Lewiston Lake is a reservoir impounded by Lewiston Dam on the Trinity River, in Trinity County, California. Lewiston Lake is near the towns of Weaverville and Lewiston in California, it is used for transbasin diversion to the Sacramento River and flood control, as well as for hydroelectric generation. It is in the canyon between the Trinity Mountains and Marble Mountains of the southern Klamath Mountains System. Lewiston reservoir is within the Trinity Unit of the Whiskeytown-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area, in the Shasta-Trinity National Forest, it is a popular destination for fishing and camping. The California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment has developed a safe eating advisory for Lewiston Lake based on levels of mercury or PCBs found in fish caught from this water body. List of dams and reservoirs in California Trinity Mountains topics "Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area". US Forest Service. 31 December 2008. Retrieved 2009-03-26. "NPDP Dams Directory: Lewiston Dam".
National Performance of Dams Program. Stanford University. Archived from the original on 2011-07-16. Retrieved 2009-03-26. U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Lewiston Lake
The Carr Fire was a large wildfire that burned in Shasta and Trinity Counties in California, United States. The fire burned 229,651 acres, before it was 100% contained late on August 30, 2018; the Carr Fire destroyed at least 1,604 structures while damaging 277 others, becoming the sixth-most destructive fire in California history, as well as the seventh-largest wildfire recorded in modern California history. The Carr Fire cost over $1.659 billion in damages, including $1.5 billion in insured losses and more than $158.7 million in suppression costs. At its height, the fire engaged as many as 4,766 personnel from multiple agencies; the fire was reported on the afternoon of July 23, 2018, at the intersection of Highway 299 and Carr Powerhouse Road, in the Whiskeytown district of the Whiskeytown–Shasta–Trinity National Recreation Area. The fire was started when a flat tire on a vehicle caused the wheel's rim to scrape against the asphalt, creating sparks that set off the fire. On July 26, the fire jumped the Sacramento River, making its way into the city of Redding, causing the evacuation of 38,000 people.
Evacuations took place in Summit City, Lewiston, Shasta Lake City, Igo and French Gulch. Eight people died including three firefighters; the Carr Fire was reported on the afternoon of July 23, 2018, at the intersection of Highway 299 and Carr Powerhouse Road, in the Whiskeytown district of the Whiskeytown–Shasta–Trinity National Recreation Area, in Shasta County, near French Gulch. The fire was believed to have been started accidentally by a vehicle towing a dual-axle travel trailer. One of the tires on the trailer blew out, causing the steel rim to scrape along the pavement, generating sparks that ignited dry vegetation along the edge of the highway. Wind caused the fire to spread quickly. Hot conditions and steep, inaccessible terrain presented challenges for fire crews as they strengthened containment lines. Highway 299 was closed and French Gulch was placed under mandatory evacuation. Overnight from July 25 to 26, the fire grew to 20,000 acres in total area burned. By the evening of July 26, the fire was 10 percent contained.
It was reported to have destroyed 15 buildings and damaged 5, while remaining a threat to 496 other buildings. The fire jumped the Sacramento River and portions of the western area of Redding were put under mandatory evacuation orders. Power to residents in North Redding was shut off by Redding Electric Utility. A state of emergency was declared by Governor Jerry Brown; the evacuation center at Shasta High School was relocated to Shasta College. A firefighter was killed while operating a bulldozer; the National Guard was called in to help fight the fire on the night of July 26. The fire remained active overnight, with fire crews continuing to build containment lines. However, crews were stalled in their work due to the fire's extreme behavior. Just after midnight, evacuation orders were put in place for Shasta Dam, Summit City, neighborhoods in western Redding. A second firefighter, Jeremy Stoke of the Redding Fire Department, was killed and it was reported that three firefighters from Marin County sustained burns.
They were defending a structure. All three were released, with one being evaluated at the University of California, Davis Burn Center for burns on his face and ears. By the evening of July 27, the fire had destroyed 500 structures and threatened 5,000. CrossPointe Community Church was named the third evacuation place. Amtrak announced that their Coast Starlight service would stop in Sacramento and Klamath Falls with alternative transportation being provided. Containment lines remained the priority for firefighters overnight. Red flag warnings and heat advisories were put in place for the area. By the next morning, over 38,000 individuals had been evacuated; the Shasta College evacuation center reached capacity by July 28 and two more shelters operated by the Red Cross, one at Grace Baptist Church, were opened. President Donald Trump declared a state of emergency for the state of California due to this fire and other fires burning in the state; the communities of Happy Valley and Anderson, as well as other areas, were put under mandatory evacuation in the mid-morning.
A woman and two children, who were reported missing on July 26 due to the fire, were reported dead. More buildings were evaluated for damage and 117 damaged. Winds were erratic. Weaverville Elementary School was closed as an evacuation center and a new center was opened at Trinity High School. In the evening, new evacuation orders were put in place for Highway 299 at Trinity Dam Road west to Douglas City and other nearby subdivisions. A sixth fatality was reported on July 29, as the fire moved from densely populated areas and into rural parts of Shasta and Trinity Counties; the community of Lewiston was evacuated. By the evening, fire containment had grown from 5 to 17 percent; the National Guard was assigned to Redding to monitor for looting in evacuated neighborhoods. The next day, repopulation began of areas of western Redding, Shasta Lake, Happy Valley, evacuated. Overnight, strengthening containment lines remained a priority as east and west winds converged and created challenges for firefighters.
Repopulation efforts continued, starting on the morning of July 31 for areas of western Redding, Summit City and Happy Valley. Celebrity chef Guy Fieri provided food for evacuees in Redding. By the evening of July 31, the fire had burned 112,888 acres and was 30 percent co
In hydrology, the inflow of a body of water is the source of the water in the body of water. It can refer to the average volume of incoming water in unit time, it is contrasted with outflow. All bodies of water have multiple inflows, but one inflow may predominate and be the largest source of water. However, in many cases, no single inflow will predominate and there will be multiple primary inflows. For a lake, the inflow may be a river or stream that flows into the lake. Inflow may be speaking, not flows, but rather precipitation, like rain. Inflow can be used to refer to groundwater recharge; the dictionary definition of inflow at Wiktionary
Water skiing is a surface water sport in which an individual is pulled behind a boat or a cable ski installation over a body of water, skimming the surface on two skis or one ski. The sport requires sufficient area on a smooth stretch of water, one or two skis, a tow boat with tow rope, three people, a personal flotation device. In addition, the skier must have adequate upper and lower body strength, muscular endurance, good balance. There are water ski participants around the world, in Asia and Australia, Europe and the Americas. In the United States alone, there are 11 million water skiers and over 900 sanctioned water ski competitions every year. Australia boasts 1.3 million water skiers. There are many options for competitive water skiers; these include speed skiing, trick skiing, show skiing, jumping, barefoot skiing and wakeski. Similar, related sports are wakeboarding, discing and sit-down hydrofoil. Water skiers can start their ski set in one of two ways: wet is the most common, but dry is possible.
Water skiing begins with a deep water start. The skier enters the water with their skis on or they jump in without the skis on their feet, have the skis floated to them, put them on while in the water. Most times it can be easier to put the skis on. Once the skier has their skis on they will be thrown a tow rope from the boat, which they position between their skis. In the deep water start, the skier crouches down in the water while holding onto the ski rope; the skier can perform a "dry start" by standing on the shore or a pier. When the skier is ready, the driver accelerates the boat; as the boat accelerates and takes up the slack on the rope, the skier allows the boat to pull him/her out of the water by applying some muscle strength to get him/her into an upright body position. By leaning back and keeping the legs bent, the skis will plane out and the skier will start to glide over the water; the skier turns by shifting weight right. The skier's body weight should be balanced between the balls of the heels.
While being towed, the skier's arms should be relaxed but still extended so as to reduce stress on the arms. The handle can be held vertically or horizontally, depending on whichever position is more comfortable for the skier. In addition to the driver and the skier, a third person known as the spotter or the observer should be present; the spotter's job is to inform the driver if the skier falls. The spotter sits in a chair on the boat facing backwards to see the skier; the skier and the boat's occupants communicate using hand signals. Water skiing can take place on any type of water – such as a river, lake, or ocean – but calmer waters are ideal for recreational skiing. There should be a 60-metre-wide skiing space and the water should be at least 1.5 to 1.8 metres deep. There must be enough space for the water skier to safely "get up", or be in the upright skiing position. Skiers and their boat drivers must have sufficient room to avoid hazards. Younger skiers start out on children's skis, which consist of two skis tied together at their back and front.
These connections mean. Sometimes these skis can come with a handle to help balance the skier as well. Children's skis are short – 110–150 centimetres long – reflecting the skier's smaller size. Once a person is strong enough to hold the skis together themselves there are various options depending upon their skill level and weight. Water skiers can use one ski; the heavier the person, the bigger the skis will be. Length will vary based on the type of water skiing being performed. A trick ski is around 40 inches and wider than combo skis. Again the skier rides it with her dominant foot in front, it has no fins. Competition skiing uses designed towboats. Most towboats have a small hull and a flat bottom to minimize wake. A true tournament ski boat will have a direct drive motor shaft that centers the weight in the boat for an optimal wake shape. However, some recreational ski boats will have the motor placed in the back of the boat, which creates a bigger wake. Permitted towboats used for tournament water skiing are the Mastercraft ProStar 197, MasterCraft ProStar 190, Nautique 200, Malibu Response TXi, Centurion Carbon Pro.
These boats have ability to pull skiers for trick skiing and slalom. Recreational boats can serve as water skiing platforms as well as other purposes such as cruising and fishing. Popular boat types include bowriders, cuddy cabins, jetboats; the towboat must be capable of maintaining the proper speed. Speeds vary with the skier's weight, experience level, comfort level, type of skiing. For example, a child on two skis would require speeds of 21–26 km/h, whereas an adult on one ski might require as high as 58 km/h. Barefoot skiing requires speeds of 72 km/h. Competition spee
Body of water
A body of water or waterbody is any significant accumulation of water on a planet's surface. The term most refers to oceans and lakes, but it includes smaller pools of water such as ponds, wetlands, or more puddles. A body of water contained. Most are occurring geographical features, but some are artificial. There are types. For example, most reservoirs are created by engineering dams, but some natural lakes are used as reservoirs. Most harbors are occurring bays, but some harbors have been created through construction. Bodies of water that are navigable are known as waterways; some bodies of water collect and move water, such as rivers and streams, others hold water, such as lakes and oceans. The term body of water can refer to a reservoir of water held by a plant, technically known as a phytotelma. Bodies of water are affected by gravity, what creates the tidal effects on Earth. Note that there are some geographical features involving water that are not bodies of water, for example waterfalls and rapids.
Arm of the sea – sea arm, used to describe a sea loch. Arroyo – a dry creek bed or gulch that temporarily fills with water after a heavy rain, or seasonally. See wadi. Artificial lake or artificial pond – see Reservoir. Barachois – a lagoon separated from the ocean by a sand bar. Bay – an area of water bordered by land on three sides, similar to, but smaller than a gulf. Bayou – a slow-moving stream or a marshy lake. Beck – a small stream. Bight – a large and only receding bay, or a bend in any geographical feature. Billabong – an oxbow lake in Australia. Boil – see Seep Brook – a small stream. Burn – a small stream. Canal – an artificial waterway connected to existing lakes, rivers, or oceans. Channel – the physical confine of a river, slough or ocean strait consisting of a bed and banks. See stream bed and strait. Cove – a coastal landform. Earth scientists use the term to describe a circular or round inlet with a narrow entrance, though colloquially the term is sometimes used to describe any sheltered bay.
Creek – a small stream. Creek – an inlet of the sea, narrower than a cove. Delta – the location where a river flows into an ocean, estuary, lake, or reservoir. Distributary or distributary channel – a stream that branches off and flows away from a main stream channel. Drainage basin – a region of land where water from rain or snowmelt drains downhill into another body of water, such as a river, lake, or reservoir. Draw – a dry creek bed or gulch that temporarily fills with water after a heavy rain, or seasonally. See wadi. Estuary – a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, with a free connection to the open sea Firth – a regional term of Scotland used to denote various coastal waters, such as large sea bays, estuaries and straits. Fjord – a narrow inlet of the sea between cliffs or steep slopes. Glacier – a large collection of ice or a frozen river that moves down a mountain. Glacial pothole – a kettle Gulf – a part of a lake or ocean that extends so that it is surrounded by land on three sides, similar to, but larger than a bay.
Headland – an area of water bordered by land on three sides. Harbor – an artificial or occurring body of water where ships are stored or may shelter from the ocean's weather and currents. Impoundment – an artificially-created body of water, by damming a source. Used for flood control, as a drinking water supply, ornamentation, or other purpose or combination of purposes. Note that the process of creating an "impoundment" of water is itself called "impoundment." Inlet – a body of water seawater, which has characteristics of one or more of the following: bay, estuary, fjord, sea loch, or sound. Kettle – a shallow, sediment-filled body of water formed by retreating glaciers or draining floodwaters. Kill – used in areas of Dutch influence in New York, New Jersey and other areas of the former New Netherland colony of Dutch America to describe a strait, river, or arm of the sea. Lagoon – a body of comparatively shallow salt or brackish water separated from the deeper sea by a shallow or exposed sandbank, coral reef, or similar feature.
Lake – a body of water freshwater, of large size contained on a body of land. Lick — a small watercourse or an ephemeral stream Loch – a body of water such as a lake, sea inlet, fjord, estuary or bay. Mangrove swamp – Saline coastal habitat of mangrove trees and shrubs. Marsh – a wetland featuring grasses, reeds, typhas and other herbaceous plants in a context of shallow water. See Salt marsh. Mediterranean sea – a enclosed sea that has limited exchange of deep water with outer oceans and where the water circulation is dominated by salinity and temperature differences rather than winds Mere – a lake or body of water, broad in relation to its depth. Mill pond – a reservoir built to provide flowing water to a watermill Moat – a deep, broad trench, either dry or filled with water and protecting a structure, installation, or town. Ocean – a major body of salty water that, in totality, covers about 71% of the Earth's surface. Oxbow lake – a U-shaped lake formed when a wide meander from the mainstem of a riv
Red Bluff, California
Red Bluff is a city in and the county seat of Tehama County, United States. The population was 14,076 at the 2010 census, up from 13,147 at the 2000 census, it is located 131 miles north of Sacramento, 31 miles south of Redding, it is bisected by Interstate 5. Red Bluff is situated on the banks of the upper Sacramento River, it was known as Leodocia, but was renamed to Covertsburg in 1853. It got its current name in 1854. Red Bluff is on the northern edge of the Sacramento Valley, is the third largest city in the Shasta Cascade region, it is about 31 miles south of Redding, 40 miles northwest of Chico, 131 miles north of Sacramento. The city is located at 40°10′36″N 122°14′17″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.7 square miles. 7.6 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water. The total area is 1.48% water. A post office called Red Bluff has been in operation since 1853; the community was named for the red bluffs along the nearby Sacramento River.
Red Bluff has a Mediterranean climate with hot, dry summers. There are an average of 100.1 days annually with highs of 90 °F or higher and an average of 21.5 days with lows of 32 °F or lower. The record highest temperature was 121 °F on August 7, 1981, the record lowest temperature was 17 °F on January 9, 1937. Annual precipitation averages 23.21 inches with measurable precipitation falling on an average of 71 days. The wettest “rain year” was from July 1994 to June 1995 with 45.96 inches and the driest from July 1975 to June 1976 with 10.17 inches. The most rainfall in one month was 21.47 inches in January 1995 and the most rainfall in 24 hours was 3.55 inches on January 8, 1995. The most snowfall in one month was 15.0 inches in January 1937. The 2010 United States Census reported that Red Bluff had a population of 14,076; the population density was 1,833.6 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Red Bluff was 11,366 White, 128 African American, 438 Native American, 187 Asian, 16 Pacific Islander, 1,168 from other races, 773 from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3,037 persons. The Census reported that 13,637 people lived in households, 150 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 289 were institutionalized. There were 5,376 households, out of which 2,033 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 1,969 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 1,022 had a female householder with no husband present, 404 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 537 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 27 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 1,629 households were made up of individuals and 678 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54. There were 3,395 families; the population was spread out with 3,950 people under the age of 18, 1,534 people aged 18 to 24, 3,561 people aged 25 to 44, 3,157 people aged 45 to 64, 1,874 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.7 males.
There were 5,872 housing units at an average density of 764.9 per square mile, of which 2,277 were owner-occupied, 3,099 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 3.5%. 5,652 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 7,985 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 13,147 people, 5,109 households, 3,239 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,768.7 people per square mile. There were 5,567 housing units at an average density of 748.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 86.7% White, 0.6% Black, 2.2% Native American, 1.6% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 5.8% from other races, 3.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 13.7% of the population. There were 5,109 households out of which 36.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.4% were married couples living together, 16.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.6% were non-families. 30.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.07. In the city, the population was spread out with 28.7% under the age of 18, 9.9% from 18 to 24, 28.6% from 25 to 44, 18.0% from 45 to 64, 14.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,029, the median income for a family was $32,799. Males had a median income of $26,807 versus $21,048 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,060. About 17.7% of families and 21.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.6% of those under age 18 and 9.7% of those age 65 or over. According to the city's 2016 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, these are the top-10 employers: The annual Red Bluff Round-Up, first held in 1921, has become one of the west's largest rodeos; the town is well known throughout the nation due to its popular
Central Valley Project
The Central Valley Project is a federal water management project in the U. S. state of California under the supervision of the United States Bureau of Reclamation. It was devised in 1933 in order to provide irrigation and municipal water to much of California's Central Valley—by regulating and storing water in reservoirs in the northern half of the state, transporting it to the water-poor San Joaquin Valley and its surroundings by means of a series of canals and pump plants, some shared with the California State Water Project. Many CVP water users are represented by the Central Valley Project Water Association. In addition to water storage and regulation, the system has a hydroelectric capacity of over 2,000 megawatts, provides recreation and flood control with its twenty dams and reservoirs, it has allowed major cities to grow along Valley rivers which would flood each spring, transformed the semi-arid desert environment of the San Joaquin Valley into productive farmland. Freshwater stored in Sacramento River reservoirs and released downriver during dry periods prevents salt water from intruding into the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta during high tide.
There are eight divisions of the project and ten corresponding units, many of which operate in conjunction, while others are independent of the rest of the network. California agriculture and related industries now directly account for 7% of the gross state product for which the CVP supplied water for about half. Many CVP operations have had considerable environmental consequences, including a decline in the salmon population of four major California rivers in the northern state, the reduction of riparian zones and wetlands. Many historical sites and Native American tribal lands have been flooded by CVP reservoirs. In addition, runoff from intensive irrigation has groundwater; the Central Valley Project Improvement Act, passed in 1992, intends to alleviate some of the problems associated with the CVP with programs like the Refuge Water Supply Program. In recent years, a combination of drought and regulatory decisions passed based on the Endangered Species Act of 1973 have forced Reclamation to turn off much of the water for the west side of the San Joaquin Valley in order to protect the fragile ecosystem in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and keep alive the dwindling fish populations of Northern and Central California rivers.
In 2017 the Klamath and Trinity rivers witnessed the worst fall run Chinook salmon return in recorded history, leading to a disaster declaration in California and Oregon due to the loss of the commercial fisheries. The recreational fall Chinook salmon fishery in both the ocean and the Trinity and Klamath rivers was closed in 2017. Only 1,123 adult winter Chinook salmon returned to the Sacramento Valley in 2017, according to a report sent to the Pacific Fishery Management Council by the California Department of Fish and Wildlife; this is the second lowest number of returning adult winter run salmon since modern counting techniques were implemented in 2003. By comparison, over 117,000 winter Chinooks returned to spawn in 1969; the CVP stores about 13 million acre feet of water in 20 reservoirs in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada, the Klamath Mountains and the California Coast Ranges, passes about 7.4 million acre feet of water annually through its canals. Of the water transported, about 5 million acre feet goes to irrigate 3,000,000 acres of farmland, 600,000 acre feet supplies municipal uses, 800,000 acre feet is released into rivers and wetlands in order to comply with state and federal ecological standards.
Two large reservoirs, Shasta Lake and Trinity Lake, are formed by a pair of dams in the mountains north of the Sacramento Valley. Water from Shasta Lake flows into the Sacramento River which flows to the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and water from Trinity Lake flows into the Trinity River which leads to the Pacific Ocean. Both lakes release water at controlled rates. There, before it can flow on to San Francisco Bay and the Pacific Ocean, some of the water is intercepted by a diversion channel and transported to the Delta-Mendota Canal, which conveys water southwards through the San Joaquin Valley, supplying water to San Luis Reservoir and the San Joaquin River at Mendota Pool in the process reaching canals that irrigates farms in the valley. Friant Dam crosses the San Joaquin River upstream of Mendota Pool, diverting its water southwards into canals that travel into the Tulare Lake area of the San Joaquin Valley, as far south as the Kern River. New Melones Lake, a separate facility, stores water flow of a San Joaquin River tributary for use during dry periods.
Other smaller, independent facilities exist to provide water to local irrigation districts. Despite the rich soils and favorable weather of the 42,000-square-mile Central Valley, inhabitants of the valley who were unfamiliar with its natural rainfall patterns and started to practice intense irrigated agriculture on the arid land soon found themselves troubled by frequent floods in the Sacramento Valley and a general lack of water in the San Joaquin Valley; the Sacramento River, which drains the northern part, receives between 60–75% of the precipitation in the Valley, despite the Sacramento Valley covering less area than the much larger San Joaquin Valley, drained by the San Joaquin River, which receives only about 25% of the rainfall. Furthermore, cities drawing water from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta faced problems in dry summer and autumn months when the inflowing water was low. In order to continue to sustain the valley's