United States Secret Service
The United States Secret Service is a federal law enforcement agency under the Department of Homeland Security charged with conducting criminal investigations and protecting the nation's leaders. Until 2003, the Secret Service was part of the Department of the Treasury, as the agency was founded to combat the then-widespread counterfeiting of US currency; the Secret Service is mandated by Congress with two distinct and critical national security missions: protecting the nation's leaders and safeguarding the financial and critical infrastructure of the United States. Ensures the safety of the President of the United States, the Vice President of the United States, the President's and Vice President's immediate families, former presidents, their spouses, their minor children under the age of 16, major presidential and vice presidential candidates and their spouses, foreign heads of state; the Secret Service provides physical security for the White House Complex, the neighboring Treasury Department building, the Vice President's residence, all foreign diplomatic missions in Washington, D.
C. The protective mission includes protective operations to coordinate manpower and logistics with state and local law enforcement, protective advances to conduct site and venue assessments for protectees, protective intelligence to investigate all manners of threats made against protectees; the Secret Service is the lead agency in charge of the planning and implementation of security operations for events designated as National Special Security Events. As part of the Service's mission of preventing an incident before it occurs, the agency relies on meticulous advance work and threat assessments developed by its Intelligence Division to identify potential risks to protectees. Safeguards the payment and financial systems of the United States from a wide range of financial and electronic-based crimes. Financial investigations include counterfeit US currency, bank & financial institution fraud, mail fraud, wire fraud, illicit financing operations, major conspiracies. Electronic investigations include cybercrime, network intrusions, identity theft, access device fraud, credit card fraud, intellectual property crimes.
The Secret Service is a key member of the FBI's Joint Terrorism Task Force which investigates and combats terrorism on a national and international scale, as well as of the High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas Task Force which seeks to reduce and eliminate drug trafficking in critical regions of the United States. The Secret Service investigates missing and exploited children and is a core partner of the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children; the Secret Service's initial responsibility was to investigate the counterfeiting of US currency, rampant following the American Civil War. The agency evolved into the United States' first domestic intelligence and counterintelligence agency. Many of the agency's missions were taken over by subsequent agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Central Intelligence Agency, Drug Enforcement Administration, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives, IRS Criminal Investigation Division; the Secret Service combines the two responsibilities into a unique dual objective.
The two core missions of protection and investigations synergize with the other, providing crucial benefits to special agents during the course of their careers. Skills developed during the course of investigations which are used in an agent’s protective duties include but are not limited to: Partnerships that are created between field offices and local law enforcement during the course of investigations being used to gather both protective intelligence and in coordinating protection events. Tactical operation and law enforcement writing skills being applied to both investigative and protective duties. Proficiency in analyzing handwriting and forgery techniques being applied in protective investigations of handwritten letters and suspicious package threats. Expertise in investigating electronic and financial crimes being applied in protective investigations of threats made against the nation's leaders on the Internet. Protection of the nation's highest elected leaders and other government officials is one of the primary missions of the Secret Service.
After the 1901 assassination of President William McKinley, Congress directed the Secret Service to protect the President of the United States. The Secret Service is authorized by law to protect: The President, Vice President, President-elect and Vice President-elect The immediate families of the above individuals Former Presidents and their spouses for their lifetimes, under the Former Presidents Act. From 1997 until 2013, legislation was in place limiting Secret Service protection to former Presidents and their spouses to a period of 10 years from the date the former President leaves office. President Barack Obama signed legislation on January 10, 2013, reversing this limit and reinstating lifetime protection; the widow or widower of a former President who dies in office or dies within a year of leaving office for a period of one year after the President's death Children of former Presidents until age 16 or 10 years after the presidency Former Vice Presidents, their spouses, their children under 16 years of age, for up to 6 months from the date the former Vice President leaves office (the Secre
The Seattle Times
The Seattle Times is a daily newspaper serving Seattle, United States. It has the largest circulation of any newspaper in the state of Washington and in the Pacific Northwest region; the newspaper was founded in 1891 and has been controlled by the Blethen family since 1896. The Seattle Times Company owns local newspapers in Walla Walla and Yakima, it had a longstanding rivalry with the Post-Intelligencer until the latter ceased publication in 2009. The Seattle Times originated as the Seattle Press-Times, a four-page newspaper founded in 1891 with a daily circulation of 3,500, which Maine teacher and attorney Alden J. Blethen bought in 1896. Renamed the Seattle Daily Times, it doubled its circulation within half a year. By 1915, circulation stood at 70,000; the newspaper moved to the Times Square Building at 5th Avenue and Olive Way in 1915. It built a new headquarters, the Seattle Times Building, north of Denny Way in 1930; the paper moved to its current headquarters at 1000 Denny Way in 2011. The Seattle Times switched from afternoon delivery to mornings on March 6, 2000, citing that the move would help them avoid the fate of other defunct afternoon newspapers.
This placed the Times in direct competition with its Joint Operating Agreement partner, the morning Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Nine years the Post-Intelligencer became an online-only publication; the Times is one of the few remaining major city dailies in the United States independently operated and owned by a local family. The Seattle Times Company, while owning and operating the Times owns three other papers in Washington, owned several newspapers in Maine that were sold to MaineToday Media; the McClatchy Company owns 49.5 percent of voting common stock in the Seattle Times Company held by Knight Ridder until 2006. The Times reporting has received 10 Pulitzer Prizes, most for its breaking news coverage of the 2014 landslide that killed 43 people in Oso, Wash, it has an international reputation for its investigative journalism, in particular. In April 2012, investigative reporters Michael Berens and Ken Armstrong won the Pulitzer Prize for Investigative Reporting for a series documenting more than 2,000 deaths caused by the state of Washington's use of methadone as a recommended painkiller in state-supported care.
In April 2010, the Times staff won the Pulitzer Prize for Breaking News Reporting for its coverage, in print and online, of the shooting deaths of four police officers in a Lakewood coffee house and the 40-hour manhunt for the suspect. In February 2002, The Seattle Times ran a subheadline "American outshines Kwan, Slutskaya in skating surprise" after Sarah Hughes won the gold medal at the 2002 Olympics. Many Asian Americans felt insulted by the Times' actions, because Michelle Kwan is American. Asian American community leaders criticized the subheadline as perpetuating a stereotype that people of color can never be American; the incident echoed a similar incident that happened with an MSNBC article during the Winter games in 1998, reported on by Times. The newspaper's Executive Editor at the time of the controversy, Mike Fancher, issued an apology in the aftermath of the controversial headline. On October 17, 2012, the publishers of The Seattle Times launched advertising campaigns in support of Republican gubernatorial candidate Rob McKenna and a state referendum to legalize same-sex marriage.
The newspaper's management said the ads were aimed at "demonstrating how effective advertising with The Times can be." The advertisements in favor of McKenna represent an $80,000 independent expenditure, making the newspaper the third largest contributor to his campaign. More than 100 staffers signed a letter of protest sent to Seattle Times Publisher Frank Blethen, calling it an "unprecedented act". From 1983 to 2009, the Times and Seattle's other major paper, the Hearst-owned Seattle Post-Intelligencer, were run under a "Joint Operating Agreement" whereby advertising, production and circulation were controlled by the Times for both papers; the two papers maintained their own identities with separate editorial departments. The Times announced its intention to cancel the Joint Operating Agreement in 2003, citing a clause in the JOA contract that three consecutive years of losses allowed it to pull out of the agreement. Hearst sued, arguing that a force majeure clause prevented the Times from claiming losses as reason to end the JOA when they result from extraordinary events.
While a district judge ruled in Hearst's favor, the Times won on appeal, including a unanimous decision from the Washington State Supreme Court on June 30, 2005. Hearst continued to argue that the Times fabricated its loss in 2002; the two papers announced an end to their dispute on April 16, 2007. This arrangement JOA was terminated; the Times contains different sections every day. Each daily edition includes Main News & Business, a NW section for the day and any other sections listed below. Friday: NW Autos. For decades, the broadsheet page width of the Times was 13 1⁄2 inches, printed from a 54-inch web, the four-page width of a roll of newsprint. Following changing industry standards, the width of the page was reduced in 2005 by 1 inch, to 12 1⁄2 inches, now a 50-inch web standard. In February 2009, the web size was further reduced to 46 inches, which narrowed the page by another inch to 11 1⁄2 inches in width; the Times'
United States five-dollar bill
The United States five-dollar bill is a denomination of United States currency. The current $5 bill features the 16th U. S. President, Abraham Lincoln's portrait on the front and the Lincoln Memorial on the back. All $5 bills issued today are Federal Reserve Notes; the $5 bill is sometimes nicknamed a "fin". The term has German/Yiddish roots and is remotely related to the English "five", but it is far less common today than it was in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; the Bureau of Engraving and Printing says the average life of a $5 bill in circulation is 5.5 years before it is replaced due to wear. 6% of all paper currency produced by the U. S. Treasury's Bureau of Engraving and Printing in 2009 were $5 bills; the redesigned $5 bill was unveiled on September 20, 2007, was issued on March 13, 2008 during a ceremony at President Lincoln's Cottage. New and enhanced security features make it easier to check the new $5 bill and more difficult for potential counterfeiters to reproduce; the redesigned $5 bill has: Watermarks: There are now two watermarks.
A large numeral "5" watermark is located in a blank space to the right of the portrait, replacing the watermark portrait of President Lincoln found on previous bills. A second watermark — a new column of three smaller "5"s — has been added and is positioned to the left of the portrait. Security thread: The embedded security thread runs vertically and is now located to the right of the portrait; the letters "USA" followed by the number "5" in an alternating pattern are visible along the thread from both sides of the bill. The thread glows blue. Microprinting: The redesigned $5 bill features microprinting, the engraving of tiny text, on the front of the bill in three areas: the words "FIVE DOLLARS" can be found repeated inside the left and right borders of the bill. On the back of the bill the words "USA FIVE" appear along one edge of the large purple "5"; because they are so small, these microprinted words are hard to replicate. Red and Blue Threads: Some small red and blue threads are embedded into the paper to reveal if a higher denomination counterfeit bill has been printed on the bleached paper of a genuine lower denomination bill.
Infrared Ink: The back of the five-dollar bill features sections of the bill that are blanked out when viewed in the infrared spectrum. This is consistent with other high-value US bills, which all feature patterns of infrared-visible stripes unique to the given denomination. Bills of other world currencies, such as the Euro feature unique patterns visible only when viewed in this spectrum. Anti-Photocopy Circle Pattern: Small yellow "05"s are printed to the left of the portrait on the front of the bill and to the right of the Lincoln Memorial vignette on the back; the zeros in the "05"s form a "EURion constellation" to prevent photocopying of the bill. Photocopy machines refuse to make a copy; some machines make a record of the illegal photocopy attempt, which a repair technician may report to law enforcement. The five dollar bill lacks the Optically variable ink of higher denomination US bills; the new $5 bills use the same -- but enhanced -- portraits and historical images. The most noticeable difference is the light-purple coloring of the center of the bill, which blends into gray near the edges.
Similar to the redesigned $10, $20, $50, $100 bills, the new $5 bill features an American symbol of freedom printed in the background: The Great Seal of the United States, featuring an eagle and shield, is printed in purple to the right of the portrait and an arc of purple stars surround both it and the portrait. When the Lincoln Memorial was constructed the names of 48 states were engraved on it; the picture of the Lincoln Memorial on the $5 bill only contains the names of 26 states. These are the 26 states that can be seen on the front side of the Lincoln memorial, what is pictured on the $5 bill. On the back of the bill, a larger, purple numeral "5" appears in the lower right corner to help those with visual impairments to distinguish the denomination; this large "5" includes the words "USA FIVE" in tiny white letters. The oval borders around President Lincoln's portrait on the front, the Lincoln Memorial vignette on the back have been removed. Both engravings have been enhanced. On April 20, 2016, Treasury Secretary Jacob Lew announced that the $5, $10, $20 would all undergo redesign prior to 2020.
The changes would add new features to combat counterfeiting and make them easier for blind citizens to distinguish. Lew said that while Lincoln would remain on the obverse, the reverse would be redesigned to depict various historical events that had occurred at the Lincoln Memorial. Among the planned designs are images from the Martin Luther King, Jr. I Have the 1939 concert by opera singer Marian Anderson. 1861: The first $5 bill was issued as a Demand Note with a small portrait of Alexander Hamilton on the right and an allegorical statue representing freedom on the left side of the obverse. 1862: The first $5 United States Note was issued with a face design similar to the previous Demand Note and a revised reverse. 1869: A new $5 United States Note was issued with a small portrait of Andrew Jackson on the left and a vignette of a pioneer family in the middle. 1870: National Gold Bank Notes were issued for payment in gold coin by participating banks. The obverse featured vignettes of Christopher Columbus sighting land and Columbus with an Indian Princess.
Twenty Bucks is a 1993 film directed by Keva Rosenfield and starring Linda Hunt, Brendan Fraser, Gladys Knight, Elisabeth Shue, Steve Buscemi, Christopher Lloyd, William H. Macy, David Schwimmer, Shohreh Aghdashloo and Spalding Gray; the film follows the travels of a $20 bill from its delivery via armored car in an unnamed American city through various transactions and incidents from person to person. An armored truck brings money to load an ATM. A woman withdraws $20 but the bill slips away. A homeless woman, grabs the bill and reads the serial number, proclaiming that it is her destiny to win the lottery with those numbers; as she holds the bill, a boy uses it at a bakery. The baker sells an expensive pair of figurines for a wedding cake to Jack Holiday and gives him the bill as change. At the rehearsal dinner for the upcoming wedding of Sam Mastrewski to Anna Holiday, Jack reminisces about exchanging his foreign money for American currency when he first came to America, he presents Sam with the $20 bill as a wedding present.
Sam is taken aback by the perceived cheapness of his father-in-law-to-be, but is "kidnapped" for his bachelor party, where he uses the bill to pay the stripper. Anna shows up to explain that the $20 is not the entire present and suggests they frame it to show that they understand its significance. Sam is unable to explain the absence of the bill, when the stripper comes in from the fire escape to offer it back to him. Anna breaks the engagement; the stripper uses the $20 bill to buy a herbal remedy from Mrs. McCormac. Mrs. McCormac mails the bill to her grandson Bobby as a birthday present. Bobby goes to a convenience store where Jimmy are engaged in a string of robberies. Not knowing he's a robber, the underage Bobby gives Jimmy the $20 bill to buy him wine. Jimmy goes into the store to find. Jimmy and Frank leave, giving his girlfriend Peggy champagne; the police chase the robbers. After the police pass by, Jimmy and Frank split up the money, but when Frank sees the $20 Jimmy got from the kid, he assumes that Jimmy is holding out on him.
Jimmy tries to explain but Frank pulls a shotgun on him. Jimmy takes all the money they've stolen, but leaves the $20 bill; the bill, now dripped with Frank's blood, winds up in the police evidence locker but falls into the wrong box. Waitress and aspiring writer Emily Adams shows up at the police precinct with boyfriend Neil to claim some items the police recovered; the police officer unwittingly includes the $20 bill. After flying out of the box from the back seat of Emily's convertible, the bill floats around town, is picked up by a homeless man who uses it to buy groceries; the bill is given as change to a wealthy woman who uses it to snort cocaine off the back of her stretch limousine, although she leaves it on her car, where it is picked up by the drug dealer. The drug dealer runs a day camp for youth, he puts the bill into a fish where it is caught by a teen who has it converted to quarters and uses them to call a phone sex hotline in a bowling alley; the bowling alley owner tells him to go out and have fun.
The Frewer character encounters Sam, loitering in a daze behind the bowling alley. Sam turns down an offer of the $20 bill, not knowing it is the cause of his downfall; the Frewer character uses it to play bingo at a church, where the priest is portrayed by Spaulding Gray. Emily's father, Bruce plays bingo and receives the bill as change before dying of a heart attack. At the mortuary, the mortician, gives the family Bruce's personal effects, including his wallet with the $20 bill. Emily looks in the wallet and finds the $20 bill in the wallet together with a copy of her first published short story, her mother Ruth explains that Bruce wanted to be a writer. Emily decides to go to Europe. At the airport, she explains her decision to her brother Gary, she melodramatically rips up the bill in front of him. Sam is at the airport, waiting for a flight to Europe and having a drink with Jack, with the two clearing up the misunderstanding over the $20 bill on good terms. Sam uses a piece of the ripped up bill as a bookmark but it falls out without him noticing it as Sam and Emily walk toward their gate, both striking up a conversation.
A title reading "The End" is derailed by Angeline collecting pieces of the bill. Angeline patches the bill back together. Just the lottery numbers are read, to her agony, they match the serial number of the bill, she goes to inquires if the bill is still any good. The teller explains that if there's more than 51% of the bill left, it is still valid, hands Angeline a crisp new $20 bill; the homeless woman reads the serial number of the new bill and leaves the bank. The film was based on a screenplay, nearly 60 years old, it was written by Endre Bohem in 1935, but was never filmed. This version of the screenplay was used for the film; the elder Bohem wrote his spec script soon after the release of. In one of the product
United States twenty-dollar bill
The United States twenty-dollar bill is a denomination of U. S. currency. The seventh U. S. President, Andrew Jackson, has been featured on the front side of the bill since 1928; as of December 2013, the average circulation life of a $20 bill is 7.9 years before it is replaced due to wear. About 11% of all notes printed in 2009 were $20 bills. Twenty-dollar bills are delivered by Federal Reserve Banks in violet straps. 1861: A demand note with Lady Liberty holding a sword and shield on the front, an abstract design on the back. The back is printed green. 1862: A note, similar, the first $20 United States note. The back is different, with several small variations extant. 1863: A gold certificate $20 note with an Eagle vignette on the face. The reverse has various abstract elements; the back is orange. 1865: A national bank note with "The Battle of Lexington" and Pocahontas's marriage to John Rolfe in black, a green border. 1869: A new United States note design, with Alexander Hamilton on the left side of the front and Victory holding a shield and sword.
The back design is green. 1875: As above, except with a different reverse. 1878: A silver certificate $20 note with a portrait of Stephen Decatur on the right side of the face. The back design is black. 1882: A new gold certificate, with a portrait of James Garfield on the right of the face. The back features an eagle. 1882: A new national bank note. The front is similar. 1886: A new silver certificate $20 note, with Daniel Manning on the center of the face. 1890: A treasury note with John Marshall on the left of the face. Two different backs exist both with abstract designs. 1902: A new national bank note. The front features Hugh McCulloch, the back has a vignette of an allegorical America. 1905: A new gold certificate $20 note, with George Washington on the center of the face. The back design is orange. Andrew Jackson first appeared on the $20 bill in 1928. Although 1928 coincides with the 100th anniversary of Jackson's election as president, it is not clear why the portrait on the bill was switched from Grover Cleveland to Jackson..
According to the U. S. Treasury, "Treasury Department records do not reveal the reason that portraits of these particular statesmen were chosen in preference to those of other persons of equal importance and prominence."The placement of Jackson on the $20 bill may be a historical irony. In his farewell address to the nation, he cautioned the public about paper money. 1914: Began as a large-sized note, a portrait of Grover Cleveland on the face, and, on the back, a steam locomotive and an automobile approaching from the left, a steamship approaching from the right. 1918: A federal reserve banknote with Grover Cleveland on the front, a back design similar to the 1914 Federal Reserve Note. 1928: Switched to a small-sized note with a portrait of Andrew Jackson on the face and the south view of the White House on the reverse. The banknote is redeemable in silver at any Federal Reserve Bank. 1933: With the U. S. having abandoned the gold standard, the bill is no longer redeemable in gold, but rather in "lawful money", meaning silver.
1942: A special emergency series, with brown serial numbers and "HAWAII" overprinted on both the front and the back, is issued. These notes are designed to circulate on the islands and be deemed invalid in the event of a Japanese invasion. 1948: The White House picture was updated to reflect renovations to the building itself, including the addition of the Truman Balcony, as well as the passage of time. Most notably, the trees are larger; the change occurred during production of Series 1934C. 1950: Design elements like the serial numbers are reduced in size and moved around subtly for aesthetic reasons. 1963: "Will Pay To The Bearer On Demand" is removed from the front of the bill below the portrait, the legal tender designation is shortened to "This note is legal tender for all debts and private" Also, "In God We Trust" is added above the White House on the reverse. These two acts are coincidental if their combined result is implemented in one redesign. Several design elements are rearranged, less perceptibly than the change in 1950 to make room for the rearranged obligations.
1969: The new treasury seal appears on all denominations, including the $20. 1977: A new type of serial-number press results in a different font. The old presses are retired, old-style serial numbers appear as late as 1981 for this denomination. 1992: Anti-counterfeiting features are added: microprinting around the portrait, a plastic strip embedded in the paper. Though the bills read Series 1990, the first bills were printed in April 1992. 1994: The first notes at the Western Currency Facility are printed in January late during production of Series 1990. September 24, 1998: Received a new appearance to further deter counterfeiting. A larger, off-center portrait of Jackson was used on the front, several anti-counterfeiting features were added, including color-shifting ink, a watermark; the plastic strip now glows green under a black light. The bills were first printed in Jun
ArXiv is a repository of electronic preprints approved for posting after moderation, but not full peer review. It consists of scientific papers in the fields of mathematics, astronomy, electrical engineering, computer science, quantitative biology, mathematical finance and economics, which can be accessed online. In many fields of mathematics and physics all scientific papers are self-archived on the arXiv repository. Begun on August 14, 1991, arXiv.org passed the half-million-article milestone on October 3, 2008, had hit a million by the end of 2014. By October 2016 the submission rate had grown to more than 10,000 per month. ArXiv was made possible by the compact TeX file format, which allowed scientific papers to be transmitted over the Internet and rendered client-side. Around 1990, Joanne Cohn began emailing physics preprints to colleagues as TeX files, but the number of papers being sent soon filled mailboxes to capacity. Paul Ginsparg recognized the need for central storage, in August 1991 he created a central repository mailbox stored at the Los Alamos National Laboratory which could be accessed from any computer.
Additional modes of access were soon added: FTP in 1991, Gopher in 1992, the World Wide Web in 1993. The term e-print was adopted to describe the articles, it began as a physics archive, called the LANL preprint archive, but soon expanded to include astronomy, computer science, quantitative biology and, most statistics. Its original domain name was xxx.lanl.gov. Due to LANL's lack of interest in the expanding technology, in 2001 Ginsparg changed institutions to Cornell University and changed the name of the repository to arXiv.org. It is now hosted principally with eight mirrors around the world, its existence was one of the precipitating factors that led to the current movement in scientific publishing known as open access. Mathematicians and scientists upload their papers to arXiv.org for worldwide access and sometimes for reviews before they are published in peer-reviewed journals. Ginsparg was awarded a MacArthur Fellowship in 2002 for his establishment of arXiv; the annual budget for arXiv is $826,000 for 2013 to 2017, funded jointly by Cornell University Library, the Simons Foundation and annual fee income from member institutions.
This model arose in 2010, when Cornell sought to broaden the financial funding of the project by asking institutions to make annual voluntary contributions based on the amount of download usage by each institution. Each member institution pledges a five-year funding commitment to support arXiv. Based on institutional usage ranking, the annual fees are set in four tiers from $1,000 to $4,400. Cornell's goal is to raise at least $504,000 per year through membership fees generated by 220 institutions. In September 2011, Cornell University Library took overall administrative and financial responsibility for arXiv's operation and development. Ginsparg was quoted in the Chronicle of Higher Education as saying it "was supposed to be a three-hour tour, not a life sentence". However, Ginsparg remains on the arXiv Scientific Advisory Board and on the arXiv Physics Advisory Committee. Although arXiv is not peer reviewed, a collection of moderators for each area review the submissions; the lists of moderators for many sections of arXiv are publicly available, but moderators for most of the physics sections remain unlisted.
Additionally, an "endorsement" system was introduced in 2004 as part of an effort to ensure content is relevant and of interest to current research in the specified disciplines. Under the system, for categories that use it, an author must be endorsed by an established arXiv author before being allowed to submit papers to those categories. Endorsers are not asked to review the paper for errors, but to check whether the paper is appropriate for the intended subject area. New authors from recognized academic institutions receive automatic endorsement, which in practice means that they do not need to deal with the endorsement system at all. However, the endorsement system has attracted criticism for restricting scientific inquiry. A majority of the e-prints are submitted to journals for publication, but some work, including some influential papers, remain purely as e-prints and are never published in a peer-reviewed journal. A well-known example of the latter is an outline of a proof of Thurston's geometrization conjecture, including the Poincaré conjecture as a particular case, uploaded by Grigori Perelman in November 2002.
Perelman appears content to forgo the traditional peer-reviewed journal process, stating: "If anybody is interested in my way of solving the problem, it's all there – let them go and read about it". Despite this non-traditional method of publication, other mathematicians recognized this work by offering the Fields Medal and Clay Mathematics Millennium Prizes to Perelman, both of which he refused. Papers can be submitted in any of several formats, including LaTeX, PDF printed from a word processor other than TeX or LaTeX; the submission is rejected by the arXiv software if generating the final PDF file fails, if any image file is too large, or if the total size of the submission is too large. ArXiv now allows one to store and modify an incomplete submission, only finalize the submission when ready; the time stamp on the article is set. The standard access route is through one of several mirrors. Sev