Kibblesworth is a village 2 miles west of Birtley and Wear, England. Kibblesworth was a rural community until the development of the pit and brickworks and the resulting increase in population. Now, after the closure of the pit, few of the residents work in the village. In County Durham, it was transferred into the newly created county of Tyne and Wear in 1974; the village's name means "Cybbel's Enclosure". Kibblesworth is in the parish of Lamesley. While the area was agricultural, this was the centre of worship for the people of Kibblesworth. After the development of the mining industry, the Primitive Methodist Chapel and Wesleyan Methodist Chapel, provided social as well as religious life for the village; the present chapel was built by the Wesleyan Methodists in 1913. The Primitive Methodist Chapel has now been converted into flats. Although there had been coal-mining in the Kibblesworth area from medieval times few men were employed in the industry until the sinking of Robert Pit in 1842. From this date the fortunes of the village followed those of the industry with particular black spots during the strikes of 1921 and 1926 and the depression of the 1930s, high spots in the boom of the 1950s and 60s, closure of the pit in 1974.
The Bowes Railway was used for the transport of coal from Kibblesworth to the River Tyne at Jarrow. The line was started by George Stephenson in 1826 and extended to Kibblesworth when Robert Pit was sunk in 1842; the railway used three types of power - locomotives, stationary steam engines and self-acting inclines. There is now a cycletrack; the square at Spout Burn was built to house the miners of Robert Pit. It was demolished between 1965 and 1966, replaced by old people's bungalows the following year and the Grange Estate from 1973. Better known as'the Barracks', Kibblesworth Old Hall was divided up into tenements; the memory survives, in the street named Barrack Terrace. The hall was demolished and replaced by the Miner's Institute in 1934; the area has been redeveloped for housing. In 1855 a short test tunnel for the London Underground was built in Kibbleworth, because it had geological properties similar to London; this test tunnel was used for two years in the development of the first underground train.
Kibblesworth Hall was for many years the home of the colliery manager. It was demolished in 1973; the original Kibblesworth School was built in 1875, closed in 1972. It has since been redeveloped using Lottery funding to house the village community centre known as the'Millennium Centre'; the present school opened in 1972. 1842 The sinking of Robert Pit 1842-1850 The Square and Barrack Terrace built Old Hall converted to tenements 1855 Metropolitan Railway dug a small tunnel to test digging skills before moving onto London. 1862 Causey Row built 1864 The Opening of Primitive Methodist Chapel 1867 The Opening of Wesleyan Methodist Chapel 1875 The Opening of school 1901 School extensions built, Coronation Terrace built 1908 The Old Plough Inn demolished 1913 The Opening of New Wesleyan Chapel 1914 The Crescent built and Grange Drift opened 1921 Miners' strike 1922 First aged miners' homes, opposite Liddle Terrace 1926 General Strike 1932 Closure of Grange Drift 1934 Barracks demolished and Miners' Welfare Institute built on site 1936 First council housing in Ashvale Avenue and Laburnum Crescent 1947 Nationalisation of the pits 1965 The Square demolished 1974 Closure of the pit Si King, TV presenter.
Michael Aynsley, Pet Detective. Media related to Kibblesworth at Wikimedia Commons
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Deckham is a residential suburb in the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead in Tyne and Wear, England. It is bordered by Gateshead town centre to the north, Sheriff Hill to the south and Carr Hill to the east and Shipcote to the west, it lies on the B1296, the route of the old Great North Road, 1 mile south of Gateshead town centre, 1.5 miles south of Newcastle-upon-Tyne and 13 miles north of the city of Durham. In 2011, Deckham had a population of 9,938. Deckham's history is sparsely documented but suggests that the settlement was established at the junction of Carr Hill Road and the Old Durham Road in the early 19th century alongside the estate of Deckham Hall, built several centuries earlier and inhabited at one time by Thomas Deckham; the village grew, at the turn of the 20th century was enveloped by urban spawl when neighbouring Gateshead absorbed its outlying villages and settlements. Deckham is distinguished from other areas by a commercial area on Old Durham Road, the principal route through the suburb.
Deckham was a village in County Durham and was incorporated into the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead by the Local Government Act 1972. Deckham has steep topography. Residents can enjoy striking views towards Newcastle across the Team Valley; the settlement is governed locally by a Parliamentary Labour council and elects a Labour MP. Deckham is an area of social and economic deprivation, in the top ten per cent of such areas according to the Index of Multiple Deprivation. Housing stock is predominantly council housing and is, in many places, outdated and in need of modernisation. Whilst once the site of a coal mine, there is today no major employer in Deckham, considered a residential suburb of Gateshead; the main economic activity is in a commercial development on Old Durham Road. Deckham has a number of public houses; the only education provision is at South Street Primary School, a good school according to OFSTED. There are two churches, one of which, the Church of St George, is a Grade II listed building, community facilities are provided by Deckham Community Centre and the Elgin Centre in Carr Hill.
Unlike Sheriff Hill, Carr Hill and Low Fell, Deckham's history is sparsely recorded. It indicates that, by the middle of the 19th century, there was a small settlement, part of Gateshead Fell. Ordnance survey mapping illustrates the sparsity of buildings in 1860; the two public houses were the'Speed the Plough' and'The Ship'. The Deckham Hall estate was 1.25 miles from the Tyne Bridge. It is evidenced in 1614 and belonged to Thomas Deckham, who died the same year and bequeathed it to his granddaughter with "three pounds for the bringing home of water" to the poor people of the area, it changed hands between the families Wooler and Bowker, in the centuries after Deckham's death and varied in size whilst doing so. Alderman Benjamin Biggar, Mayor of Gateshead 1861–2, is thought to have lived at Deckham Hall. By the turn of the 20th century Deckham's rural aspect had changed. Whilst there remained large areas of grass and woodland between Deckham and Gateshead, there was a period of extensive building.
A public house was built at the junction of Split Crow Road. Two years a tract of Tyneside flats was built on the west side of the Old Durham Road and many streets in the area, such as Chandos Street, Shipcote Terrace, Raby Street and Northborne Street, are evidenced, along with an unnamed school. By 1919, some rural scenes could still be enjoyed but the fields were "rapidly encroached upon" in the 1920s and 1930s and replaced with more terraced housing at Caris Street, Fullerton Place and Methuen Street and large tracts of council houses. By this time, Deckham Hall was in a state of disrepair and was notable to residents for its resemblance to a haunted house "because of its air of gloom and the strange echoes to be heard on windy nights"; the hall was demolished in 1930 and more council houses were erected on the site. Since the intensive period of house building, little has changed. At the west end of the suburb, the Tyneside flats at Northborne Street and surrounding streets remain in situ and here there is "housing and little else".
Much of this housing is in poor condition, some is in "crumbling disrepair" and requires substantial investment. Old Durham Road has developed into the focal point of the neighbourhood and is the sole commercial area, with small, independent shops running along the western end of the road backing onto the streets from Inskip Terrace and Shipcote Terrace. Whilst many retail units are in a state of deterioration, despite a report describing recent housing development on the east side of Old Durham Road as "poorly handled and unsightly", the area remains "interesting and lively". By contrast, the central and eastern areas of Deckham are affected by a more marked decline. At the western edge there are stone remnants of an old, rural settlement, but the remainder, grouped around Edgeware and Kingston Roads, consists of bland, repetitive social housing arranged on long, curved streets which combine to create an environment, anonymous and disorientating. One source describes the environment as one where "eyesores become landmarks (lock–up workshops on Kingston Ro
Gateshead is a large town in Tyne and Wear, England, on the southern bank of the River Tyne opposite Newcastle upon Tyne. Gateshead and Newcastle are joined by seven bridges across the Tyne, including the Gateshead Millennium Bridge; the town is known for its architecture, including the Sage Gateshead, the Angel of the North and the Baltic Centre for Contemporary Art. Residents of Gateshead, like the rest of Tyneside, are referred to as Geordies. Gateshead's population in 2011 was 120,046. Part of County Durham, under the Local Government Act 1888 the town was made a county borough, meaning it was administered independently of the county council. Since 1974, the town has been administered as part of the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead within the metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear. Gateshead is first mentioned in Latin translation in Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People as ad caput caprae; this interpretation is consistent with the English attestations of the name, among them Gatesheued "goat's head" but in the context of a place-name meaning'headland or hill frequented by goats'.
Although other derivations have been mooted, it is this, given by the standard authorities. A Brittonic predecessor, named with the element *gabro-,'goat', may underlie the name. Gateshead might have been the Roman-British fort of Gabrosentum. There has been a settlement on the Gateshead side of the River Tyne, around the old river crossing where the Swing Bridge now stands, since Roman times; the first recorded mention of Gateshead is in the writings of the Venerable Bede who referred to an Abbot of Gateshead called Utta in 623. In 1068 William the Conqueror defeated the forces of Edgar the Ætheling and Malcolm king of Scotland on Gateshead Fell. During medieval times Gateshead was under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Durham. At this time the area was forest with some agricultural land; the forest was the subject of Gateshead's first charter, granted in the 12th century by Hugh du Puiset, Bishop of Durham. An alternative spelling may be "Gatishevede", as seen in a legal record, dated 1430; the earliest recorded coal mining in the Gateshead area is dated to 1344.
As trade on the Tyne prospered there were several attempts by the burghers of Newcastle to annex Gateshead. In 1576 a small group of Newcastle merchants acquired the'Grand Lease' of the manors of Gateshead and Whickham. In the hundred years from 1574 coal shipments from Newcastle increased elevenfold while the population of Gateshead doubled to 5,500. However, the lease and the abundant coal supplies ended in 1680; the pits were shallow as problems of ventilation and flooding defeated attempts to mine coal from the deeper seams. William Hawks a blacksmith, started business in Gateshead in 1747, working with the iron brought to the Tyne as ballast by the Tyne colliers. Hawks and Co. became one of the biggest iron businesses in the North, producing anchors, chains and so on to meet a growing demand. There was keen contemporary rivalry between'Hawks' Blacks' and'Crowley's Crew'; the famous ` Hawks' men' including Ned White, went on to be celebrated in Geordie story. Throughout the Industrial Revolution the population of Gateshead expanded rapidly.
This expansion resulted in the spread southwards of the town. In 1854, a catastrophic explosion on the quayside destroyed most of Gateshead's medieval heritage, caused widespread damage on the Newcastle side of the river. Robert Stirling Newall took out a patent on the manufacture of wire ropes in 1840 and in partnership with Messrs. Liddell and Gordon, set up his headquarters at Gateshead. A worldwide industry of wire-drawing resulted; the submarine telegraph cable received its definitive form through Newall's initiative, involving the use of gutta percha surrounded by strong wires. The first successful Dover-Calais cable on 25 September 1851, was made in Newall's works. In 1853, he invented the cone for laying cable in deep seas. Half of the first Atlantic cable was manufactured in Gateshead. Newall was interested in astronomy, his giant 25-inch telescope was set up in the garden at Ferndene, his Gateshead residence, in 1871. In 1831 a locomotive works was established by the Newcastle and Darlington Railway part of the York and Berwick Railway.
In 1854 the works moved to the Greenesfield site and became the manufacturing headquarters of North Eastern Railway. In 1909, locomotive construction was moved to Darlington and the rest of the works were closed in 1932. Sir Joseph Swan lived at Underhill, Low Fell, Gateshead from 1869–83, where his experiments led to the invention of the electric light bulb; the house was the first in the world to be wired for domestic electric light. In 1870, the old town hall was built, designed by John Johnstone who designed the previously-built Newcastle town hall; the ornamental clock in front of the old town hall was presented to Gateshead in 1892 by the mayor, Walter de Lancey Willson, on the occasion of him being elected for a third time. He was one of the founders of Walter Willson's, a chain of grocers in the North East and Cumbria; the old town hall served as a magistrate's court and one of Gateshead's police stations. In 1835, Gateshead was established as a municipal borough and in 1889 it was made a county borough, independent from Durham County Council.
In the same year, one of the largest employers, Hawks and Company, closed down and unemployment has since been a burden. Up to the Second World War there were repeated newspaper reports of the unemployed sending deputations to the council to provide work; the depre
Sheriff Hill is a suburb in the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead in Tyne and Wear, England. It lies on the B1296 road 2 miles south of Gateshead, 2.5 miles south of Newcastle upon Tyne and 12 miles north of the historic city of Durham. According to the 2001 UK census it had a population of 5,051. Part of Gateshead Fell in County Durham, Sheriff Hill was the site of a battle between William the Conqueror and Malcolm III of Scotland in 1068. A road was built through Gateshead Fell in the early 13th century. A procession of bishops and noblemen known as the Sheriff's March took place on the road in 1282 and continued biannually until the 1830s. By Gateshead Fell had been enclosed and a village had grown around the road populated by an influx of tinkers, coalminers working at Sheriff Hill Colliery and workers at the local pottery and sandstone quarry. By the turn of the 20th century these industries were in steep decline; the local authority built a large council estate at Sheriff Hill to alleviate dangerous overcrowding in Gateshead turning the area into a residential suburb.
It ceased to be an independent village on 1 April 1974 when it was incorporated into the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead under the terms of the Local Government Act 1972. Now part of the local council ward of High Fell, the suburb is economically disadvantaged compared with other areas of the borough and nationally, with high levels of unemployment. Sheriff Hill was the site of one of Gateshead's largest boarding schools but as of 2012, the only remaining educational establishment is Glynwood Primary School; the suburb contains the Queen Elizabeth Hospital – the largest hospital in Gateshead, a small dene and a small park. The principal landmark is St John the Evangelist Church, one of three Grade II listed buildings in the area and one of two remaining churches; the southern end of Sheriff's Highway – the main road through the suburb, is more than 500 feet above sea level, making it the highest point in Gateshead. Until the 19th century, Sheriff Hill was part of Gateshead Fell, a "windswept and treacherous heath" that took its name from the town of Gateshead and the fell or common land contiguous with it.
In 1068, Malcolm III of Scotland marched across the Scottish border to challenge the authority of William the Conqueror. Malcolm, accompanied by native insurgents and foreign supporters, was met by William's men in the area of Sheriff Hill and was decisively beaten. In the 13th century, a road through Gateshead Fell became the main trade route between Durham and Newcastle and as its importance grew, two public houses – the Old Cannon and The Three Tuns, were built along with a small number of houses; the settlement's name derives from the Sheriff's March. An inquisition at Tynemouth declared that the King of Scotland, the Archbishop of York, the Prior of Tynemouth, the Bishop of Durham and Gilbert de Umfraville, Earl of Angus should meet the justices before they entered Newcastle from the south. A procession was held before the meeting; the meeting place was at Chile Well but subsequently the procession came to "light and go into the house". The house was the Old Cannon public house; when the judges arrived, the procession returned to Newcastle.
In 1647, Gateshead Fell was found to consist of 1,300 acres of land. A number of small, isolated settlements had developed around the road at modern-day Deckham, Low Fell and Sheriff Hill; the few cottages and properties at Sheriff Hill were of such poor quality that in 1713, the total of ninety-one cottages returned only £8 9s 6d in rent. The rental rate declined over the years and poverty rates were so high that several tenants paid no rent; the houses were unappealing. The length of the road that ran through Sheriff Hill was called Sodhouse Bank. By the middle of the 18th century, the area had become a wild and frightening place and when theologian John Wesley arrived in 1785, he found a "pathless waste of white"; the road through Gateshead Fell was turnpiked by the Durham to Tyne Bridge Road Act in 1747. Although it had brought some early settlers to the area, the development of industry allowed the formative settlement to grow. In 1740, John Warburton opened a pottery at Carr Hill, credited with introducing white earthenware to Tyneside.
Encouraged by Warburton's success, Paul Jackson established the Sheriff Hill Pottery in 1771 at the northern end of the turnpike road and by 1775 was advertising his earthenware in the Newcastle Journal. Jackson's pottery, which became a local centre of pottery production, attracted settlers to the area and became a source of pride to local residents. In 1793, Sheriff Hill Colliery, or "Ellison Main Colliery", opened at the summit of Gateshead Fell on the boundary between Sheriff Hill and Low Fell; the colliery had two shafts – the Fanny and Isabella Pits – and provided employment for over 100 men and boys. In 1809, an Act ordered the enclosure of Gateshead Fell. Commissioners were appointed to apportion Gateshead Fell accordingly. Plans were laid for the requisition and construction of wells, drains and watering places – including a well at Blue Quarries. New roads, today known as Blue Quarries Road, Church Road and Windy Nook Road, were built; the last allotment land disputes were settled in 1830 and Gateshead Fell was enclosed, formally creating the villages of Sheriff Hil
Team Valley is a trading estate in Gateshead in Tyne and Wear, England. It is home to the Retail World retail park, many large international companies are based in the area's trading estate. In 2017 there were 700 companies on the estate, each day 20,000 people travel to Team Valley; the residential area known as the Teams is adjacent to Dunston. In the 1930s the Government decided to spend nearly £2m on this part of Gateshead establishing the Team Valley Trading Estate as a well-planned industrial environment; the architect in charge was William Holford with Hugh Beaver as chief engineer. It included a central headquarters, now used by English Partnerships, a bank, a post office and, some modestly scaled industrial buildings as well as some smaller industrial units for start-up ventures; these facilities were laid out along a wide central artery, known as'Kingsway' two miles long. Work on the estate began in May 1936 and the first factory opened in October that year; the construction, undertaken by Wimpey Construction, took several years and was completed in 1938.
Many of the older residents of Gateshead were involved in the building of the original team valley. The estate was opened by King George VI on 22 February 1939; the southern end used to be the location of the National Coal Board's regional headquarters but after the closure of the mines in the area this was replaced by a Safeway supermarket, now owned by Sainsbury's. The River Team runs directly through the centre of the trading estate, hidden in a culvert. Although the Team Valley Trading Estate predates the road by several decades, it is now bordered on the West by the A1 road, has two junctions at both the north and south ends. A dual carriageway runs the length of the trading estate between the two A1 road junctions; the worsening congestion and the lack of scope for improving the A1 has led to the Highways Agency using the provisions of Article 14 of the Town and Country Planning Order 1995 to restrict additional development taking place on Team Valley. The North East Chamber of Commerce and two local newspapers have launched a campaign against these restrictions, entitled "Go for Jobs".
To the East it is bordered by the East Coast Main Line, the main railway between London and Edinburgh via Newcastle. Until 1952, the Trading Estate was served by Low Fell railway station; the nearest heavy rail station is in Newcastle, while the Tyne and Wear Metro is accessible at Gateshead Interchange. Bus services are provided by Go North East with most operating to and from Gateshead Interchange. White, Valerie. Wimpey: The first hundred years. George Wimpey
Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+