The ground squirrels are members of the squirrel family of rodents which generally live on or in the ground, rather than trees. Together, they make up the tribe of squirrels and the large and mainly ground squirrel subfamily Xerinae. Well-known members of this largely Holarctic group are the marmots, including the American groundhog, the chipmunks, the susliks, and the prairie dogs. They are highly variable in size and habitus, but most are able to rise up on their hind legs. They tend to be far more gregarious than other squirrels, most Marmotini are rather short-tailed and large squirrels, and the alpine marmot is the largest living member of the Sciuridae, at 53–73 cm in length and weighing 5–8 kg. The chipmunks of the genus Tamias frequently spend time in trees, closer to typical squirrels in other aspects, they are occasionally considered a tribe of their own. The ground squirrel is especially renowned for its tendency to rise up on its hind legs and it does this whenever it senses nearby danger, or when it must see over tall grasses.
The squirrel curls its paws flat against its chest and sends a call to warn other family members about the presence of predators. Palaeosciurus from Europe is the oldest known ground squirrel species, the oldest fossils are from the Early Oligocene, more than 30 million years ago, but the genus probably persisted at least until the mid-Miocene, some 15 mya. It is not clear where the Marmotini originated, the subtribes probably diverged in the early to mid-Oligocene, as primitive marmots and chipmunks are known from the Late Oligocene of North America. A ground squirrel lives in areas like pastures, golf courses, cemeteries. Ground squirrels are omnivorous, and will not only eat a diet rich in fungi, nuts and seeds, but insects, eggs. Squirrel Tree squirrel Richardsons ground squirrel Helgen, Kristofer M. Cole, F. Russell, generic Revision in the Holarctic Ground Squirrel Genus Spermophilus. Archived from the original on 2011-10-22, nuclear DNA phylogeny of the squirrels and the evolution of arboreality from c-myc and RAG1.
Doi,10. 1016/S1055-790300204-5 PDF fulltext Thorington, R. W. & Hoffmann, in, Mammal Species of the World—A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 754–818
The desert tortoises are two species of tortoise native to the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico and the Sinaloan thornscrub of northwestern Mexico. G. agassizii is distributed in western Arizona, southeastern California, southern Nevada, the specific name agassizii is in honor of Swiss-American zoologist Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz. G. morafkai occurs east of the Colorado River in Arizona, as well as in the states of Sonora and Sinaloa and this species may be a composite of two species. The desert tortoises live about 50 to 80 years, they slowly and generally have low reproductive rates. They spend most of their time in burrows, rock shelters and they are most active after seasonal rains and are inactive during most of the year. This inactivity helps reduce water loss during hot periods, whereas winter hibernation facilitates survival during freezing temperatures, Desert tortoises can tolerate water and energy imbalances on a daily basis, which increases their lifespans.
These tortoises may attain a length of 10 to 14 in, a male tortoise has a longer gular horn than a female, his plastron is concave compared to a female tortoise. Males have larger tails than females do and their shells are high-domed, and greenish-tan to dark brown in color. Desert tortoises can grow to 4–6 in in height and they can range in weight from.02 to 5 kg. The front limbs have sharp, claw-like scales and are flattened for digging, back legs are skinnier and very long. Desert tortoises can live in areas with ground temperatures exceeding 140 °F because of their ability to dig underground burrows, at least 95% of their lives are spent in burrows. There, they are protected from freezing winter weather while dormant. Within their burrows, these create a subterranean environment that can be beneficial to other reptiles, birds. Scientists have divided the desert tortoise into two types and Morafkas desert tortoises, with a third type in northern Sinaloan and southern Sonora. An isolated population of Agassizs desert tortoise occurs in the Black Mountains of northwestern Arizona and they live in a different type of habitat, from sandy flats to rocky foothills.
They have a strong proclivity in the Mojave Desert for alluvial fans and they range from near sea level to around 3,500 feet in elevation. Tortoises show very strong site fidelity, and have well-established home ranges where they know where their food and mineral resources are. Desert tortoises inhabit elevations from below sea level in Death Valley to 5,300 feet in Arizona
Coopers hawk is a medium-sized hawk native to the North American continent and found from Southern Canada to Northern Mexico. As in many birds of prey, the male is smaller than the female, the birds found east of the Mississippi River tend to be larger on average than the birds found to the west. Other common names for the Coopers hawk include, big blue darter, chicken hawk, flying cross, hen hawk, quail hawk, Coopers hawk was first described by French naturalist Charles Lucien Bonaparte in 1828. It is a member of the goshawk genus Accipiter and this bird was named after the naturalist William Cooper, one of the founders of the New York Lyceum of Natural History in New York. Other common names, big blue darter, chicken hawk, hen hawk, Mexican hawk, quail hawk, the average mass of an adult male ranges from 220 to 440 g with a length between 35 and 46 cm. The adult male is smaller than the average female, which weigh 330 to 700 g. As in most accipiters, the tarsus is long, measuring 5. 6–7.6 cm long.
Adults have red eyes and have a cap, with blue-gray upper parts and white underparts with fine, thin. Their tail is blue-gray on top and pale underneath, barred with black bands, immatures have yellow eyes and have a brown cap, with brown upper parts and pale underparts with thin black streaks mostly ending at the belly. Their tail is brown on top and pale underneath, barred with dark bands, the eyes of this hawk, as in most predatory birds, face forward, enabling good depth perception for hunting and catching prey while flying at top speeds. They have hooked bills that are adapted for tearing flesh of prey. Although the coloration is generally somewhat similar between sharp-shinned hawks and Coopers hawks, Coopers appear broader-chested and larger-headed, with more robust features. The crow-like size of Coopers hawks is sometimes distinctive from the sharp-shinned, the Coopers hawk appears long-necked in flight and has been described by birdwatchers as looking like a flying cross. The Coopers hawk is seen flying with quick, consecutive wing beats.
Their breeding range extends from southern Canada to northern Mexico and they are generally distributed more to the south than the other North American accipiters, the sharp-shinned hawk and the northern goshawk. Birds from most of the Canadian and northern U. S. range migrate in winter and they were once thought to be averse to cities and towns, but are now fairly common urban and suburban birds. The cities provide plenty of rock pigeon and mourning dove for the Coopers hawk to prey on and these birds capture prey from cover or while flying quickly through dense vegetation, relying almost totally on surprise. One study showed that this is a dangerous hunting style
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
The roadrunner, known as a chaparral bird or chaparral cock, is a fast-running ground cuckoo that has a long tail and a crest. It is found in the southwestern United States and Mexico, usually in the desert, some have been clocked at 20 miles per hour. The subfamily Neomorphinae, the New World ground cuckoos, includes species of birds. The greater roadrunner, G. californianus, inhabits Mexico and the southwestern United States, the lesser roadrunner, G. velox, inhabits Mexico and Central America. The roadrunner generally ranges in size from 22 to 24 in from tail to beak, the average weight is about 8–15 oz. The roadrunner is a large, black-brown and white-streaked ground bird with a head crest. It has long legs, strong feet, and a dark bill. The tail is broad with white tips on the three outer tail feathers, the bird has a bare patch of skin behind each eye, this patch is shaded blue anterior to red posterior. The lesser roadrunner is slightly smaller, not as streaky, and has a smaller bill, both the lesser roadrunner and the greater roadrunner leave behind very distinct X track marks appearing as if they are travelling in both directions.
Roadrunners and other members of the family have zygodactyl feet. The roadrunner can run at speeds of up to 20 miles per hour and generally prefer sprinting to flying, during flight, the short, rounded wings reveal a white crescent in the primary feathers. The roadrunner has a slow and descending dove-like coo and it makes a rapid, vocalized clattering sound with its beak. Roadrunners inhabit the deserts of the southwestern United States and they live in arid lowland or mountainous shrubland, widely dispersed in dry open country with scattered brush. They are non-migratory, staying in their breeding area year-round, the greater roadrunner is not currently considered threatened in the US, but is habitat-limited. The roadrunner is an opportunistic omnivore, the lesser roadrunner eats mainly insects. The roadrunner forages on the ground and, when hunting, usually runs after prey from under cover and it may leap to catch insects, and commonly batters certain prey against the ground. Because of its quickness, the roadrunner is one of the few animals that preys upon rattlesnakes, the roadrunner usually lives alone or in pairs.
Breeding pairs are monogamous and mate for life, and pairs may hold a territory all year, during the courtship display, the male bows, alternately lifting and dropping his wings and spreading his tail
Rattlesnakes are a group of venomous snakes of the genera Crotalus and Sistrurus of the subfamily Crotalinae. The 36 known species of rattlesnakes have between 65 and 70 subspecies, all native to the America, ranging from southern Alberta, Rattlesnakes are predators that live in a wide array of habitats, hunting small animals such as birds and rodents. The threat of envenomation, advertised by the shaking of the titular noisemaker at the end of their tails. However, rattlesnakes fall prey to hawks, king snakes, Rattlesnakes are heavily preyed upon as neonates, while they are still weak and mentally immature. Large numbers of rattlesnakes are killed by humans, Rattlesnake populations in many areas are severely threatened by habitat destruction and extermination campaigns. Rattlesnake are the leading contributor to snakebite injuries in North America, rattlesnakes rarely bite unless provoked or threatened, if treated promptly the bites are seldom fatal. Rattlesnakes receive their name from the rattle located at the end of their tails, the scientific name Crotalus is derived from the Greek κρόταλον, meaning castanet.
The name Sistrurus is the Latinized form of the Greek word for tail rattler and shares its root with the ancient Egyptian musical instrument the sistrum, Rattlesnakes are native to the Americas, living in diverse habitats from southwestern Canada to central Argentina. The large majority of live in the American Southwest and Mexico. Four species may be found east of the Mississippi River, in the United States, the states with the most types of rattlesnakes are Texas and Arizona. Most species live near open, rocky areas, rocks offer them cover from predators, plentiful prey, and open basking areas. However, rattlesnakes can be found in a variety of other habitats including prairies, deserts. The most probable ancestral area of rattlesnakes is the Sierra Madre Occidental region in Mexico, the most probable vegetation or habitat of the ancestral area appears to be pine-oak forests. Feeding habits play an important ecological role by limiting the size of rodent populations, Rattlesnakes consume mice, small birds, and other small animals.
They lie in wait for their prey, or hunt for it in holes, the prey is killed quickly with a venomous bite as opposed to constriction. If the bitten prey moves away before dying, the rattlesnake can follow it by its scent, when it locates the fallen prey, it checks for signs of life by prodding with its snout, flicking its tongue, and using its sense of smell. Once the prey has become incapacitated, the rattlesnake locates its head by odors emitted from the mouth, the prey is ingested head-first, which allows wings and limbs to fold at the joints in a manner which minimizes the girth of the meal. The gastric fluids of rattlesnakes are extremely powerful, allowing for the digestion of flesh, optimal digestion occurs when the snake maintains a body temperature between 80 and 85 °F
Hiking is the preferred term, in Canada and the United States, for a long, vigorous walk, usually on trails, in the countryside, while the word walking is used for shorter, particularly urban walks. On the other hand, in the United Kingdom, and the Republic of Ireland, the word hiking is often used in the UK, along with rambling and fell walking. The term bushwalking is endemic to Australia, having been adopted by the Sydney Bush Walkers club in 1927, in New Zealand a long, vigorous walk or hike is called tramping. It is an activity with numerous hiking organizations worldwide. In the United States, the Republic of Ireland, a day hike refers to a hike that can be completed in a single day. However, in the United Kingdom, the walking is used, as well as rambling. In Northern England, Including the Lake District and Yorkshire Dales, fellwalking describes hill or mountain walks, hiking sometimes involves bushwhacking and is sometimes referred to as such. This specifically refers to walking through dense forest, undergrowth, or bushes.
In extreme cases of bushwhacking, where the vegetation is so dense that human passage is impeded, the Australian term bushwalking refers to both on and off-trail hiking. Common terms for hiking used by New Zealanders are tramping, walking or bushwalking, trekking is the preferred word used to describe multi-day hiking in the mountainous regions of India, Nepal, North America, South America, Iran and in the highlands of East Africa. Hiking a long-distance trail from end-to-end is referred to as trekking, in North America, multi-day hikes, usually with camping, are referred to as backpacking. The idea of taking a walk in the countryside for pleasure developed in the 18th-century, in earlier times walking generally indicated poverty and was associated with vagrancy. Thomas West, an English priest, popularized the idea of walking for pleasure in his guide to the Lake District of 1778. To this end he included various stations or viewpoints around the lakes, published in 1778 the book was a major success.
Another famous early exponent of walking for pleasure, was the English poet William Wordsworth, in 1790 he embarked on an extended tour of France and Germany, a journey subsequently recorded in his long autobiographical poem The Prelude. His famous poem Tintern Abbey was inspired by a visit to the Wye Valley made during a tour of Wales in 1798 with his sister Dorothy Wordsworth. Wordsworths friend Coleridge was another keen walker and in the autumn of 1799, he and Wordsworth undertook a three weeks tour of the Lake District. John Keats, who belonged to the generation of Romantic poets began, in June 1818, a walking tour of Scotland, Ireland
Lake Havasu is a large reservoir behind Parker Dam on the Colorado River, on the border between California and Arizona. Lake Havasu City sits on the eastern shore. The reservoir has a capacity of 619,400 acre feet. The concrete arch dam was built by the United States Bureau of Reclamation between 1934 and 1938, the lakes primary purpose is to store water for pumping into two aqueducts. Prior to the dam construction, the area was home to the Mohave Indians, the lake was named after the Mojave word for blue. In the early 19th century, it was frequented by beaver trappers, spaniards began to mine the areas along the river. Mark Wilmer Pumping Plant pumps water into the Central Arizona Project Aqueduct, whitsett Pumping Plant is located on the lake, and lifts the water 291 feet for the Colorado River Aqueduct. Gene Pumping Plant is just south of Parker Dam, and gives the water an additional boost of 303 feet, the Colorado River Aqueduct has three more pumping plants, Iron Mountain, Eagle Mountain, and Julian Hinds.
The total lift is 1,617 feet, the shorelines are in the ecotone of the higher Mojave Desert to the lower Sonoran Desert and its Californian Colorado Desert ecoregions. The Havasu National Wildlife Refuge is located at the upper end, Lake Havasu State Park is along the eastern shore in Arizona. The Bill Williams River National Wildlife Refuge extends southeastward up the zone of the Bill Williams River canyon from the southeastern end of the reservoir. Lake Havasu is well known for its fishing and boating. Fishing tournaments are held on the lake, where bass are the main catch. Fish list, Largemouth bass, Smallmouth bass, Striped bass, Catfish, Crappie, Razorback sucker, white sturgeon were stocked in Lake Havasu in 1967 and 1968 from stock obtained from San Pablo Bay, California. While some dead sturgeon were found downstream from Havasu, living fish have not been recorded, but may still exist along the southern end of Lake Havasu near Parker Dam. Sturgeon have been known to grow upwards of 20 feet and can live in excess of 100 years and many in, robert Paxton McCulloch was an American entrepreneur most notable for purchasing the old London Bridge and moving it to one of the cities he founded in Arizona.
Lake Havasu sparked the imagination of McCulloch, who purchased 3,500 acres of property along Pittsburgh Point
Lake Havasu City, Arizona
Lake Havasu City is a city in Mohave County, United States. According to 2010 census, the population of the town is 52,527 people and it is served by Lake Havasu City Airport. Lake Havasu City is geographically isolated from the cities in Mohave County and is the southernmost community of Greater Las Vegas. The community first started as an Army Air Corps rest camp during World War II on the shores of Lake Havasu. In 1958, Robert P. McCulloch purchased 3,353 acres of property on the east side of the lake along Pittsburgh Point, after four years of planning, McCulloch Properties acquired another 13,000 acres of federal land in the surrounding area. Lake Havasu City was established on September 30,1963 by a resolution of the Mohave County Board of Supervisors as the Lake Havasu Irrigation and Drainage District, the city was incorporated in 1978. The London Bridge crosses a channel that leads from Lake Havasu to Thompson Bay. It was bought for US $2.5 million from the City of London when the bridge was replaced in 1968, the bridge was disassembled, and the marked stones were shipped to Lake Havasu City and reassembled for another US $7 million.
Since its inauguration on October 5,1971, it has attracted thousands of visitors each year, McCulloch gave an acre of land to London. When Lake Havasu City wanted to use land for a visitors center. Lake Havasu City is a destination for a wide range of people. During the spring months, the community is joined by university students during Spring Break, with its reputation as a party community, Lake Havasu has twice been featured during MTVs Spring Break coverage. For boaters, March to September are the months on Lake Havasu. During the winter months, the community is joined by retirees from colder regions of the country, during this period, multiple events are held on McCulloch Boulevard. Lake Havasu City is located at 34°29′24″N 114°18′32″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 43.1 square miles. The only surface access to Lake Havasu City is by road via Arizona State Route 95, who designed Disneyland, was hired by Robert McCulloch to lay out Lake Havasus unique road system.
Lake Havasu City does not have a public transit system, private shuttles provide transportation to Las Vegas and Laughlin, Nevada
Bird of prey
Bird of prey or predatory bird, known as raptors, refers to several species of birds that hunt and feed on rodents and other small animals. The term raptor is derived from the Latin word rapere, meaning to seize or take by force and these birds are characterized by keen vision that allows them to detect their prey during flight and powerful talons and beaks. Taken literally, the bird of prey has a wide meaning that includes many birds that hunt and feed on animals. In ornithology, the definition for bird of prey has a meaning, birds that have very good eyesight for finding food, strong feet for holding food. Most birds of prey have strong curved talons for catching or killing prey, Birds of prey generally prey on vertebrates, which are usually quite large relative to the size of the bird. Most eat carrion, at least occasionally, and vultures, the order Accipitriformes is believed to have originated 44 million years ago when it split from the common ancestor of the secretarybird and the accipitrid species.
The phylogeny of Accipitriformes is complex and difficult to unravel, widespread paraphylies were observed in many phylogenetic studies. More recent and detailed studies show similar results, according to the findings of a 2014 study, the sister relationship between larger clades of Accipitriformes was well supported. The diurnal birds of prey are formally classified into five families of two orders, the Cathartidae are sometimes placed separately in an enlarged stork family and may be raised to an order of their own, Cathartiiformes. The secretary bird and/or osprey are sometimes listed as subfamilies of Acciptridae and Pandioninae, australias letter-winged kite is a member of the family Accipitridae, although it is a nocturnal bird. He placed all birds of prey into an order, subdividing this into four genera, Falco, Strix. This approach was followed by subsequent authors such as Gmelin, louis Pierre Veillot used additional ranks, tribe, genus, species. Birds of prey were divided into diurnal and nocturnal tribes, the owls remained monogeneric, thus Veillots families were similar to the Linnaean genera, with the difference that shrikes were no longer included amongst the birds of prey.
In addition to the original Vultur and Falco, Veillot adopted four genera from Savigny, Haliæetus, Pandion and he introduced five new genera of vultures and eleven new genera of accipitrines. The common names for birds of prey are based on structure. Eagles tend to be large birds with long, broad wings, booted eagles have legs and feet feathered to the toes and build very large stick nests. Ospreys, a species found worldwide that specializes in catching fish. Kites have long wings and relatively weak legs and they spend much of their time soaring
Death Valley National Park
Death Valley National Park is a national park in the United States. Straddling the border of California and Nevada, located east of the Sierra Nevada, the park protects the northwest corner of the Mojave Desert and contains a diverse desert environment of salt-flats, sand dunes, valleys and mountains. It is the largest national park in the lower 48 states and has declared an International Biosphere Reserve. Approximately 91% of the park is a wilderness area. It is the hottest and lowest of the parks in the United States. The second-lowest point in the Western Hemisphere is in Badwater Basin, the park is home to many species of plants and animals that have adapted to this harsh desert environment. Some examples include creosote bush, bighorn sheep and the Death Valley pupfish, several short-lived boom towns sprang up during the late 19th and early 20th centuries to mine gold and silver. The only long-term profitable ore to be mined was borax, which was transported out of the valley with twenty-mule teams, the valley became the subject of books, radio programs, television series, and movies.
Tourism blossomed in the 1920s, when resorts were built around Stovepipe Wells, Death Valley National Monument was declared in 1933 and the park was substantially expanded and became a national park in 1994. The natural environment of the area has been shaped largely by its geology, the valley itself is actually a graben. The oldest rocks are metamorphosed and at least 1.7 billion years old. Ancient, shallow seas deposited marine sediments until rifting opened the Pacific Ocean, additional sedimentation occurred until a subduction zone formed off the coast. This uplifted the region out of the sea and created a line of volcanoes, the crust started to pull apart, creating the current Basin and Range landform. Valleys filled with sediment and, during the wet times of glacial periods, with lakes, in 2013, Death Valley National Park was designated as a dark sky park by the International Dark-Sky Association. There are two valleys in the park, Death Valley and Panamint Valley. Both of these valleys were formed within the last few million years, the result of this shearing action is additional extension in the central part of Death Valley which causes a slight widening and more subsidence there.
Uplift of surrounding mountain ranges and subsidence of the floor are both occurring. The uplift on the Black Mountains is so fast that the fans there are small
San Bernardino County, California
San Bernardino County, officially the County of San Bernardino, is a county located in the southern portion of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 2,035,210, making it the fifth-most populous county in California, the county seat is San Bernardino. With an area of 20,105 square miles, San Bernardino County is the largest county in the United States by area, although some of Alaskas boroughs and census areas are larger. It is larger than each of the nine smallest states, larger than the four smallest states combined, Spanish Missionaries from Mission San Gabriel Arcángel established a church at the village of Politania in 1810. Father Francisco Dumetz named the church San Bernardino on May 20,1810, the Franciscans gave the name San Bernardino to the snowcapped peak in Southern California, in honor of the saint and it is from him that the county derives its name. In 1819, they established the San Bernardino de Sena Estancia, following Mexican independence from Spain in 1821, Mexican citizens were granted land grants to establish ranchos in the area of the county.
Rancho Jurupa in 1838, Rancho Cucamonga and El Rincon in 1839, Rancho Santa Ana del Chino in 1841, Rancho San Bernardino in 1842 and Rancho Muscupiabe in 1844. Agua Mansa was the first town in what became San Bernardino County, some of the southern parts of the countys territory were given to Riverside County in 1893. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 20,105 square miles. It is the largest county by area in California and the largest in the United States and it is slightly larger than the states of New Jersey, Connecticut and Rhode Island combined. It borders both Nevada and Arizona, the bulk of the population, roughly two million, live in the roughly 480 square miles south of the San Bernardino Mountains adjacent to Riverside and in the San Bernardino Valley. Over 300,000 others live just north of the San Bernardino Mountains, agglomerating around Victorville covering roughly 280 square miles in Victor Valley, roughly another 100,000 people live scattered across the rest of the sprawling county.
The Mojave National Preserve covers some of the desert, especially between Interstate 15 and Interstate 40. The desert portion includes the cities of Needles next to the Colorado River and Barstow at the junction in Interstate 15, trona is at the northwestern part of the county west of Death Valley. This national park, mostly within Inyo County, has a portion of land within the San Bernardino County. The largest metropolitan area in the Mojave Desert part of the county is Victor Valley, with the localities of Adelanto, Apple Valley, Hesperia. Further south, a portion of Joshua Tree National Park overlaps the county near Twentynine Palms, additional places near and west of Twentynine palms include Yucca Valley, Joshua Tree, and Morongo Valley. The mountains are home to the San Bernardino National Forest, and include the communities of Crestline, Lake Arrowhead, Running Springs, Big Bear City, Forest Falls, the San Bernardino Valley is at the eastern end of the San Gabriel Valley