In numismatics, token coins or trade tokens are coin-like objects used instead of coins. The field of token coins is part of exonumia and token coins are token money. Tokens have a denomination either implied by size, color or shape. "Tokens" are made of cheaper metals: copper, aluminium and tin were used, while bakelite, leather and other less durable materials are known. A key point of difference between a token coin and a legal tender coin is that the latter is issued by a governmental authority and is exchangeable for goods. However, a token coin has a much more limited use and is issued by a private company, association or individual. In the case of "currency tokens" issued by a company but recognized by the state there is a convergence between tokens and currency. Currency tokens issued by a company sometimes ceased to be "trade" tokens when they were sanctioned by a local government authority: due to a severe shortage of money or the government's inability to issue its own coinage. In effect, the organization behind the tokens became the regional bank.
A classic example of this is the Strachan and Co trade tokens of East Griqualand in South Africa, which were used as currency by the indigenous people in the region from 1874. Their initial success resulted from the scarcity of small change in that remote region at that time. In times of high inflation, tokens have sometimes taken on a currency role. Examples of this are Italian and Israeli telephone tokens, which were always good for the same service as prices increased. New York City Subway tokens were sometimes accepted in trade, or in parking meters, since they had a set value. Coin-like objects from the Roman Empire called spintriae have been interpreted as an early form of token, their functions are not documented, but they appear to have been brothel tokens or gaming tokens. Medieval English monasteries issued tokens to pay for services from outsiders; these tokens circulated in nearby villages, where they were called "Abbot's money". Counters called jetons were used as small change without official blessing.
From the 17th to the early 19th century in the British Isles and North America, tokens were issued by merchants in times of acute shortage of coins of the state. These tokens were in effect a pledge redeemable in goods, but not for currency; these tokens never received official sanction from government but were accepted and circulated quite widely. In England, the production of copper farthings was permitted by royal licence in the first few decades of the 17th century, but production ceased during the English Civil War and a great shortage of small change resulted; this shortage was felt more keenly because of the rapid growth of trade in the towns and cities, this in turn prompted both local authorities and merchants to issue tokens. These tokens were most made of copper or brass, but pewter and leather tokens are found. Most were not given a specific denomination and were intended to substitute for farthings, but there are a large number of halfpenny and sometimes penny tokens. Halfpenny and penny tokens but not always, bear the denomination on their face.
Most such tokens show the issuer's full name or initials. Where initials were shown, it was common practice to show three initials: the first names of husband and wife and their surname. Tokens would normally indicate the merchant establishment, either by name or by picture. Most were round, but they are found in square, heart or octagonal shapes. Thousands of towns and merchants issued these tokens from 1648 until 1672, when official production of farthings resumed, private production was suppressed. There were again coin shortages in the late 18th century, when the British Royal Mint ceased production. Merchants once again produced tokens, but they were now machine made and larger than their 17th century predecessors, with values of a halfpenny or more. While many were used in trade, they were produced for advertising and political purposes, some series were produced for the primary purpose of sale to collectors; these tokens are known as Conder tokens, after the writer of the first reference book on them.
These were issued by merchants in payment for goods with the agreement that they would be redeemed in goods to an equivalent value at the merchants' own outlets. The transaction is therefore one of barter, with the tokens playing a role of convenience, allowing the seller to receive his goods at a rate and time convenient to himself, the merchant to tie the holder of the token coin to his shop. Trade tokens gradually changed into barter tokens, as evidenced by the continued circulation of former trade tokens when the need for their use had passed. In the United States of America Hard times tokens issued from 1832 to 1844 and Civil War tokens issued in the 1860s made up for shortages of official money; because of weight, the U. S. Treasury Department does not ship coins to the Armed Forces serving overseas, so Army and Air Force Exchange Service officials chose to make pogs in denominations of 5, 10, 25 cents; the pogs are about 38 mm in diameter, feature various military-themed graphics. The collecting of trade tokens is part of the field of exonumia, includes other types of tokens, including transit tokens, encased cents, many others.
In a narrow sense, trade tokens are "good for" tokens, issued by merchants. They have a merchant's name or initials, sometimes a town and state, a value legend somewhere on the token. Merchants that issued tokens included general stores, groce
Jonathan Charles Turteltaub is an American film director and producer. Turteltaub was born on August 8, 1963 in New York City one of two children born to comedy writer Saul Turteltaub, best known for his work on Sanford and Son, his wife, Shirley Steinberg, his parents are both Jewish. Turteltaub graduated from the USC School of Cinematic Arts, he has directed successful mainstream films for the Walt Disney Studios. Turteltaub produced the CBS television series Jericho, directed the show's first three episodes. Turteltaub is married to producer Amy Eldon, they have three children: sons Jack and Daniel, daughter Arabella Rose. Eldon is the sister of photojournalist Dan Eldon, stoned to death alongside several other journalists in Somalia in 1993. Turteltaub and his family reside in Malibu, next door to his in-laws, he serves on the Creative Council of Represent. Us, a nonpartisan anti-corruption organization. Jon Turteltaub on IMDb Jon Turteltaub – MIPtalk.com Interview
Julia Fiona Roberts is an American actress and producer. She became a Hollywood star after headlining the romantic comedy Pretty Woman, which grossed $464 million worldwide, she has won three Golden Globe Awards, from eight nominations, has been nominated for four Academy Awards for her film acting, winning the Academy Award for Best Actress for her performance in Erin Brockovich. Her films have collectively brought box office receipts of over US$2.8 billion, making her one of the most successful actresses in terms of revenue generation. Her most successful films include Mystic Pizza, Steel Magnolias, Pretty Woman, Sleeping with the Enemy, The Pelican Brief, My Best Friend's Wedding, Notting Hill, Runaway Bride, Ocean's Eleven, Ocean's Twelve, Charlie Wilson's War, Valentine's Day, Eat Pray Love, Money Monster, Wonder. Roberts was nominated for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Limited Series or Movie for her performance in the HBO television film The Normal Heart.
In 2018, she starred in the Amazon psychological thriller series Homecoming. Roberts was the highest-paid actress in the world throughout most of the 1990s and in the first half of the 2000s, her fee for 1990's Pretty Woman was US$300,000. As of 2017, Roberts's net worth was estimated to be $170 million, she has been named the world's most beautiful woman by People a record five times. Roberts was born on October 28, 1967, in Smyrna, Georgia, to Betty Lou Bredemus and Walter Grady Roberts, she is of English, Irish, Welsh and Swedish descent. Her father was a Baptist, her mother a Roman Catholic, she was raised Catholic, her older brother Eric Roberts, from whom she was estranged for several years until 2004, older sister Lisa Roberts Gillan, niece Emma Roberts, are actors. She had a younger half-sister named Nancy Motes. Roberts' parents, one-time actors and playwrights, met while performing in theatrical productions for the armed forces, they co-founded the Atlanta Actors and Writers Workshop in Atlanta, off Juniper Street in Midtown.
They ran a children's acting school in Decatur, while they were expecting Julia. The children of Martin Luther King, Jr. and Coretta Scott King attended the school. As a thank-you for his service, Mrs. King paid Mrs. Roberts's hospital bill, her parents married in 1955. Her mother filed for divorce in 1971. From 1972, Roberts lived in Smyrna, where she attended Fitzhugh Lee Elementary School, Griffin Middle School, Campbell High School. In 1972, her mother married Michael Motes, abusive and unemployed; the couple had Nancy, who died at 37 on February 2014, of an apparent drug overdose. The marriage ended with Betty Lou divorcing Motes on cruelty grounds. Roberts's own father died of cancer. Roberts wanted to be a veterinarian as a child, she played the clarinet in her school band. After graduating from Smyrna's Campbell High School, she attended Georgia State University but did not graduate, she headed to New York City to pursue a career in acting. Once there, she enrolled in acting classes. Roberts made her first big screen appearance in the film Satisfaction, alongside Liam Neeson and Justine Bateman, as a band member looking for a summer gig.
She had performed a small role opposite her brother Eric, in Blood Red, filmed in 1987, although it was not released until 1989. Her first television appearance was as a juvenile rape victim in the initial season of the series Crime Story with Dennis Farina, in the episode titled "The Survivor", broadcast on February 13, 1987, her first critical success with moviegoers was her performance in the independent film Mystic Pizza in 1988. In 1989, she was featured in Steel Magnolias, as a young bride with diabetes, received both her first Academy Award nomination and first Golden Globe Award win for her performance. Roberts became known to worldwide audiences when she starred with Richard Gere in the Cinderella–Pygmalionesque story, Pretty Woman, in 1990, playing an assertive freelance hooker with a heart of gold. Roberts won the role after Michelle Pfeiffer, Molly Ringwald, Meg Ryan, Jennifer Jason Leigh, Karen Allen, Daryl Hannah turned it down; the role earned her a second Oscar nomination, this time as Best Actress, second Golden Globe Award win, as Motion Picture Best Actress.
Pretty Woman saw the highest number of ticket sales in the U. S. for a romantic comedy, made US$463.4 million worldwide. Roberts starred as one of five students conducting clandestine experiments that produce near-death experiences in the supernatural thriller Flatliners, in 1990, her next film was the commercially successful thriller Sleeping with the Enemy, in which she took on the role of a battered wife who escapes her abusive husband, played by Patrick Bergin, begins a new life in Iowa. Roberts played Tinkerbell in Steven Spielberg's Hook, starred as a nurse in Joel Schumacher's romance film Dying Young. Roberts t
Sandra Annette Bullock is an American actress and philanthropist. She was the highest paid actress in the world in 2010 and 2014. In 2015, Bullock was chosen as People's Most Beautiful Woman, was included in Time's 100 most influential people in the world in 2010. Bullock is the recipient including an Academy Award and a Golden Globe Award. After making her acting debut with a minor role in the thriller Hangmen, Bullock received early attention for her supporting work in the action film Demolition Man, her breakthrough came in the action thriller Speed. She established herself in the 1990s, with leading roles in the romantic comedies While You Were Sleeping and Hope Floats, thrillers The Net and A Time to Kill. Bullock achieved further success in the following decades with the comedies Miss Congeniality, Two Weeks Notice, The Proposal, The Heat, Ocean's 8, the drama Crash, the thrillers Premonition and Bird Box. Bullock was awarded the Academy Award for Best Actress and the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in a Drama for portraying Leigh Anne Tuohy in the biographical drama The Blind Side.
She was nominated in the same categories for playing an astronaut stranded in space in the science fiction thriller Gravity, her highest-grossing live-action release. In addition to her acting career, Bullock is the founder of the production company Fortis Films, she has produced some of the films in which she has starred, including Miss Congeniality 2: Armed and Fabulous and All About Steve. She was an executive producer of the ABC sitcom George Lopez and made several appearances during its run. Bullock was born in Arlington, Virginia, on July 26, 1964, the daughter of John W. Bullock, an Army employee and part-time voice coach from Birmingham and Helga Mathilde Meyer, an opera singer and voice teacher from Germany. Bullock's maternal grandfather was a German rocket scientist from Nuremberg. John, in charge of the Army's Military Postal Service in Europe, was stationed in Nuremberg when he met Helga, they married in Germany and moved to Arlington, where John worked with the Army Materiel Command before becoming a contractor for The Pentagon.
Bullock has a younger sister, Gesine Bullock-Prado, who served as president of Bullock's production company Fortis Films. Bullock was raised in Germany and Austria for 12 years, grew up speaking German, she had a Waldorf education in Nuremberg. As a child, while her mother went on European opera tours, Bullock stayed with her aunt Christl and cousin Susanne, the latter of whom married politician Peter Ramsauer. Bullock studied ballet and vocal arts as a child and accompanied her mother, taking small parts in her opera productions. In Nuremberg, she sang in the opera's children's choir. Bullock has a scar above her left eye, caused by a fall into a creek when she was a child. While she maintains her American citizenship, Bullock applied for German citizenship in 2009. Bullock attended Washington-Lee High School, where she was a cheerleader and performed in school theater productions. After graduating in 1982, she attended East Carolina University in Greenville, North Carolina, where she received a BFA in Drama in 1987.
While at ECU, she performed in multiple theater productions including Three Sisters. She moved to Manhattan, New York, where she supported herself as a bartender, cocktail waitress, coat checker while auditioning for roles. While in New York, Bullock took acting classes with Sanford Meisner, she appeared in several student films, landed a role in an Off-Broadway play No Time Flat. Director Alan J. Levi was impressed by Bullock's performance and offered her a part in the made-for-television film Bionic Showdown: The Six Million Dollar Man and the Bionic Woman; this led to her being cast in a series of small roles in several independent films as well as in the lead role of the short-lived NBC television version of the film Working Girl. She went on to appear in several films, such as Love Potion No. 9, The Thing Called Love and Fire on the Amazon, before rising to early prominence with her supporting role in the sci-fi action film Demolition Man. Bullock's big breakthrough came in 1994, when she starred as one of the passengers of a city bus containing a bomb in the action thriller Speed alongside actor Keanu Reeves.
She was required to read for Speed to make sure there was the right chemistry between her and Reeves. She recalls that they had to do "all these physical scenes together, rolling around on the floor and stuff." Speed garnered acclaim from critics who, according to Rotten Tomatoes, asserted it was a "terrific popcorn thriller outstanding performances from Keanu Reeves, Dennis Hopper, Sandra Bullock". It took in US$350 million worldwide. After the success of Speed, Bullock established herself as a Hollywood leading actress. In the romantic comedy While You Were Sleeping, she portrayed a lonely Chicago Transit Authority token collector who saves the life of a man. While the film made US$182 million globally, it received positive reviews, with Rotten Tomatoes' critical consensus reading: "While You Were Sleeping is built wholly from familiar ingredients, but assembled with such skill—and with such a charming performance from Sandra Bullock—that it gives formula a good name." She received her first Golden Globe Award nomination for Best Actress – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy.
In 1995, Bullock starred in the thriller The Net as a computer programmer who stumbles upon a conspiracy that puts h
Chicago Transit Authority
The Chicago Transit Authority is the operator of mass transit in Chicago and some of its surrounding suburbs, including the trains of the Chicago "L" and CTA bus service. The CTA is an Illinois independent governmental agency that started operations on October 1, 1947 upon the purchase and combination of the transportation assets of the Chicago Rapid Transit Company and the Chicago Surface Lines streetcar system. In 1952, CTA purchased the assets of the Chicago Motor Coach Company, under the control of Yellow Cab Company founder John D. Hertz, resulting in a unified system. Today, the CTA is one of the three service boards financially supported by the Regional Transportation Authority and CTA service connects with the commuter rail Metra, suburban bus and paratransit service, Pace; the Chicago Transit Authority provides service in 10 surrounding suburbs. The CTA provided a total of 532 million rides in 2011, a 3 percent increase over 2010 with ridership rising to levels not seen for 20 years.
CTA operates 24 hours each day and on an average weekday provides 1.7 million rides on buses and trains. It has 1,800 buses that operate over 140 routes traveling along 2,230 route miles. Buses provide about one million passenger trips a day and serve more than 12,000 posted bus stops; the Chicago Transit Authority's 1,450 train cars operate over eight routes and 222 miles of track. Its trains provide about 750,000 customer trips each weekday and serve 145 stations in Chicago and seven suburbs; the CTA operates in Chicago and the bordering suburbs of Forest Park, Skokie, Oak Park, Cicero, North Riverside and Wilmette. The CTA accepts payment with a Ventra Card which can be purchased with a single-ride, 1 day unlimited ride, 3 day unlimited ride, 7 day unlimited ride, 30 day unlimited ride, a Ventra disposable ticket, contactless credit or debit card, certain smartphones. Unlimited ride. CTA buses accept cash. Up to three children under 7 can ride free with a fare-paying rider; the CTA has many free and discounted fare options, for elementary and high school students and university students, people with disabilities, senior citizens, military service members.
Only buses allow riders to pay directly with cash at a farebox and no change is given. Exact fare is required. Since January 7, 2018, the bus full fare is $2.50, disabled & seniors is $1.25 and students is $.75. No cash transfers are available; some rail station turnstiles accepted cash but this feature has been removed in an effort to speed up boarding. Cash at rail stations is only accepted at Ventra Vending Machines to purchase Ventra paper fare cards; the CTA no longer sells Transit Cards. All remaining Transit Cards must have been used by July 1, 2014. In its place CTA has adopted the Ventra Card system; the Ventra Card can be purchased online, Ventra Vending Machines at CTA rail stations, at authorized retailers like Walgreens, CVS Pharmacies and check cashing locations. Ventra is an electronic fare payment system for the Chicago Transit Authority and Pace that replaced the Chicago Card and the Transit Card automated fare collection system. Ventra launched in August 2013, with a full system transition slated for July 1, 2014.
The Ventra payment system includes several options of payment, including a contactless smart card powered by RFID, a single day or use ticket powered by RFID, any personal bank-issued credit card or debit card that has an RFID chip, a compatible mobile phone. Which includes Samsung Pay and Android Pay. Ventra is operated by Cubic Transportation Systems. Riders when using Ventra pay. Disabled & seniors who are 65 or older pay. Elementary and high school students 7-20 years old: Valid 5:30 a.m. to 8:30 p.m. on school days pay $.75 during school hours and pay $1.10 during weekends and holidays. Transfers within two hours are $.25 full fare, $.15 for disabled and students. Ventra readers on buses and rail station turnstiles can accept contactless payments directly from mobile devices. Riders can pay a PAYG fare by touching mobile phones with Apple Pay, Google Pay and Samsung Pay—or any contactless bankcard with the contactless wave symbol; the Chicago Transit Authority produced a monthly television show, from May 2003 through December 2011.
The show was hosted by Dale Rivera, Jeanne Sparrow, Omar Barragan. Connections was broadcast on City of Chicago Public-access television cable TV channels 23 & 49, as well as on Comcast's CN100 in the Chicago media market, including areas of Michigan and Indiana. Connections featured news and information about the CTA and services it provides. Individual segments from Connections are available on CTA's YouTube channel; as mandated by the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 for all transit operators in the U. S. all CTA buses are handicap accessible, the ramp on every bus is available for use upon request by anyone who has trouble with steps temporarily. The majority of train stations CTA operates have elevators or ramps to provide access for customers with disabilities. All trains include accessible rail cars. CTA provides the means to view alerts regarding elevator status at the CTA's Elevator Status Alerts page or by calling an Elevator Status Hotline at 1-888-YOUR-CTA. Accessibility alert notifications appear, by default, in CTA "Train Tracker", a station arrival prediction tool appearing on its website.
Until 1973, CTA's fleet included a large number of electric trolley buse
Monica Keena is an American actress. She made her film debut in While You Were Sleeping, a lead role as Lilliana Lilli Hoffman in Snow White: A Tale of Terror, she starred as Lori Campbell in Freddy vs. Jason, has had roles in the films Brooklyn Rules and the 2009 remake of Night of the Demons. Keena has worked in television, starring as Abby Morgan on Dawson's Creek, Rachel Lindquist on the short-lived comedy Undeclared, Kristen on HBO's Entourage. Keena was born and raised in Brooklyn, New York, to Mary, a nurse, William Keena, a financial sales manager, she has an older sister named Samantha. She attended a progressive private school in Brooklyn Heights, she auditioned for acceptance into LaGuardia High School of Performing Arts at age thirteen. Although she chose the drama department as her preference, she was accepted in both the dramatic and the vocal arts departments. Soon after starting her classes at LaGuardia, Keena played in her first role in a short film Burning Love. Keena portrayed Bertha in a stage reading of Strindberg's The Father and had her first starring role playing Lilliana Lilli Hoffman in the folktale-inspired film Snow White: A Tale of Terror.
She has appeared in numerous television and movie projects including the TBS Original Movie First Daughter and Crime and Punishment in Suburbia which appeared at the 2000 Sundance Film Festival. Monica appeared in the film While You Were Sleeping, The Simian Line and Lynn Redgrave, Bad Girls From Valley High with the film released straight to DVD in 2005. In 2003, she played the heroine Lori Campbell in Jason. In 2006, she played Celia in the film Left in Darkness. Keena had a recurring role as Abby Morgan on Dawson's Creek and a starring role on the short-lived Undeclared as the college student Rachel. Keena had guest roles on series such as Law & Order, Law & Order: Criminal Intent, Homicide: Life on the Street and Entourage. On the hit ABC medical drama Grey's Anatomy, she appeared in the second season episode "Into You Like A Train" in which she played Bonnie, a patient, injured in a massive train accident, she reappeared in the third season episode "Some Kind of Miracle" to reprise her role as Bonnie.
Keena appears as Maddie Curtis in Adam Gierasch's straight-to-video 2009 remake Night of the Demons. It was during filming, he has been arrested three times for attacking her, on January 15, 2013 was remanded in jail as he was unable to pay bail. Monica Keena on IMDb Monica Keena at Hollywood.com