2000 Guineas Stakes
The 2000 Guineas Stakes is a Group 1 flat horse race in Great Britain open to three-year-old thoroughbred colts and fillies. It is run on the Rowley Mile at Newmarket over a distance of 1 mile, it is scheduled to take place each year in late April or early May, it is one of Britain's five Classic races, at present it is the first to be run in the year. It serves as the opening leg of the Triple Crown, followed by the Derby and the St Leger, although the feat of winning all three has been attempted in recent decades; the 2000 Guineas Stakes was first run on 18 April 1809, it preceded the introduction of a version for fillies only, the 1000 Guineas Stakes, by five years. Both races were established by the Jockey Club under the direction of Sir Charles Bunbury, who had earlier co-founded the Derby at Epsom; the races were named according to their original prize funds. By the mid-1860s, the 2000 Guineas was regarded as one of Britain's most prestigious races for three-year-olds; the five leading events for this age group, characterised by increasing distances as the season progressed, began to be known as "Classics".
The concept was adopted in many other countries. European variations of the 2000 Guineas include the Irish 2,000 Guineas, the Mehl-Mülhens-Rennen, the Poule d'Essai des Poulains and the Premio Parioli. Elsewhere, variations include the Australian Guineas and the Satsuki Shō; the 2000 Guineas is served by trial races such as the Craven Stakes and the Greenham Stakes, but for some horses it is the first race of the season. The 2000 Guineas itself can act as a trial for the Derby, the last horse to win both was Camelot in 2012; the most recent 2000 Guineas participant to win the Derby was Masar, placed third in 2018. Since 2001, the 2000 Guineas and the 1000 Guineas Stakes have offered equal prize money; each had a purse of £500,000 in 2018. Leading jockey: Jem Robinson – Enamel, Riddlesworth, Glencoe, Bay Middleton, Flatcatcher Leading trainer: Aidan O'Brien – King of Kings, Rock of Gibraltar, Footstepsinthesand, George Washington, Henrythenavigator, Gleneagles, Saxon Warrior Leading owner: Sue Magnier – Entrepreneur, King of Kings, Rock of Gibraltar, Footstepsinthesand, George Washington, Henrythenavigator, Gleneagles, Saxon Warrior Fastest winning time – Mister Baileys, 1m 35.08s Widest winning margin – Tudor Minstrel, 8 lengths Longest odds winner – Rockavon, 66/1 Shortest odds winner – St Frusquin, 12/100 Most runners – 28, in 1930 Fewest runners – 2, in 1829 and 1830 a Gilles de Retz was trained by Charles Jerdein as the Jockey Club would not allow women to hold a trainers' licence in 1956.b Nureyev finished first in 1980, but he was relegated to last place following a stewards' inquiry.† designates a Triple Crown Winner.‡ designates a filly.
Horse racing in Great Britain List of British flat horse races Paris-Turf: "1978". "1979". "1980". "1981". "1982". "1983". "1984". "1985". "1986". "1987". Racing Post: 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 2018galopp-sieger.de – 2000 Guineas Stakes. Horseracinghistory.co.uk – 2000 Guineas. Horseracingintfed.com – International Federation of Horseracing Authorities – Two Thousand Guineas. Tbheritage.com – Two Thousand Guineas Stakes. Abelson, Edward; the Breedon Book of Horse Racing Records. Breedon Books. Pp. 23–31. ISBN 1-873626-15-0. Randall, John. Horse Racing: The Records. Guinness Superlatives Ltd. pp. 14–24. ISBN 0-85112-446-1. YouTube Race Video https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLfn5x2SD03q5hUzcSt8X4o8iklgqjrQut
The Colonel (horse)
The Colonel was a British-bred Thoroughbred racehorse and sire best known for running a dead heat in The Derby and winning the St Leger Stakes in 1828. In a racing career which lasted from 1827 until 1831, The Colonel ran fifteen times and won ten races at distances ranging from six furlongs to three miles. Apart from the St Leger, his most notable successes came in the Champagne Stakes, the Epsom Craven Stakes, the Great Park Stakes at Ascot and the Northampton Gold Cup, he was placed in both the Ascot Gold Cup and Goodwood Cup. Trained in Yorkshire by John Scott, The Colonel moved to the royal stable and won races for two British monarchs. Following his retirement from racing he stood as a breeding stallion in Britain and Germany with moderate results, although some of his descendants achieved success in Australia; the Colonel was a "compact" chestnut horse with a broad white blaze standing 15.2 hands high. He was owned and bred by Edward Petre, a free-spending sportsman and gambler, a younger son of Robert Petre, 9th Baron Petre.
The Colonel was sired by the Duke of Grafton's horse Whisker who won the 1815 Epsom Derby before becoming a successful breeding stallion. His dam, an unnamed daughter of Delpini produced My Lady, an influential broodmare whose modern descendants include Midway Lady and Eswarah. Like the rest of Edward Petre's horses, The Colonel was trained by John Scott, who sent out the winners of 41 classics, from his Whitewall Stables at Malton in North Yorkshire; the colt was ridden in most of his early races by his trainer's younger brother Bill Scott. The Colonel began his racing career in a sweepstakes for two-year-olds at Leeds Racecourse on 27 June. Ridden by Bill Scott, he started favourite in a field of seven runners and "won easy" from Lord Fitzwilliam's filly Kitty. On 6 September he won a similar event at Pontefract Racecourse, beating Thomas Houldsworth's colt Vanish and two others by ten lengths "in a canter". Eleven days The Colonel was sent to the St Leger meeting at Doncaster where he won the fifth running of the Champagne Stakes in "very easy" style.
He started the 1/3 favourite for the race which carried the condition that the winning owner had to give six dozen bottles of champagne to the Doncaster racing club. The Colonel made his first appearance of the season in the Derby at Epsom Downs Racecourse on 15 May. At this time, the practical difficulties involved in transporting racehorses meant that few horses from the North of England competed in the major southern courses; the Colonel's performance and reputation however, had seen him supported in the betting markets since the since his win in the Champagne Stakes, on the day he was made 7/2 favourite in a field of fifteen runners. His main rival in the betting was the Duke of Rutland's colt Cadland, the winner of the 2000 Guineas, ridden by Jem Robinson. Bill Scott tracked the front-running Cadland throughout the race before challenging for the lead in the straight, he headed the Guineas winner a furlong from the finish, but Cadland fought back and the two horses crossed the line together.
The judge declared a dead heat, much to the displeasure of The Colonel's supporters, who felt that their horse had finished the race fractionally in front. The deciding heat took place at the end of the afternoon, with The Colonel favoured in the betting. Scott repeated his earlier tactics by holding The Colonel back for a late challenge, but was unable to overtake his rival and the Yorkshire colt was beaten by a neck; the Colonel returned to Yorkshire and did not run again before challenging for the St Leger at Doncaster in September. John Scott had another contender for the race in the talented but injury-prone colt Velocipede who had not been entered for the Derby. In a trial gallop shortly before the race, Velocipede decisively defeated The Colonel but sustained a leg injury in the process and appeared at Doncaster with his legs bandaged. Another leading fancy for the race was the filly Bessy Bedlam, the only horse to have beaten Velocipede. In a field of nineteen runners, The Colonel, ridden as usual by Bill Scott, started the 3/1 favourite ahead of Velocipede on 7/2.
After the chaotic start to the 1827 St Leger the jockeys were warned by the racecourse officials that no misconduct would be tolerated and the race began in a fair and orderly manner. Scott positioned The Colonel in third or fourth place as Velocipede made the running from Bessy Bedlam; the filly was beaten before the straight, when Velocipede weakened a furlong from the finish The Colonel took the lead pursued by the 35/1 outsider Belinda. In the closing stages The Colonel went clear and won by three lengths from Belinda, with Velocipede in third. Despite the decisive nature of the victory, the Sporting Magazine considered the race to be an unsatisfactory one for at least two reasons: the Scotts were criticised for using Velocipede as a pacemaker rather than allowing him to compete on his own merits, there were strong rumours that Bessy Bedlam had been prevented from showing her best form by some kind of "foul play". Two days after his win in the St Leger, The Colonel was able to claim an uncontroversial victory when he was allowed to walk over in a sweepstakes over the same course and distance.
At the end of the 1828 season, The Colonel was bought for £4,000 by King George IV, who had decided to buy the horse after seeing a painting by John Frederick Herring. Following the King's dispute with the Jockey Club in 1791, his horses competed at Newmarket Racecourse and raced in the colours of Mr Delme Radcliffe; the Colonel's third season was scheduled to begin with a match race against Bessy Bedlam at York Racecourse on 25 May. As The Colonel had been moved to a stable in the south, he fa
Equine conformation evaluates the degree of correctness of a horse's bone structure and its body proportions in relation to each other. Undesirable conformation can limit the ability to perform a specific task. Although there are several universal "faults," a horse's conformation is judged by what its intended use may be, thus "form to function" is one of the first set of traits considered in judging conformation. A horse with poor form for a Grand Prix show jumper could have excellent conformation for a World Champion cutting horse, or to be a champion draft horse; every horse has good and bad points of its conformation and many horses excel with conformation faults. The standard of the ideal head varies from breed to breed based on a mixture of the role the horse is bred for and what breeders and enthusiasts find appealing. Breed standards cite large eyes, a broad forehead and a dry head-to-neck connection as important to correctness about the head. Traditionally, the length of head as measured from poll to upper lip should be two-thirds the length of the neck topline.
The construction of the horse's head influences its breathing, though there are few studies to support this. A width of 4 fingers or 7.2 cm was associated with an unrestricted airflow and greater endurance. However, a study in 2000 which compared the intermandibular width-to-size ratio of Thoroughbreds with their racing success showed this to be untrue; the relationship between head conformation and performance are not well understood, an appealing head may be more a matter of marketability than performance. Among mammals, morphology of the head plays a role in temperature regulation. Many ungulates have a specialized network of blood vessels called the carotid rete, which keeps the brain cool while the body temperature rises during exercise. Horses lack a carotid rete and instead use their sinuses to cool blood around the brain; these factors suggest that the conformation of a horse's head influences its ability to regulate temperature. A horse with a dished face or dished head has a muzzle with a concave profile on top further emphasized by slight bulging of forehead.
Dished heads are associated with Arabians and Arabian-influenced breeds, which excel at Endurance riding and were bred in the arid Arabian desert. There are several theories regarding the adaptive role of the dished head, it may be an adaptation to increase aerobic endurance. Dished head is not considered a deformity. A Roman nose is a muzzle with a convex profile. Convex heads are associated with Baroque horse breeds and horses from cold regions; this trait plays a role in warming air as it is inhaled, but may influence aerobic capacity. Roman nose is not considered a deformity. A horse with small nostrils or small nares can be found in any breed and accompanies a narrow jaw and muzzle. Small nostrils limit the horse's ability to breathe hard while exerting itself; this affects horses in high-speed activities or those that need to sustain effort over long duration. Horses with small nostrils are therefore best used for non-speed sports. A horse with pig eye has unusually small eyes; this is an aesthetic issue, but claimed by some to be linked to stubbornness or nervousness, thought to decrease the horse's visual field.
The lower jaw should be defined. The space between the two sides of the jawbone should be wide, with room for the larynx and muscle attachments; the width should be 7.2 cm, about the width of a fist. The jaw is called narrow; the jaw is called large. A large jaw adds weight to the head. Too large of a jaw can cause a reduction to the horse's ability to flex at the poll to bring his head and neck into proper position for collection and to help balance. A parrot mouth is an overbite; this can affect the horse's ability to graze. Parrot mouth can be managed with regular teeth floating by a veterinarian. A monkey mouth, sow mouth, or bulldog mouth is an underbite, where the lower jaw extends further out than the upper jaw; this is less common than parrot mouth. This can affect the horse's ability to graze. Monkey mouth can be managed with regular teeth floating by a veterinarian. Ears should be proportional to the head, they should be set just below the level of the poll at the top of the head. Ears should be a position and backward.
Ears that are too large or too small may make the head seem too small or large in proportion with the body. A neck of ideal length is about one third of the horse's length, measured from poll to withers, with a length comparable to the length of the legs. An ideally placed neck is called a horizontal neck, it is set on the chest neither too high nor too low, with its weight and balance aligned with the forward movement of the body. The horse is easy to supple, develop strength, to control with hand and legs aids. Although uncommon, it is seen in Thoroughbreds, American Quarter Horses, some Warmbloods. Horizontal neck is advantageous to every sport, as the neck is flexible and works well for balancing. A short neck is one, less than one third the length of the horse. Short necks are common, found in any breed. A short neck hinders the balancing ability of the horse, making it more prone to stumbling and clumsiness. A short neck adds more weight on the foreha
Newmarket is a market town in the English county of Suffolk 65 miles north of London. It is considered the birthplace and global centre of thoroughbred horse racing and a potential World Heritage Site, it is a major local business cluster, with annual investment rivalling that of the Cambridge Science Park, the other major cluster in the region. It is the largest racehorse training centre in Britain, the largest racehorse breeding centre in the country, home to most major British horseracing institutions, a key global centre for horse health. Two Classic races, an additional three British Champions Series races are held at Newmarket every year; the town has had close royal connections since the time of James I, who built a palace there, was a base for Charles I, Charles II, most monarchs since. The current monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, visits the town to see her horses in training. Newmarket has over fifty horse training stables, two large racetracks, the Rowley Mile and the July Course, one of the most extensive and prestigious horse training grounds in the world.
The town is home to over 3,500 racehorses, it is estimated that one in every three local jobs is related to horse racing. Palace House, the National Heritage Centre for Horseracing and Sporting Art, the National Horseracing Museum, Tattersalls racehorse auctioneers, two of the world's foremost equine hospitals for horse health, are in the town, surrounded by over sixty horse breeding studs. On account of its leading position in the multibillion-pound horse racing and breeding industry, it is a major export centre. 1200: Newmarket's name was recorded as Novum Forum, a Latin phrase meaning "new market", the English translation was applied to give the town its present name. February 1605: James I first visited, describing it as a "poor little village". 1606 to 1610: James I built the Newmarket Palace, an estate covering an acre of land from the High Street to All Saints’ churchyard, thus established the town as a royal resort. This made Newmarket into a horseracing town. 1619: Inigo Jones was commissioned to build a new lodge for the Prince of Wales.
It was Italianate in style. 1642: In Newmarket Charles I met a parliamentary deputation that demanded his surrender of the armed forces. "By God not for an hour", Charles replied, "You have asked such of me, never asked of a King!" This started the English Civil War. Newmarket remained Royalist throughout the war. Early June 1647: Charles was captured at Holdenby House in Northamptonshire and brought to Newmarket as a prisoner, he was placed under house arrest in the palace while the whole of Cromwell's New Model Army kept guard over the town. 30 January 1649: Charles I was executed. 1649: A survey showed that the palace was in disrepair. 1650: The palace was sold to John Okey, who demolished most of the buildings. 1660: Restoration of Charles II. 1666 to 1685: Charles II visited Newmarket. 1668: Charles II commissioned William Samwell to build a new palace on the High Street. 1670: John Evelyn said that the palace was "meane enough, hardly capable for a hunting house, let alone a royal palace!" October 1677, October 1695: William of Orange visited Newmarket.
Start of the 19th century: The palace was torn down, but a part survives and is now named Palace House. 19th century: Newmarket south of the High Street spread into the parishes of Woodditton and Cheveley in Cambridgeshire. 1894: The county border was moved to accommodate this, has been further altered since. 15 December 1977: An F111-F jet fighter crashed at Exning near Newmarket because of hydraulic failure. About 2011: Time Team excavated on the site of Charles II's palace at Newmarket, found foundations of racehorse stables; the area of Suffolk containing Newmarket is nearly an exclave, with only a narrow strip of territory linking it to the rest of the county. The town was split with one parish - St Mary - in Suffolk, the other - All Saints - in Cambridgeshire; the Local Government Act 1888 made the entirety of Newmarket urban sanitary district part of the administrative county of West Suffolk. The town falls in the Parliamentary constituency West Suffolk and as of 2010 has been represented by Conservative MP Matthew Hancock, the secretary of state for Health & Social Care.
The 1972 Local Government Bill as proposed would have transferred the town to Cambridgeshire. The Local Government Commission for England had suggested in the 1960s that the border around Newmarket be altered, in West Suffolk's favour. Newmarket Urban District Council supported the move to Cambridgeshire, but the government decided to withdraw this proposal and keep the existing boundary, despite intense lobbying from the UDC. Racing at Newmarket has been dated as far back as 1174, making it the earliest known racing venue of post-classical times. King James I increased the popularity of horse racing there, King Charles I followed this by inaugurating the first cup race in 1634; the Jockey Club's clubhouse is in Newmarket. Around 3,000 race horses are stabled around Newmarket. By comparison, the human population is of the order of 15,000 and it is estimated that one in three jobs are connected to horseracing in one way or another. Newmarket has 3 main sections of Heath; the grassland of Newmarket's training grounds has been developed over hundreds of years of careful maintenance, is regarded as some of the finest in the world.
"Racecourse side" is located next to the Rowley Mile Racecourse and is a pr
King Tom (horse)
King Tom was a British Thoroughbred racehorse and a Leading sire in Great Britain & Ireland. He was a bay horse foaled in 1851, sired by Harkaway and out of the exceptional mare Pocahontas by Glencoe. King Tom was a half-brother to 14 of Pocahontas' foals including, plus Stockwell and his brother, both being by The Baron. King Tom won races at age two and at age three he was not quite recovered from an injury when he finished second by a length to Andover in the 1854 Epsom Derby, he came out of the Derby with a tendon injury that curtailed his racing for the remainder of the year. At age four, King Tom won one race before breaking down. Retired to stud duty, King Tom became the foundation stallion for Baron Mayer de Rothschild's Mentmore and Crafton Studs. Between 1861 and 1877 he was one of the United Kingdom's top ten sires 14 times and the Leading sire in Great Britain & Ireland in 1870 and 1871. King Tom sired the 1866 and 1867 Epsom Oaks winners and Hippia, as well as the 1870 Epsom Derby winner Kingcraft.
He sired 1864 1,000 Guineas Stakes winner Tomato plus another outstanding filly Hannah who in 1871 won the Epsom Oaks, 1,000 Guineas and St. Leger Stakes. One of his most important foals was his daughter, St. Angela, dam of St. Simon and second dam of Orme. King Tom is the damsire of Favonius, winner of the 1871 Epsom Derby and the grandsire of the Irish Derby winner Umpire plus the grandsire of United States Racing Hall of Fame inductee, Ten Broeck. King Tom died at age twenty-seven in January 1878, he was buried in the grounds of Mentmore Towers beneath a life sized bronze statue by Sir Joseph Boehm. The statue is now at Dalmeny House in Scotland. Bloodlines
Prunella was a British Thoroughbred racehorse. Raced from 1791 to 1794, she won three races including a Sweepstakes of 200 guineas each at Newmarket, she was retired to stud and became an influential broodmare, foaling Epsom Derby winner Pope and Epsom Oaks winner Pelisse. Her daughters went on to become top broodmares in their own right, she was owned by 3rd Duke of Grafton. Prunella was a bay filly bred by the 3rd Duke of Grafton and foaled in 1788, she was sired by the undefeated Great Subscription Purse winner Highflyer. Highflyer was a top stallion, becoming Champion sire thirteen times, he sired three Epsom Derby winners in Noble, Sir Peter Teazle and Skyscraper along with several other classic winners. Sir Peter Teazle became an important stallion. Prunella's dam was a daughter of Champion sire Snap. Prunella made her racecourse debut at Epsom Downs on 10 June 1791, when she finished unplaced behind winner Portia in the Oaks Stakes, her next race came in October at Newmarket, where she faced two opponents in a Sweepskates of 200 guineas each over two miles.
Baron Foley's colt Vermin started as the odds on favourite, with both Prunella and Mopsey priced at 4/1. Prunella won the race, with Vermin finishing second. Two weeks she lost a match race against Earl Grosvenor's filly Sylph worth 200 guineas, with both fillies carrying the same weight. In April 1792 Prunella beat Mopsey at Newmarket for 25 guineas. At the Newmarket Second October meeting she lost to Sir John Lade's Clifden in a Sweepstakes of 25 guineas each. At the Houghton meeting she raced against six rivals in a Handicap Sweepstakes of 50 guineas each; the race was won with Speculator in finishing in second and Prunella in third place. Her final race of the season came in a £50 Handicap Plate at Newmarket. Prunella finished the race in third place of the twelve runners. Sir Frank Standish's filly Fairy won Quetlavaca finished second, her first race as a five-year-old was the King's Plate for mares at Newmarket in April 1793. She finished second to the Earl of Clermont's filly Peggy, beating Amelia and Magnolia.
Her only other race of the season was at Huntingdon, where she faced two rivals in a £50 race comprising two four-mile heats. Prunella won both heats, with Bustler Pill-box last. At the Newmarket Craven meeting in April 1794 she finished unplaced behind winner Lurcher in the first class of the Oatlands Stakes, her final race came at Newmarket's First Spring meeting in early May in the King's Plate for 100 guineas. Peggy started as the 4/6 favourite, with Kezia at 4/1, Prunella at 6/1 and Gipsy at 12/1. Peggy won the race from Prunella, with Gipsy third and Kezia last of the four runners. Retired to stud after the 1794 season, Prunella became a influential broodmare. Only one of her daughters that lived to produce a foal failed to produce a classic winner. In total she produced twelve foals, they were: Trumpator filly -- a bay filly sired by Trumpator. She was killed. Penelope – a bay mare foaled in 1798 and sired by Trumpator, she won several races, including a 100 guineas sweepstakes, the Town Plate and the October Oatlands Stakes, at Newmarket in 1801.
She beat Derby and Oaks winner Eleanor a number of times and retired from racing in 1805 after winning a total of eighteen races. She was 1000 Guineas winner Whizgig. Parasol – a bay mare foaled in 1800 and sired by Pot8o's, she won a total of 30 races, including the Oatlands Stakes, two First October King's Plates, the Jockey-Club Plate and a match against Derby winner Cardinal Beaufort. She was the dam of 2000 Guineas and Epsom Oaks winner Pastille as well as 2000 Guineas winner Pindarrie. Pelisse – a brown mare foaled in 1801 and sired by Whiskey, she won the Oaks in 1804 and the October Oatlands Stakes and a match against Morel. She retired in 1809. Pelisse died in 1810. Podargus – a bay colt foaled in 1803 and sired by Worthy, he finished second in Newmarket Stakes and won a 100 guineas Sweepstakes at Newmarket in 1806. He won a £50 Subscription at Newmarket in 1807. Pioneer – a brown stallion foaled in 1804 and sired by Whiskey, he was second in two 100 guineas sweepstakes at Newmarket and finished unplaced in the Epsom Derby of 1807.
After retiring from racing he became a stallion and was the damsire of 1000 Guineas and Oaks winner Galata. Pope – a bay stallion foaled in 1806 and sired by Waxy, he won a total of fifteen other races. He stood as a sire there, before moving back to England. Pledge – a bay mare foaled in 1807 and sire by Waxy, she won the Produce Sweepstakes at Newmarket, won a match against Echo and ran unplaced in the Epsom Derby in 1810. Retiring after the 1811 season, she was the dam of Epsom Derby winner Tiresias. Pawn – a bay mare foaled in 1808 and sired by Trumpator, she was the dam of 1000 Guineas winner Problem. Pope Joan – a bay mare foaled in 1809 and sired by Waxy. In 1812 she won the King's Plate at Ipswich and at Chelsford, as well as the a 100 guineas Sweepstakes and a 25 guineas Subscription at Newmarket, she retired from racing after 1813 and became the dam of three classic winners: 1000 Guineas winner Tontine, 2000 Guineas winner Turcoman and Oaks winner Turquoise. Piquet – a brown mare foaled in 1810 and sired by Sorcerer.
She was runner-up in a £50 race over three miles at Newmarket in 1812. After only racing once as a three-year-old she was retired to stud, where she foaled July Stakes winner Loo. Prudence – a brown mare foaled in 1811 and sired by Waxy, she never raced and produced her first foal as a three-year-old in 1814. She was the dam of 2000 Guineas winner and Derby run
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland. The United Kingdom, having financed the European coalition that defeated France during the Napoleonic Wars, developed a large Royal Navy that enabled the British Empire to become the foremost world power for the next century; the Crimean War with Russia and the Boer wars were small operations in a peaceful century. Rapid industrialisation that began in the decades prior to the state's formation continued up until the mid-19th century; the Great Irish Famine, exacerbated by government inaction in the mid-19th century, led to demographic collapse in much of Ireland and increased calls for Irish land reform. The 19th century was an era of rapid economic modernisation and growth of industry and finance, in which Britain dominated the world economy. Outward migration was heavy to the United States; the empire was expanded into much of South Asia. The Colonial Office and India Office ruled through a small number of administrators who managed the units of the empire locally, while democratic institutions began to develop.
British India, by far the most important overseas possession, saw a short-lived revolt in 1857. In overseas policy, the central policy was free trade, which enabled British and Irish financiers and merchants to operate in many otherwise independent countries, as in South America. London formed no permanent military alliances until the early 20th century, when it began to cooperate with Japan and Russia, moved closer to the United States. Growing desire for Irish self-governance led to the Irish War of Independence, which resulted in most of Ireland seceding from the Union and forming the Irish Free State in 1922. Northern Ireland remained part of the Union, the state was renamed to the current "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" in 1927; the modern-day United Kingdom is the same country as the one from this period—a direct continuation of what remained after the secession—not an new successor state. A brief period of limited independence for Ireland came to an end following the Irish Rebellion of 1798, which occurred during the British war with revolutionary France.
The British government's fear of an independent Ireland siding against them with the French resulted in the decision to unite the two countries. This was brought about by legislation in the parliaments of both kingdoms and came into effect on 1 January 1801; the Irish had been led to believe by the British that their loss of legislative independence would be compensated with Catholic emancipation, that is, by the removal of civil disabilities placed upon Roman Catholics in both Great Britain and Ireland. However, King George III was bitterly opposed to any such Emancipation and succeeded in defeating his government's attempts to introduce it. During the War of the Second Coalition, Britain occupied most of the French and Dutch overseas possessions, the Netherlands having become a satellite state of France in 1796, but tropical diseases claimed the lives of over 40,000 troops; when the Treaty of Amiens ended the war, Britain agreed to return most of the territories it had seized. The peace settlement was in effect only a ceasefire, Napoleon continued to provoke the British by attempting a trade embargo on the country and by occupying the city of Hanover, capital of the Electorate, a German-speaking duchy, in a personal union with the United Kingdom.
In May 1803, war was declared again. Napoleon's plans to invade Great Britain failed, chiefly due to the inferiority of his navy, in 1805 a Royal Navy fleet led by Nelson decisively defeated the French and Spanish at Trafalgar, the last significant naval action of the Napoleonic Wars. In 1806, Napoleon issued the series of Berlin Decrees, which brought into effect the Continental System; this policy aimed to eliminate the threat from the British by closing French-controlled territory to foreign trade. The British Army remained a minimal threat to France. Although the Royal Navy disrupted France's extra-continental trade—both by seizing and threatening French shipping and by seizing French colonial possessions—it could do nothing about France's trade with the major continental economies and posed little threat to French territory in Europe. France's population and agricultural capacity far outstripped that of the British Isles, but it was smaller in terms of industry, mercantile marine and naval strength.
Napoleon expected that cutting Britain off from the European mainland would end its economic hegemony. On the contrary Britain possessed the greatest industrial capacity in the world, its mastery of the seas allowed it to build up considerable economic strength through trade to its possessions and the United States; the Spanish uprising in 1808 at last permitted Britain to gain a foothold on the Continent. The Duke of Wellington pushed the French out of Spain, in early 1814, as Napoleon was being driven back in the east by the Prussians and Russians, Wellington invaded southern France. After Napoleon's surrender and exile to the island of Elba, peace appeared to have returned. Napoleon reappeared in 1815; the Allies united and the armies of Wellington and Blücher defeated Napoleon once and for all at Waterloo. To defeat France, Britain put heavy pressure on the Americans