed to admit their true feelings toward one other, their conversations as recollected by Stevens show a professional friendship which at times came close to blossoming into romance, but this was evidently a line that neither dared cross.
Stevens in particular never yielded when Miss Kenton tried to draw closer to him. When they meet again, Mrs. Benn, having been married now for more than twenty years, admits to wondering if she made a mistake in marrying, but says she has come to love her husband and is looking forward to the birth of their first grandchild. Stevens muses over lost opportunities, both with Miss Kenton and regarding his decades of selfless service to Lord Darlington, who may not have been worthy of his unquestioning fealty. At the end of the novel, Stevens instead focuses on the titular "remains of the day", referring to his future service with Mr. Farraday and what is left of his own life. Mr. Stevens, the narrator, an English butler who serves at Darlington Hall, they show the reader different facets of his character. Two in particular, Dr. Carlisle and Harry Smith, highlight themes in the book; the most important aspect of Stevens' life is his dignity as an English butler. To Stevens, what defines a "great butler" is a constant attitude of refined dignity under stressful situations.
As such, Stevens maintains an inward and outward sense of dignity to preserve his identity, dedicated himself wholly to the service of Lord Darlington. This philosophy of dignity, however affects Stevens' life—largely with respect to social constraints and politics, love and relationships. In preserving his dignity at the expense of emotion, Stevens in a way loses his sense of humanity with respect to his personal self. Stevens' primary struggle within the novel is how his dignity relates to his own experiences, as well as the role his dignity plays in the past and future. "Banter" is an underlying theme in the novel. In the prologue, Stevens notes that his new American employer, Mr. Farraday, takes a more casual attitude with his servants than Lord Darlington did, seems to expect to banter with Stevens. Determined to please his employer, Stevens takes this new duty seriously, he sets out to practice and study the art of banter, including listening to a radio programme called Twice a Week or More for its witticisms.
He attempts to banter with people he meets during his vacati
The White Countess
The White Countess is a 2005 drama film directed by James Ivory and starring Ralph Fiennes, Natasha Richardson, Vanessa Redgrave, Hiroyuki Sanada, Lynn Redgrave, Allan Corduner, Madeleine Potter. The screenplay by Kazuo Ishiguro focuses on a disparate group of displaced persons attempting to survive in Shanghai in the late 1930s. Having escaped the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, Countess Sofia Belinskaya is working as a taxi dancer in a seedy Shanghai bar to support her family of White émigrés, including her daughter Katya, her mother-in-law Olga, her sister-in-law Grushenka, an aunt and uncle by marriage, Princess Vera and Prince Peter. Despite the fact employment is scarce and her meagre income is the family's only source of revenue, Sofia's once-aristocratic relatives scorn her for her choice of profession and insist she keep it a secret from her child. Sofia meets Todd Jackson, a former official of the US State Department who lost his wife and daughter in separate terrorist bombings; the bombing that killed his child left him blind.
Using his substantial winnings from a well-placed bet at the racetrack, he opens an elegant nightclub catering to the cosmopolitan upper class and invites Sofia to work for him as his primary hostess, an offer she accepts, in honour of her he calls the club The White Countess. As time passes, the two begin to fall in love, but neither acts on their feelings until the political climate around them disintegrates during the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War and a mass exodus from the besieged city. Ralph Fiennes as Todd Jackson Natasha Richardson as Countess Sofia Belinskaya Hiroyuki Sanada as Mr. Matsuda Lynn Redgrave as Olga Belinskaya Vanessa Redgrave as Princess Vera Belinskaya Madeleine Potter as Grushenka Madeleine Daly as Katya Lee Pace as Crane Allan Corduner as Samuel Feinstein John Wood as Prince Peter Belinski In The Making of The White Countess, a bonus feature on the DVD release of the film, production designer Andrew Sanders discusses the difficulties he had recreating 1930s Shanghai in a city where most pre-war remnants are surrounded by modern skyscrapers and neon lights.
Many of the sets had to be constructed on soundstages. Impeding him were restrictions on imports levied by the Chinese government, forcing him to make do with whatever materials he could find within the country; the film was the last for producer Ismail Merchant, who died shortly after principal photography was completed. The film premiered at the Savannah Film Festival in Savannah and was shown at the Two River Film Festival in Monmouth County, New Jersey, before going into limited release in the US It opened on ten screens, earned $46,348 on its opening weekend, ranking No. 34 among all films in release. It grossed $1,669,971 in the U. S and $2,422,711 in foreign markets, for a total worldwide box office of $4,092,682. On review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an approval rating of 49% based on 89 reviews, an average rating of 5.9/10. The website's critical consensus reads, "High production values and fine performances get bogged down by a lifeless story that fails to engage the viewer."
On Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 60 out of 100, based on 30 critics, indicating "mixed or average reviews". Stephen Holden of the New York Times said, "You couldn't ask for a tonier cast than the one that gamely tries to pump oxygen into the thin, filtered air of The White Countess... But with its tentative pace, pieced-together structure and stuffy emotional climate, never develops any narrative stamina... has the familiar Merchant-Ivory trademarks: cultivated dialogue, a keen eye for the nuances of upscale society and a sophisticated, internationalist view of class and ethnicity. What is missing from a film that wants to be an Asian Casablanca crossed with The English Patient is a racing, dramatic pulse, its sedate tone is too refined for the story it has to tell. Mr. Ishiguro's prim, anemic screenplay is so lacking in drive and emotional gravitas that the actors are left with only scraps of lean dramatic meat to tear into."Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times stated, "Fiennes and Richardson make this film work with the quiet strangeness of their performances" and observed, "I saw my first Merchant and Ivory film, Shakespeare Wallah, in 1965...
Sometimes they have made great films, sometimes flawed ones bad ones, but never shabby or unworthy ones. Here is one, good to better, patient, moving."Mick LaSalle of the San Francisco Chronicle said of the film, "Measured and meticulous, with small patches of narrative awkwardness that are more than compensated for by rich performances, it's an appropriate finish to the 40-year partnership: a typical, above-average Merchant-Ivory film... The movie has a slow start, but Ivory is laying in foundations for later... Long before the climax, magnificent, the movie has us believing in the characters and their histories and marveling at their extraordinary circumstances; this is Merchant-Ivory's kind of showmanship, the unflashy adult variety of movie magic that they made their hallmark."Carina Chocano of the Los Angeles Times stated, "The Chekovian sight of so many Richardson-Redgraves lamenting their circumstances in Russian-accented English and pining for Hong Kong, where their former social glory will be restored, makes you wonder if they'd have been better off in a stage production of Three and a Half Sisters: The Twilight Years...
The White Countess takes place in place, rife with conflict and turmoil. But to watch Fiennes float through it all, absorbed in themselves and their own private misery, is to wish they'd started falling earlier, if only to knock some sense into them."Peter Tra
Never Let Me Go (2010 film)
Never Let Me Go is a 2010 British dystopian romantic drama film based on Kazuo Ishiguro's 2005 novel Never Let Me Go. The film was directed by Mark Romanek from a screenplay by Alex Garland. Never Let Me Go is set in an alternative history and centres on Kathy and Tommy portrayed by Carey Mulligan, Keira Knightley and Andrew Garfield who become entangled in a love triangle. Principal photography lasted several weeks; the movie was filmed including Andrew Melville Hall. The film was produced by Film4 on a US$15 million budget. Prior to the book's publication, Garland had approached the film's producers—Andrew Macdonald and Andrew Reich—about a possible film, wrote a 96-page script; the producers had trouble finding an actress to play Kathy. Mulligan was cast in the role after Peter Rice, the head of the company financing the film, recommended her by text message while watching her performance in An Education. Mulligan, a fan of the book, enthusiastically accepted the role, as it had long been a wish of hers to have the opportunity to play the part.
The film's message and themes were the factors. Never Let Me Go premiered at the 37th annual Telluride Film Festival in September 2010, where the audience responded positively to its message; the film was screened at festivals including the 2010 Toronto International Film Festival, the 54th London Film Festival which it opened. The film was distributed by Fox Searchlight Pictures to cinemas in the United States on 15 September 2010, where it was given a limited release, it opened on 14 January 2011 in the United Kingdom. In the United States, Never Let Me Go opened at four theatres, grossing over US$111,000 during its first weekend; the movie got off to a better start in its first weekend in the UK, earning £625,000 and taking ninth place at the box office. Never Let Me Go earned US$9.5 million at the box office and an additional US$1.89 million in DVD sales revenue. Never Let Me Go was met with positive reviews from film critics, with most reviewers praising the cast's performances; the film begins with on-screen captions explaining that a medical breakthrough in 1952 has permitted the human lifespan to be extended beyond 100 years.
It is narrated by 28-year-old Kathy H as she reminisces about her childhood at a boarding school called Hailsham, as well as her adult life after leaving the school. The first act of the film depicts the young Kathy, along with her friends Tommy and Ruth, spending their childhood at Hailsham in 1978; the students are encouraged to create artwork, their best work gets into The Gallery run by a mysterious woman known only as Madame. One day, a new teacher, Miss Lucy informs the students of their fate: they are destined to be organ donors and will die, or "complete", in their early adulthood. Shortly afterward she is fired by the headmistress, Miss Emily, for sharing this revelation with the children; as time passes, Kathy falls in love with Tommy, but Ruth and Tommy begin a relationship and stay together throughout the rest of their time at Hailsham. In the second act, Kathy and Tommy, now teenagers, are rehoused in cottages on a farm in 1985, they are resigned to their eventual fate. At the farm, they meet former pupils of schools similar to theirs, it is revealed that they are all clones.
They hear rumours of the possibility of "deferral" – a temporary reprieve from organ donation for donors who are in love and can prove it. Tommy becomes convinced that The Gallery at Hailsham was intended to look into their souls and that artwork sent to The Gallery will be able to confirm true love where it is present; the relationship between Tommy and Ruth becomes sexual, jealousy causes Kathy and Ruth to break their friendship. The lonely Kathy leaves and becomes a "carer" – a donor, given a temporary reprieve from donation as a reward for supporting and comforting donors as they are made to give up their organs. Tommy and Ruth's relationship ends. In the third and final act, in 1994, Kathy is still working as a carer, has watched many donors die as their organs are harvested. Kathy, who has not seen Ruth or Tommy since the farm, discovers frail after two donations, they find Tommy, weakened by his donations, drive to the sea. There, Ruth admits that she did not love Tommy, only seduced him because she was afraid to be alone.
She has been searching for a way to help Tommy and Kathy. She believes that the rumours of "deferral" are true, has found the address of the gallery owner, who she thinks may grant deferrals to couples in love. Ruth dies on the operating table shortly afterward. Kathy and Tommy begin a relationship. Tommy explains to Kathy, he and Kathy drive to visit Madame. The two teachers tell them that there is no such thing as deferral, that Tommy's artworks will not help him, they explain that the purpose of The Gallery was not to look into their souls but to investigate whether the "all but human" donors have souls at all. As they take in the news on their return journey, Tommy breaks down in an explosion of rage and frustration, he and Kathy cling to each other in grief; the film ends with Tommy dying on the operating table. Kathy is left alone. Contemplating the ruins of her childhood, she asks in voice-over whether her fate is any different from the people who will receive her organs.
The Unconsoled is a novel by Kazuo Ishiguro, first published in 1995 by Faber and Faber, winner of the Cheltenham Prize that year. The novel takes place over a period of three days, it is about a famous pianist who arrives in a central European city to perform a concert. He is entangled in a web of appointments and promises which he cannot seem to remember, struggling to fulfill his commitments before Thursday night's performance, frustrated with his inability to take control. Ryder - Renowned concert pianist Sophie - Gustav daughter and Boris Mother Boris - Sophie's son Gustav - Bellhop of the hotel and Boris' grandfather Miss Collins - Former lover of Brodsky Hoffman - Manager of the hotel Mrs Hoffman - Hoffman's wife. A pianist, yet is insecure about his parents' disapproval Brodsky - Washed up conductor the town tries to revive Bruno - Brodsky's deceased dog Fiona - Train ticketer, Ryder's childhood friend Geoffrey Saunders - Another childhood friend of Ryder. Pops up sporadically throughout the town.
Miss Stratmann - in charge of planning Ryder's concert Christoff - Musician disliked by the town The Unconsoled was described as a "sprawling indecipherable 500-page work" that "left readers and reviewers baffled". It received strong negative reviews with a few positive ones. Literary critic James Wood said that the novel had "invented its own category of badness". However, a 2006 poll of various literary critics voted the novel as the third "best British, Irish, or Commonwealth novel from 1980 to 2005", tied with Anthony Burgess's Earthly Powers, Salman Rushdie's Midnight's Children, Ian McEwan's Atonement, Penelope Fitzgerald's The Blue Flower. John Carey, book critic for the Sunday Times placed the novel on his list of the 20th century's 50 most enjoyable books published as Pure Pleasure: A Guide to the Twentieth Century's Most Enjoyable Books, it has come to be regarded as one of Ishiguro’s best works. Random House profile Random House Reading Group Center Confucianism in Kazuo Ishiguro's The Unconsoled Essay
A Pale View of Hills
A Pale View of Hills is the first novel by Nobel Prize–winning author Kazuo Ishiguro. It won the 1982 Winifred Holtby Memorial Prize, he received a £1000 advance from publishers Faber and Faber for the novel after a meeting with Robert McCrum, the fiction editor. A Pale View of Hills is the story of Etsuko, a middle-aged Japanese woman living alone in England, opens with discussion between Etsuko and her younger daughter, about the recent suicide of Etsuko's older daughter, Keiko. During a visit from her daughter, Etsuko reflects on her own life as a young woman in Japan, how she left that country to live in England; as she describes it, she and her Japanese husband, had a daughter together, a few years Etsuko met a British man and moved with him to England. She took Keiko, to England to live with her and the new husband; when Etsuko and her new husband have a daughter, Etsuko wants to call her something "modern" and her husband wants an Eastern-sounding name, so they compromise with the name "Niki," which seems to Etsuko to be British, but sounds to her husband at least Japanese.
In England, Keiko becomes solitary and antisocial. Etsuko recalls how, as Keiko grew older, she would lock herself in her room and emerge only to pick up the dinner-plate that her mother would leave for her in the kitchen; this disturbing behavior ends, as the reader has learned, in Keiko's suicide. "Your father," Etsuko tells Niki, "was rather idealistic at times...e believed we could give her a happy life over here... But you see, Niki. I knew all along she wouldn't be happy over here."Etsuko tells her daughter, that she had a friend in Japan named Sachiko. Sachiko had a daughter named Mariko, a girl whom Etsuko's memory paints as exceptionally solitary and antisocial. Sachiko, Etsuko recalls, had planned to take Mariko to America with an American soldier identified only as "Frank." Sachiko's story bears striking similarities to Etsuko's. Etsuko – main protagonist; the New York Review of Books tenebrous. It is a ghost story but the narrator does not realise that." The New York Times said the novel was "infinitely... mysterious", the inconsistent tone of the narrator, with the graphic imagery in the book combined to create "the absolute emblem of our genius of destruction".
Faber and Faber, Faber Book Club: A Pale View of Hills by Kazuo Ishiguro. Retrieved 27 June 2010. Kazuo Ishiguro discusses A Pale View of Hills with Malcolm Bradbury - a British Library sound recording
Sir Kazuo Ishiguro, is an English novelist and short-story writer. He was born in Nagasaki, but his family moved to the UK in 1960 when he was five. Ishiguro graduated from the University of Kent with a bachelor's degree in English and Philosophy in 1978 and gained his master's from the University of East Anglia's creative writing course in 1980. Ishiguro is considered one of the most celebrated contemporary fiction authors in the English-speaking world, having received four Man Booker Prize nominations, having won the award in 1989 for his novel The Remains of the Day. Ishiguro's 2005 novel, Never Let Me Go, was named by Time as the best novel of the year, was included in the magazine's list of the 100 best English-language novels published between 1923 and 2005. Growing up in a Japanese family in the UK was crucial to his writing, as it enabled him, he says, to see things from a different perspective to that of many of his English peers. In 2017, the Swedish Academy awarded Ishiguro the Nobel Prize in Literature, describing him in its citation as a writer "who, in novels of great emotional force, has uncovered the abyss beneath our illusory sense of connection with the world".
Ishiguro was knighted in the 2018 Queen's Birthday Honours List. Ishiguro was born in Nagasaki, Japan on 8 November 1954, the son of Shizuo Ishiguro, a physical oceanographer, his wife Shizuko. At the age of five and his family left Japan and moved to Guildford, Surrey, as his father was invited for research at the National Institute of Oceanography, he did not return to visit Japan until 1989, nearly 30 years as a participant in the Japan Foundation Short-Term Visitors Program. In an interview with Kenzaburō Ōe, Ishiguro stated that the Japanese settings of his first two novels were imaginary: "I grew up with a strong image in my head of this other country, a important other country to which I had a strong emotional tie… In England I was all the time building up this picture in my head, an imaginary Japan."Ishiguro attended Stoughton Primary School and Woking County Grammar School in Surrey. After finishing school, he took a gap year and travelled through the United States and Canada, while writing a journal and sending demo tapes to record companies.
In 1974, he began studies at the University of Kent at Canterbury, graduating in 1978 with a Bachelor of Arts in English and Philosophy. After spending a year writing fiction, he resumed his studies at the University of East Anglia where he studied with Malcolm Bradbury and Angela Carter, gained a Master of Arts in Creative Writing in 1980, his thesis became his first novel, A Pale View of Hills, published in 1982. He became a UK citizen in 1983. Ishiguro set his first two novels in Japan. In an interview in 1989, when discussing his Japanese heritage and its influence on his upbringing, he stated, "I'm not like English people because I've been brought up by Japanese parents in a Japanese-speaking home. My parents felt responsible for keeping me in touch with Japanese values. I do have a distinct background. I think differently, my perspectives are different." When asked about his identity, he said,People are not two-thirds one thing and the remainder something else. Temperament, personality, or outlook don't divide quite like that.
The bits don't separate clearly. You end up a funny homogeneous mixture; this is something that will become more common in the latter part of the century—people with mixed cultural backgrounds, mixed racial backgrounds. That's the way. In a 1990 interview, Ishiguro said, "If I wrote under a pseudonym and got somebody else to pose for my jacket photographs, I'm sure nobody would think of saying,'This guy reminds me of that Japanese writer.'" Although some Japanese writers have had a distant influence on his writing—Jun'ichirō Tanizaki is the one he most cites—Ishiguro has said that Japanese films those of Yasujirō Ozu and Mikio Naruse, have been a more significant influence. Some of Ishiguro's novels are set in the past. Never Let Me Go has science fiction qualities and a futuristic tone, his fourth novel, The Unconsoled, takes place in an unnamed Central European city. The Remains of the Day is set in the large country house of an English lord in the period surrounding World War II. An Artist of the Floating World is set in an unnamed Japanese city during the period of reconstruction following Japan's surrender in 1945.
The narrator is forced to come to terms with his part in World War II. He finds himself blamed by the new generation who accuse him of being part of Japan's misguided foreign policy and is forced to confront the ideals of the modern times as represented by his grandson. Ishiguro said of his choice of time period, "I tend to be attracted to pre-war and postwar settings because I'm interested in this business of values and ideals being tested, people having to face up to the notion that their ideals weren't quite what they thought they were before the test came."With the exception of The Buried Giant, Ishiguro's novels are written in the first-person narrative style and the narrators exhibit human failings. His technique is to allow characters to reveal their flaws implicitly during the narrative; this pathos is derived from the narrator's actions, or, more inacti
Shanghai International Settlement
The Shanghai International Settlement originated from the 1863 merger of the British and American enclaves in Shanghai, in which parts of the Qing Empire would hold extraterritorially under the terms of a series of Unequal Treaties until 1941. The settlements were established following the defeat of the Qing army by the British in the First Opium War. Under the terms of the Treaty of Nanking, the five treaty ports including Shanghai were opened to foreign merchants, overturning the monopoly held by the southern port of Canton under the Canton System; the British established a base on Hong Kong under an extensive lease. American and French involvement followed on the heels of the British and their enclaves were established north and south of the British area. Unlike the colonies of Hong Kong and Macau, where Great Britain and Portugal enjoyed full sovereignty in perpetuity, the foreign concessions in China remained under Chinese sovereignty. In 1854, the three countries created the Shanghai Municipal Council to serve all their interests, but, in 1862, the French concession dropped out of the arrangement.
The following year the British and American settlements formally united to create the Shanghai International Settlement. As more foreign powers entered into treaty relations with China, their nationals became part of the administration of the settlement, but it always remained a predominantly British affair until the growth of Japan's involvement in the late 1930s; the international settlement came to an abrupt end in December 1941 when Japanese troops stormed in following the attack on Pearl Harbor. In early 1943, new treaties signed by Chiang Kai-shek's Republican government formally ended the extraterritorial privileges of Americans and Britons, although its terms were moot until the recovery of Shanghai following Japan's 1945 surrender; the French surrendered their privileges in a separate 1946 agreement. Although Europeans had shown more interest in Canton than Shanghai early on for commercial advantages, the port's strategic position was key to British interests as the island nation declared war against China in 1839 known as the first Anglo-Chinese Opium War.
The first settlement in Shanghai for foreigners was the British settlement, opened in 1843 under the terms of the Treaty of Nanking, one of the many unequal treaties China incurred in opposition to its European trading partners. On the orders of Sir Henry Pottinger, first Governor-general of Hong Kong, Captain George Balfour of the East India Company's Madras Artillery arrived as Britain's first consul in Shanghai on 8 November 1843 aboard the steamer Medusa; the next morning Balfour sent word to the circuit intendant of Shanghai, Gong Mujiu, requesting a meeting, at which he indicated his desire to find a house to live in. Balfour was told no such properties were available, but on leaving the meeting, he received an offer from a pro-British Cantonese named Yao to rent a large house within the city walls for four hundred dollars per annum. Balfour, his interpreter Walter Henry Medhurst, surgeon Dr. Hale and clerk A. F. Strachan moved into the luxuriously furnished 52-room house immediately.
It served as the consulate during construction of a Western-style building within the official Settlement boundaries just to the south of Suzhou Creek. This was completed within a year; this soon became the epicenter of the British settlement. Afterward both the French and the Americans signed treaties with China that gave their citizens extraterritorial rights similar to those granted to the British, but their respective nationals accepted that the foreign settlement came under British consular jurisdiction. However, it must be understood that Shanghai has been from the beginning a settlement, not a possession; the British Government annexed Hong Kong, which became British territory, subject to British law. The land on which the Foreign Settlement of Shanghai was created was, on the other hand, only leased to the British Government; that is proved by the fact. The Sino-American Treaty of Wanghia was signed in July 1844 by Chinese Qing government official Qiying, the Viceroy of Liangguang, who held responsibility for the provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi, Massachusetts politician Caleb Cushing, dispatched with orders to "save the Chinese from the condition of being an exclusive monopoly in the hands of England" as a consequence of the 1842 Nanking treaty.
Under the Treaty of Wanghia, Americans gained the same rights as those enjoyed by the British in China's treaty ports. It contained a clause that carved out Shanghai as an extraterritorial zone within Imperial China, though it did not give the American government a true legal concession, it was only in 1845 that Britain followed in America's footsteps and signed a land-deal to allow Britons to rent land in Shanghai in perpetuity. The American consular presence did not create a problem for the British because it was never intended to have a post in person. Since American traders in China were prohibited from engaging in the opium trade, their business transactions were conducted under the auspices of British firms; the only serious incident of political complaint against the Americans was in 1845, when the Stars and Stripes was raised by the acting US Consul, Henry G. Wolcott, who had just arrived in the city. Neither the British nor the Chinese governor approved of the display. In 1848, France established its own French concession under French consular jurisdiction, squeezed between the British settlement to the north and the Chinese walled