Hardcore punk is a punk rock music genre and subculture that originated in the late 1970s. It is faster and more aggressive than other forms of punk rock, its roots can be traced to earlier punk scenes in San Francisco and Southern California which arose as a reaction against the still predominant hippie cultural climate of the time. It was inspired by New York punk rock and early proto-punk. New York punk had a harder-edged sound than its San Francisco counterpart, featuring anti-art expressions of masculine anger and subversive humor. Hardcore punk disavows commercialism, the established music industry and "anything similar to the characteristics of mainstream rock" and addresses social and political topics with "confrontational, politically-charged lyrics."Hardcore sprouted underground scenes across the United States in the early 1980s in Washington, D. C. New York, New Jersey, Boston—as well as in Australia and the United Kingdom. Hardcore has spawned the straight edge movement and its associated submovements and youth crew.
Hardcore was involved in the rise of the independent record labels in the 1980s and with the DIY ethics in underground music scenes. It has influenced various music genres that have experienced widespread commercial success, including alternative rock and thrash metal. While traditional hardcore has never experienced mainstream commercial success, some of its early pioneers have garnered appreciation over time. Black Flag's Damaged, Minutemen's Double Nickels on the Dime and Hüsker Dü's New Day Rising were included in Rolling Stone's list of The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time in 2003 and Dead Kennedys have seen one of their albums reach gold status over a period of 25 years. In 2011, Rolling Stone writer David Fricke placed Greg Ginn of Black Flag 99th place in his 100 Greatest Guitarists list. Although the music genre started in English-speaking western countries, notable hardcore scenes have existed in Italy, Japan and the Middle East. Steven Blush states that the Vancouver-based band D. O.
A.'s 1981 album, Hardcore'81 "...was where the genre got its name." This album helped to make people aware of the term "hardcore". Konstantin Butz states that while the origin of the expression "hardcore" "...cannot be ascribed to a specific place or time", the term is "...usually associated with the further evolution of California's L. A. Punk Rock scene". A September 1981 article by Tim Sommer shows the author applying the term to the "15 or so" punk bands gigging around the city at that time, which he considered a belated development relative to Los Angeles, San Francisco, Washington D. C. Hardcore historian Steven Blush said that the term "hardcore" is a reference to the sense of being "fed up" with the existing punk and new wave music. Blush states that the term refers to "an extreme: the absolute most Punk."Kelefa Sanneh states that the term "hardcore" referred to an attitude of "turning inwards" towards the scene and "ignoring broader society", all with the goal of achieving a sense of "shared purpose" and being part of a community.
Sanneh cites Agnostic Front's band member selection approach as an example of hardcore's emphasis on "scene citizenship". An article in Drowned in Sound argues that 1980s-era "hardcore is the true spirit of punk", because "after all the poseurs and fashionistas fucked off to the next trend of skinny pink ties with New Romantic haircuts, singing wimpy lyrics", the punk scene consisted only of people "completely dedicated to the DIY ethics". One definition of the genre is "a form of exceptionally harsh punk rock." Like the Oi! subgenre of the UK, hardcore punk can be considered an internal music reaction. Hardcore has been called a "...faster, meaner genre" of punk, a "stern refutation" of punk rock. Steven Blush states that though punk rock had an "unruly edge", "Reagan-era kids demanded something more primal and immediate, with speed and aggression as the starting point."According to one writer, "distressed by the'art'ificiality of much post-punk and the emasculated sellouts of new wave, hardcore sought to strengthen its core punk principles."
Lacking the art-school grace of post-punk, hardcore punk "favor low key visual aesthetic over extravagance and breaking with original punk rock song patterns." Hardcore "...disavows...synthetic technological effects... the recording industry." Around 1980, as punk became "moribund" and radio-friendly, angry "shorn-headed suburban teenagers" discarded new wave's artistic statements and pop music influences and created a new genre, for which there were no places to play, which forced the performers to create independent and DIY venues. Music writer Barney Hoskyns compared punk rock with hardcore and stated that hardcore was "younger and angrier, full of the pent up rage of dysfunctional Orange County adolescents" who were sick of their life in a "bland Republican" area. While the hardcore scene was young white males, both onstage and in the audience, there are notable exceptions, such as the all-African-American band Bad Brains and notable women such as Crass singer Joy de Vivre and Black Flag's second bassist, Kira Roessler.
Steven Blush states that Minor Threat's Ian MacKaye "set in motion a die-hard mindset that begat everything we now call Hardcore" with his "virulent anti- industry, anti-star, pro-scene exhortations." One of the important philosophies in the hardcore scene is authenticity. The
Today's Empires, Tomorrow's Ashes
Today's Empires, Tomorrow's Ashes is the third album by Canadian punk rock band Propagandhi, released February 6, 2001. It was released on the band's own G7 Welcoming Committee Records label in Canada and Fat Wreck Chords elsewhere, it is the first Propagandhi release of new material on their own label. Released five years after its predecessor, the album marks the longest gap between two studio albums of the band. One of the album's tracks, "Back to the Motor League", indirectly refers to two songs by the Dead Kennedys, "Triumph of the Swill" and "Chickenshit Conformist", as well the year of their release on the 1986 album Bedtime for Democracy; the "Back to the Motor League" lyrics state: "fifteen years it still reeks of swill and chickenshit conformists". Both the Dead Kennedys songs and the Propagandhi track concern the co-opting of punk ideology by the corporate record industry. "Purina Hall of Fame" is a reference to the Nestlé owned pet food company, The Ralston Purina Company. The title is a cynical take on the Purina Animal Hall of Fame, a site that celebrates animals who have saved human lives.
The lyrics of "Purina Hall of Fame" obliquely outline Propagandhi's concerns about animal cruelty. Chris Hannah - guitar, vocals Jord Samolesky - drums Todd Kowalski - bass, vocals The album art is credited to the painting The Unfinished Flag of the United States by American poet Lawrence Ferlinghetti. Propagandhi continued this motif of using established artists to provide their cover artwork on their next two albums, Potemkin City Limits, using a piece by anarchist artist Eric Drooker, Supporting Caste, which featured a painting entitled "The Triumph of Mischief" by Kent Monkman. Album lyrics at the official Propagandhi website Album information at the G7 Welcoming Committee Records website
Survival of the Fattest
Survival of the Fattest is a compilation album released by the Fat Wreck Chords record label on March 12, 1996. It was the second installment in the Fat Music series
New Year's Day
New Year's Day simply called New Year or New Year's, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar. In pre-Christian Rome under the Julian calendar, the day was dedicated to Janus, god of gateways and beginnings, for whom January is named; as a date in the Gregorian calendar of Christendom, New Year's Day liturgically marked the Feast of the Naming and Circumcision of Jesus, still observed as such in the Anglican Church and Lutheran Church. In present day, with most countries now using the Gregorian calendar as their de facto calendar, New Year's Day is the most celebrated public holiday observed with fireworks at the stroke of midnight as the new year starts in each time zone. Other global New Year's Day traditions include making New Year's resolutions and calling one's friends and family. Mesopotamia instituted the concept of celebrating the new year in 2000 BC and celebrated new year around the time of the vernal equinox, in mid-March.
The early Roman calendar designated March 1 as the first day of the year. The calendar had just ten months, beginning with March; that the new year once began with the month of March is still reflected in some of the names of the months. September through December, our ninth through twelfth months, were positioned as the seventh through tenth months. Roman legend credited their second king Numa with the establishment of the months of Ianuarius and Februarius; these were first placed at the end of the year, but at some point came to be considered the first two months instead. The January Kalends came to be celebrated as the new year at some point after it became the day for the inaugurating new consuls in 153 BC. Romans had long dated their years by these consulships, rather than sequentially, making the kalends of January start the new year aligned this dating. Still and religious celebrations around the March new year continued for some time and there is no consensus on the question of the timing for January 1's new status.
Once it became the new year, however, it became a time for family celebrations. A series of disasters, notably including the failed rebellion of M. Aemilius Lepidus in 78 BC, established a superstition against allowing Rome's market days to fall on the kalends of January and the pontiffs employed intercalation to avoid its occurrence. In 567 AD, the Council of Tours formally abolished January 1 as the beginning of the year. At various times and in various places throughout medieval Christian Europe, the new year was celebrated on December 25 in honor of the birth of Jesus; these days were astronomically and astrologically significant since, at the time of the Julian reform, March 25 had been understood as the spring equinox and December 25 as the winter solstice. Medieval calendars nonetheless continued to display the months running from January to December, despite their readers reckoning the transition from one year to the next on a different day. Among the 7th century pagans of Flanders and the Netherlands, it was the custom to exchange gifts on the first day of the new year.
This custom was deplored by Saint Eligius, who warned the Flemish and Dutch: " make vetulas, little deer or iotticos or set tables at night or exchange New Year gifts or supply superfluous drinks." However, on the date that European Christians celebrated the New Year, they exchanged Christmas presents because New Year's Day fell within the twelve days of the Christmas season in the Western Christian liturgical calendar. Because of the leap year error in the Julian calendar, the date of Easter had drifted backward since the First Council of Nicaea decided the computation of the date of Easter in 325. By the sixteenth century, the drift from the observed equinox had become unacceptable. In 1582, Pope Gregory XIII declared the Gregorian calendar used today, correcting the error by a deletion of 10 days; the Gregorian calendar reform restored January 1 as New Year's Day. Although most Catholic countries adopted the Gregorian calendar immediately, it was only adopted among Protestant countries; the British, for example, did not adopt the reformed calendar until 1752.
Until the British Empire – and its American colonies – still celebrated the new year on March 25. Most nations of Western Europe adopted January 1 as New Year's Day somewhat before they adopted the Gregorian Calendar. In Tudor England, New Year's Day, along with Christmas Day and Twelfth Night, was celebrated as one of three main festivities among the twelve days of Christmastide. There, until the adoption of the Gregorian Calendar in 1752, the first day of the new year was the Western Christian Feast of the Annunciation, on March 25 called "Lady Day". Dates predicated on the year beginning on March 25 became known as Annunciation Style dates, while dates of the Gregorian Calendar commencing on January 1 were distinguished as Circumcision Style dates, because this was the date of the Feast of the Circumcision, the observed memorial of the eighth day of Jesus Christ's l
Concrete Blonde (album)
Concrete Blonde is the acclaimed debut album of American alternative rock band Concrete Blonde. "Still in Hollywood", "Your Haunted Head" and "Over Your Shoulder" were featured on The Hidden soundtrack. "Your Haunted Head" and "Over Your Shoulder" appeared on The Texas Chainsaw Massacre 2 soundtrack. In 1997, Canadian punk band Propagandhi covered "True" for the Fat Wreck Chords compilation album Physical Fatness, as well Propagandhi's rarities compilation Where Quantity Is Job #1; the album was re-released in 2004 by Superfecta Recordings. All songs written by Johnette Napolitano, except where noted
Heavy metal music
Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s in the United Kingdom. With roots in blues rock, psychedelic rock, acid rock, the bands that created heavy metal developed a thick, massive sound, characterized by amplified distortion, extended guitar solos, emphatic beats, overall loudness; the genre's lyrics and performance styles are sometimes associated with machismo. In 1968, three of the genre's most famous pioneers, Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath and Deep Purple were founded. Though they came to attract wide audiences, they were derided by critics. During the mid-1970s, Judas Priest helped spur the genre's evolution by discarding much of its blues influence. Beginning in the late 1970s, bands in the new wave of British heavy metal such as Iron Maiden and Def Leppard followed in a similar vein. Before the end of the decade, heavy metal fans became known as "metalheads" or "headbangers". During the 1980s, glam metal became popular with groups such as Mötley Crüe.
Underground scenes produced an array of more aggressive styles: thrash metal broke into the mainstream with bands such as Metallica, Slayer and Anthrax, while other extreme subgenres of heavy metal such as death metal and black metal remain subcultural phenomena. Since the mid-1990s popular styles have further expanded the definition of the genre; these include groove metal and nu metal, the latter of which incorporates elements of grunge and hip hop. Heavy metal is traditionally characterized by loud distorted guitars, emphatic rhythms, dense bass-and-drum sound, vigorous vocals. Heavy metal subgenres variously alter, or omit one or more of these attributes; the New York Times critic Jon Pareles writes, "In the taxonomy of popular music, heavy metal is a major subspecies of hard-rock—the breed with less syncopation, less blues, more showmanship and more brute force." The typical band lineup includes a drummer, a bassist, a rhythm guitarist, a lead guitarist, a singer, who may or may not be an instrumentalist.
Keyboard instruments are sometimes used to enhance the fullness of the sound. Deep Purple's Jon Lord played an overdriven Hammond organ. In 1970, John Paul Jones used a Moog synthesizer on Led Zeppelin III; the electric guitar and the sonic power that it projects through amplification has been the key element in heavy metal. The heavy metal guitar sound comes from a combined use of heavy distortion. For classic heavy metal guitar tone, guitarists maintain moderate levels gain at moderate levels, without excessive preamp or pedal distortion, to retain open spaces and air in the music. Thrash metal guitar tone has scooped mid-frequencies and compressed sound with lots of bass frequencies. Guitar solos are "an essential element of the heavy metal code... that underscores the significance of the guitar" to the genre. Most heavy metal songs "feature at least one guitar solo", "a primary means through which the heavy metal performer expresses virtuosity"; some exceptions are nu grindcore bands, which tend to omit guitar solos.
With rhythm guitar parts, the "heavy crunch sound in heavy metal... palm muting" the strings with the picking hand and using distortion. Palm muting creates a tighter, more precise sound and it emphasizes the low end; the lead role of the guitar in heavy metal collides with the traditional "frontman" or bandleader role of the vocalist, creating a musical tension as the two "contend for dominance" in a spirit of "affectionate rivalry". Heavy metal "demands the subordination of the voice" to the overall sound of the band. Reflecting metal's roots in the 1960s counterculture, an "explicit display of emotion" is required from the vocals as a sign of authenticity. Critic Simon Frith claims; the prominent role of the bass is key to the metal sound, the interplay of bass and guitar is a central element. The bass guitar provides the low-end sound crucial to making the music "heavy"; the bass plays a "more important role in heavy metal than in any other genre of rock". Metal basslines vary in complexity, from holding down a low pedal point as a foundation to doubling complex riffs and licks along with the lead or rhythm guitars.
Some bands feature the bass as a lead instrument, an approach popularized by Metallica's Cliff Burton with his heavy emphasis on bass guitar solos and use of chords while playing bass in the early 1980s. Lemmy of Motörhead played overdriven power chords in his bass lines; the essence of heavy metal drumming is creating a loud, constant beat for the band using the "trifecta of speed and precision". Heavy metal drumming "requires an exceptional amount of endurance", drummers have to develop "considerable speed and dexterity... to play the intricate patterns" used in heavy metal. A characteristic metal drumming technique is the cymbal choke, which consists of striking a cymbal and immediately silencing it by grabbing it with the other hand, producing a burst of sound; the metal drum setup is much larger than those employed in other forms of rock music. Black metal, death metal and some "mainstream metal" bands "all depend upon double-kicks and blast beats". In live performance, loudness—an "onslaught of sound", in sociologist Deena Weinstein's description—is considered vital.
In his book Metalheads, psychologist Jeffrey Arnett refers to heavy me
Propagandhi is a Canadian punk rock band formed in Portage la Prairie, Manitoba in 1986 by guitarist Chris Hannah and drummer Jord Samolesky. The band is located in Winnipeg and completed by bassist Todd Kowalski and guitarist Sulynn Hago. While their earlier work was aligned with the punk rock and skate punk tradition, in years Propagandhi records have moved towards a heavier and more technical heavy metal-influenced sound. Both in their lyrics and hands-on activism, the band's members champion various left wing and anarchist causes and veganism, have taken a vocal stance against human rights violations, racism, homophobia, imperialism and organized religion. In 1986, Samolesky and Hannah recruited original bassist Scott Hopper via a "progressive thrash band looking for bass player" flyer posted in a local record shop. Hopper was replaced three years by Mike Braumeister, which completed the first lineup to perform live. After the band established itself through several demos and larger shows, including one with Fugazi, Braumeister moved to Vancouver, John K. Samson became the band's third bassist.
In 1992, Propagandhi played a show with California punk rock band NOFX and included in their set a cover version of Cheap Trick's "I Want You to Want Me". Impressed by their performance, NOFX front man Fat Mike signed them to his independent record label Fat Wreck Chords; the band accompanied him to Los Angeles, where they recorded their debut album, How to Clean Everything, released in 1993. The band spent the next three years touring and issuing several smaller releases, including the How to Clean a Couple o' Things single on Fat Wreck Chords, a split 10" record with I Spy, a split 7" with F. Y. P, the double 7" Where Quality is Job No. 1, the latter three on Recess Records. In 1996, they released their second album, Less Talk, More Rock, via Fat Wreck Chords; the title was ironic, as they had become well known for lengthy song explanations and speeches during live performances. The album was more politicized than its predecessor, with such song titles as "Apparently, I'm a'P. C. Fascist'", "Nailing Descartes to the Wall/ Meat Is Still Murder", "...
And We Thought Nation-States Were a Bad Idea". Ramsey Kanaan, founder of the anarchist publishing company AK Press, appears on "A Public Dis-Service Announcement from Shell" as the voice of the petroleum multinational. Partial proceeds of the album were donated to other activist groups. Less Talk, More Rock caused some controversy at the time of its release due to the band's pro feminism and "gay positive" stance which, according to Hannah, clashed with the sexist and homophobic culture of the West Coast punk rock scene that the band had become associated with. After Less Talk, More Rock's release, Samson formed The Weakerthans. Todd Kowalski of Propagandhi's touring mates I Spy and the political grindcore band Swallowing Shit, replaced him. Hannah and Samolesky founded the record label G7 Welcoming Committee Records, which released The Weakerthans' first album; the label structured itself around the participatory economic proposals of Robin Hahnel and Michael Albert. The band issued. 1, a collection of EP and compilation tracks and live songs.
In 2001, Propagandhi released their third album, Today's Empires, Tomorrow's Ashes. The album was considered by some to be a major departure from their previous works; the song titles and lyrics of Today's Empires, Tomorrow's Ashes furthered the sphere of their political views, bolstered by the addition of Kowalski's aggressive songwriting and an increased density of guitar lines. The album includes enhanced content, with political videos and essays concerning such topics as COINTELPRO and the Black Panther Party. Propagandhi released the album Potemkin City Limits on October 18, 2005. Like its predecessor, the album features multimedia content, with a number of PDF files on topics such as participatory economics and veganism, links to websites of organizations that Propagandhi support; the album's opening track, "A Speculative Fiction", won the 2006 SOCAN Songwriting Prize by online vote. Propagandhi pledged to use the $5000 prize to make donations to the Haiti Action Network and The Welcome Place, an organization in Winnipeg for which they'd done volunteer work which helps refugees start new lives in Manitoba.
Hannah adopted the pseudonym Glen Lambert in the run-up to and immediate aftermath of the release of Potemkin City Limits, causing confusion among some fans and commentators. This coincided with the addition of second guitarist David Guillas, marking the band's first four-piece lineup in their then-twenty year career. Guillas, nicknamed "The Beaver", was a former member of two Winnipeg-based rock outfits, Giant Sons and Rough Music. Hannah had stated that he had been a fan of, influenced by, Guillas' work in Giant Sons. In 2007, the band released a DVD entitled Live from Occupied Territory, which features a recording of their set at The Zoo in Winnipeg on July 19, 2003. Proceeds of the DVD benefit the Middle East Children's Alliance. Included on the DVD are two full-length documentaries: Peace and the Promised Land, As Long as the Rivers Flow; the band spent the following years working on their fifth record. During the recording sessions, Hannah stated that to his ears the record "resemble a nuclear-powered space-age composite of Potemkin City Limits, Less Talk More Rock, Giant Son's Anthology and