The number π is a mathematical constant. Defined as the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter, it now has various equivalent definitions and appears in many formulas in all areas of mathematics and physics, it is equal to 3.14159. It has been represented by the Greek letter "π" since the mid-18th century, though it is sometimes spelled out as "pi", it is called Archimedes' constant. Being an irrational number, π cannot be expressed as a common fraction. Still, fractions such as 22/7 and other rational numbers are used to approximate π; the digits appear to be randomly distributed. In particular, the digit sequence of π is conjectured to satisfy a specific kind of statistical randomness, but to date, no proof of this has been discovered. Π is a transcendental number. This transcendence of π implies that it is impossible to solve the ancient challenge of squaring the circle with a compass and straightedge. Ancient civilizations required accurate computed values to approximate π for practical reasons, including the Egyptians and Babylonians.
Around 250 BC the Greek mathematician Archimedes created an algorithm for calculating it. In the 5th century AD Chinese mathematics approximated π to seven digits, while Indian mathematics made a five-digit approximation, both using geometrical techniques; the first exact formula for π, based on infinite series, was not available until a millennium when in the 14th century the Madhava–Leibniz series was discovered in Indian mathematics. In the 20th and 21st centuries and computer scientists discovered new approaches that, when combined with increasing computational power, extended the decimal representation of π to many trillions of digits after the decimal point. All scientific applications require no more than a few hundred digits of π, many fewer, so the primary motivation for these computations is the quest to find more efficient algorithms for calculating lengthy numeric series, as well as the desire to break records; the extensive calculations involved have been used to test supercomputers and high-precision multiplication algorithms.
Because its most elementary definition relates to the circle, π is found in many formulae in trigonometry and geometry those concerning circles and spheres. In more modern mathematical analysis, the number is instead defined using the spectral properties of the real number system, as an eigenvalue or a period, without any reference to geometry, it appears therefore in areas of mathematics and the sciences having little to do with the geometry of circles, such as number theory and statistics, as well as in all areas of physics. The ubiquity of π makes it one of the most known mathematical constants both inside and outside the scientific community. Several books devoted to π have been published, record-setting calculations of the digits of π result in news headlines. Attempts to memorize the value of π with increasing precision have led to records of over 70,000 digits; the symbol used by mathematicians to represent the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter is the lowercase Greek letter π, sometimes spelled out as pi, derived from the first letter of the Greek word perimetros, meaning circumference.
In English, π is pronounced as "pie". In mathematical use, the lowercase letter π is distinguished from its capitalized and enlarged counterpart ∏, which denotes a product of a sequence, analogous to how ∑ denotes summation; the choice of the symbol π is discussed in the section Adoption of the symbol π. Π is defined as the ratio of a circle's circumference C to its diameter d: π = C d The ratio C/d is constant, regardless of the circle's size. For example, if a circle has twice the diameter of another circle it will have twice the circumference, preserving the ratio C/d; this definition of π implicitly makes use of flat geometry. Here, the circumference of a circle is the arc length around the perimeter of the circle, a quantity which can be formally defined independently of geometry using limits, a concept in calculus. For example, one may directly compute the arc length of the top half of the unit circle, given in Cartesian coordinates by the equation x2 + y2 = 1, as the integral: π = ∫ − 1 1 d x 1 − x 2.
An integral such as this was adopted as the definition of π by Karl Weierstrass, who defined it directly as an integral in 1841. Definitions of π such as these that rely on a notion of circumference, hence implicitly on concepts of the integral calculus, are no longer common in the literature. Remmert explains that this is because in many modern treatments of calculus, differential calculus precedes integral calculus in the university curriculum, so it is desirable to have a definition of π that does not rely on the latter. One such definition, due to Richard Baltzer, popularized by Edmund Landau, is the following: π is twice the smallest positive number at which the cosine function equals 0; the cosine can be defined independently of geometry as a power series, or as the solution of a differen
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
Volcano Entertainment is an American all-round music record label founded in 1996 which released albums by Tool, 311, Size 14, Survivor and "Weird Al" Yankovic. It is owned by a division of Sony Music Entertainment. Volcano Records was founded in 1990 by Jay-Shy, it is the continuation of Zoo Entertainment which Shy bought from BMG in 1996. The company was meant to have two divisions Zoo/Volcano and Volcano which would be a hip-hop imprint; the first album released with the new ownership was flagship Zoo artist Tool's album Ænima followed by actor Keanu Reeves' band Dogstar's album Our Little Visionary. However, the Zoo name was phased out and many of Zoo artists became the cornerstone of the Volcano roster. In October 1997, Volcano merged with Dallas Austin's Rowdy Records to become Freeworld Entertainment. Freeworld was short lived as the label was plagued with financial trouble and the relationship with Austin faltered. Many of the label's employees were either left. Additionally, the label's flagship artist Tool was attempting to leave the label which resulted in a lengthy lawsuit.
In the spring of 1998, Freeworld was "saved" by the Zomba Label Group. Though the Zoo branding was reintroduced, Zomba returned the Volcano moniker, abandoning Zoo altogether. A month Q Prime, led by top managers Cliff Burnstein and Peter Mensch, purchased a 50% stake in Volcano and made sure that hard-rock artist Tool would stay, they would sell their share back to Zomba in the early 2000s. 1998 marked the year that Volcano acquired the contracts and masters of Scotti Bros. Records which had just been purchased by Pearson PLC. Volcano purchased Capricorn Records in December 2000. In 2002, Zomba was purchased by BMG, returning Volcano to the BMG umbrella it had been a part of as Zoo Entertainment in the early nineties. Volcano now controls the Scotti Bros. Records, Capricorn Records and Zoo Entertainment catalogs. With Yankovic fulfilling his Sony contract on their main label RCA, with his 2014 album Mandatory Fun, Volcano functions as a reissue label and the home of only Tool. However, depending on how long it takes the band to finish new music, it is Volcano may not exist if and when it is released.
Volcano products were distributed by BMG. When Zomba purchased the label in 1998, distribution was handled through the Zomba network which, depending on the territory, may have been BMG, Zomba itself or other smaller labels; when Zomba was purchased by BMG, BMG became the sole worldwide distributor again. Between 2004 and late 2008 distribution switched to Sony BMG in accordance with the merger of Sony and BMG. Since early 2009, Sony Music Entertainment distributes Volcano products worldwide. List of record labels Zoo Entertainment Freeworld Entertainment
Straight Outta Lynwood
Straight Outta Lynwood is the twelfth studio album by "Weird Al" Yankovic, released on September 26, 2006. It was the sixth studio album self-produced by Yankovic; the musical styles on the album are built around parodies and pastiches of pop and rock music of the mid-2000s. The album's lead single, "White & Nerdy", is a parody of Chamillionaire's hit single "Ridin'"; the single peaked at number nine on the Billboard Hot 100. The album contains three further parodies, based on "Confessions Part II" by Usher, "Do I Make You Proud" by Taylor Hicks, Trapped in the Closet by R. Kelly; the other half of the album is original material, containing many "style parodies", musical imitations of existing artists, such as Brian Wilson, Rage Against the Machine, animated musical specials, 1980s charity songs. There were plans for the album's lead single to have been a spoof of James Blunt's hit "You're Beautiful" entitled "You're Pitiful", but Blunt's record label, blocked the commercial release of the parody.
In 2006, the album was released as both a digital download and as a DualDisc containing both the album and animated music videos for a number of the album's songs. Straight Outta Lynwood was met with positive reviews, with many critics in particular applauding "White & Nerdy" and "Trapped in the Drive-Thru"; some of the other parody songs, were met with a more mixed response. The album peaked at number 10 on the Billboard 200. "White & Nerdy" became Yankovic's highest-charting single, as well as his first Platinum-certified single. The record itself was certified Gold for shipments of over 500,000 copies. On July 5, 2005, recording for Straight Outta Lynwood began at Santa Monica Sound Records, in Santa Monica, California. By late 2005, six originals—"Pancreas", "Close but No Cigar", "Virus Alert", "Don't Download This Song", "I'll Sue Ya", "Weasel Stomping Day"—had been recorded. "Weasel Stomping Day" describes, in the style of animated musical specials of the 1960s, a traditional holiday in which participants don Viking helmets, spread mayonnaise on their lawns, "snap weasely spines in half."
"I'll Sue Ya" is a Rage Against the Machine style parody, satirizing frivolous litigation. Yankovic chose to juxtapose the style of Rage Against the Machine with lyrics about lawsuits because he felt that humor could be derived by pairing the anger of the band's music with a topic so vacuous. "Don't Download This Song", a style parody of 1980s charity songs, such as "We are the World", "Hands Across America", "Do They Know It’s Christmas?", "describes the perils of online music file-sharing". According to Yankovic himself, the song takes a moderate approach to the peer-to-peer music download situation, arguing that both sides—people trying to illegally download music and the Recording Industry Association of America —can act hypocritically depending on the situation."Virus Alert" is a style parody of Sparks their work in the mid-1970s, such as their album Kimono My House. It details "the evil that lurks in your email inbox." "Close but No Cigar" is a style parody of Cake that tells the story of a man who breaks up with his perfect girlfriends due to the most inconsequential of flaws.
The track was inspired by an actual friend of Yankovic's, never satisfied with any of his dates. The final original recorded, "Pancreas", is a song about the biological functions of the aforementioned organ; the song is an imitation of the musical stylings of Brian Wilson his work found on the 1966 album Pet Sounds, released by the Beach Boys, their aborted follow-up album, Smile. Yankovic joked that the reason the song was written was because "my pancreas has given so much to me over the years, I felt like I needed to give something back to it". On February 19, 2006, Yankovic began working on the album's parodies. During these sessions, three parodies were recorded, it is a satirical commentary on American nationalism and the stereotypical American view of Canadians. The song is ironic, Yankovic has stated that the song's anger is a joke and that he loves Canada. Next, Yankovic began working on "Trapped in the Drive-Thru", a parody of R. Kelly's Trapped in the Closet. Yankovic was inspired to pen the spoof after hearing the "brilliant and wonderful and ridiculous" original.
Efforts to make the parody more convoluted than the original were first considered but abandoned by Yankovic. Thus, the song is an excruciatingly detailed narrative about a couple going to a drive-thru, "the most banal thing could think of at the time." Because the song was three times the length of a normal song Yankovic would have been required to pay thrice the statutory rate for royalties. This in turn would have forced Yankovic to remove one of his parodies from the album. However, R. Kelly allowed Yankovic to only pay the royalty rate for one song. To round out the first session, Yankovic recorded "Confessions Part III", a play on "Confessions Part II" by Usher; the song purports to be a continuation of the Usher songs "Confessions" and "Confessions Part II", focusing on trivial, silly and disturbing confessions.
Dungeons & Dragons
Dungeons & Dragons is a fantasy tabletop role-playing game designed by Gary Gygax and Dave Arneson. It was first published in 1974 by Tactical Studies Rules, Inc.. The game has been published by Wizards of the Coast since 1997, it was derived from miniature wargames, with a variation of the 1971 game Chainmail serving as the initial rule system. D&D's publication is recognized as the beginning of modern role-playing games and the role-playing game industry. D&D departs from traditional wargaming by allowing each player to create their own character to play instead of a military formation; these characters embark upon imaginary adventures within a fantasy setting. A Dungeon Master serves as the game's referee and storyteller, while maintaining the setting in which the adventures occur, playing the role of the inhabitants of the game world; the characters form a party and they interact with the setting's inhabitants and each other. Together they solve dilemmas, engage in battles, gather treasure and knowledge.
In the process, the characters earn experience points in order to rise in levels, become powerful over a series of separate gaming sessions. The early success of D&D led to a proliferation of similar game systems. Despite the competition, D&D has remained as the market leader in the role-playing game industry. In 1977, the game was split into two branches: the rules-light game system of basic Dungeons & Dragons, the more structured, rules-heavy game system of Advanced Dungeons & Dragons. AD&D 2nd Edition was published in 1989. In 2000, a new system was released as D&D 3rd edition, continuing the edition numbering from AD&D; these 3rd edition rules formed the basis of the d20 System, available under the Open Game License for use by other publishers. D&D 4th edition was released in June 2008; the 5th edition of D&D, the most recent, was released during the second half of 2014. As of 2004, D&D remained the best-known, best-selling, role-playing game, with an estimated 20 million people having played the game, more than US$1 billion in book and equipment sales.
The game has been supplemented by many pre-made adventures, as well as commercial campaign settings suitable for use by regular gaming groups. D&D is known beyond the game itself for other D&D-branded products, references in popular culture, some of the controversies that have surrounded it a moral panic in the 1980s falsely linking it to Satanism and suicide; the game has been translated into many languages. Dungeons & Dragons is a open-ended role-playing game, it is played indoors with the participants seated around a tabletop. Each player controls only a single character, which represents an individual in a fictional setting; when working together as a group, these player characters are described as a "party" of adventurers, with each member having their own area of specialty which contributes to the success of the whole. During the course of play, each player directs the actions of their character and their interactions with other characters in the game; this activity is performed through the verbal impersonation of the characters by the players, while employing a variety of social and other useful cognitive skills, such as logic, basic mathematics and imagination.
A game continues over a series of meetings to complete a single adventure, longer into a series of related gaming adventures, called a "campaign". The results of the party's choices and the overall storyline for the game are determined by the Dungeon Master according to the rules of the game and the DM's interpretation of those rules; the DM selects and describes the various non-player characters that the party encounters, the settings in which these interactions occur, the outcomes of those encounters based on the players' choices and actions. Encounters take the form of battles with "monsters" – a generic term used in D&D to describe hostile beings such as animals, aberrant beings, or mythical creatures; the game's extensive rules – which cover diverse subjects such as social interactions, magic use and the effect of the environment on PCs – help the DM to make these decisions. The DM may choose to deviate from the published rules or make up new ones if they feel it is necessary; the most recent versions of the game's rules are detailed in three core rulebooks: The Player's Handbook, the Dungeon Master's Guide and the Monster Manual.
The only items required to play the game are the rulebooks, a character sheet for each player, a number of polyhedral dice. Many players use miniature figures on a grid map as a visual aid during combat; some editions of the game presume such usage. Many optional accessories are available to enhance the game, such as expansion rulebooks, pre-designed adventures and various campaign settings. Before the game begins, each player creates their player character and records the details on a character sheet. First, a player determines their character's ability scores, which consist of Strength, Dexterity, Intelligence and Charisma; each edition of the game has offered differing methods of determining these statistics. The player chooses a race such as human or elf, a character class such as fighter or wizard, an alignment, other features to round out the character's abilities and backstory, which have varied in nature through differing editions. During the game, players describe their PC's intended actions, such as punching an opponent or pi
The Vulcan salutation is a hand gesture popularized by the 1960s television series Star Trek. It consists of a raised hand with the palm forward and the thumb extended, while the fingers are parted between the middle and ring finger; the Vulcan "salute" was devised by Leonard Nimoy, who portrayed the half-Vulcan character Mr. Spock on the original Star Trek television series. A 1968 New York Times interview described the gesture as a "double-fingered version of Churchill's victory sign". Nimoy said in that interview that he "decided that the Vulcans were a'hand-oriented' people"; the greeting first appeared in 1967 on the Star Trek second-season opening episode, "Amok Time". Among other things, the gesture is known for being difficult for certain people to do properly without practice or the covert pre-positioning of the fingers, actors on the original show had to position their fingers off-screen with the other hand before raising their hand into frame; this difficulty may stem from variations in individuals' manual dexterity.
It is parodied in the motion picture Star Trek: First Contact when Zefram Cochrane, upon meeting a Vulcan for the first time in human history, is unable to return the gesture and instead shakes the Vulcan's hand. In his autobiography I Am Not Spock, Nimoy wrote that he based it on the Priestly Blessing performed by Jewish Kohanim with both hands, thumb to thumb in this same position, representing the Hebrew letter Shin, which has three upward strokes similar to the position of the thumb and fingers in the gesture; the letter Shin here stands for meaning "Almighty", as well as for Shekinah and Shalom. Nimoy wrote that when he was a child, his grandfather took him to an Orthodox synagogue, where he saw the blessing performed and was impressed by it. Others greeted Nimoy with the Vulcan sign, which became so well known that in June 2014 it was added to version 7 of the Unicode standard as U+1F596 RAISED HAND WITH PART BETWEEN MIDDLE AND RING FINGERS; the White House referenced the Vulcan salutation in its statement on Leonard Nimoy's death, calling it "the universal sign for'Live long and prosper'".
The following day, NASA astronaut Terry W. Virts posted a photo on his Twitter feed from the International Space Station showing the salutation as the ISS passed over Nimoy's birthplace of Boston, United States; the gesture was created by Leonard Nimoy for the Star Trek episode "Amok Time", the first episode with Vulcans other than Spock. Nimoy wanted something to help develop the Vulcans sociologically and suggested that Vulcans have a gestural greeting, he proposed the sign. The accompanying spoken blessing, "live long and prosper" – "dif-tor heh smusma" in the Vulcan language – appeared for the first time in "Amok Time", scripted by Theodore Sturgeon; the less-well-known reply is "peace and long life", though it is sometimes said first, with "live long and prosper" as the reply. The phrase has been seen abbreviated "LLAP". An ancient Egyptian blessing "ankh wedja seneb", while its verbatim translation is uncertain, uses the three symbols "life", "prosperity" and "health". William Shakespeare's 1594 Romeo and Juliet contains the line, "Live and be prosperous: and farewell good fellow", spoken by Romeo to Balthasar, his friend and servant.
The benediction "live and prosper" is attributed to the 18th-century organized crime figure Jonathan Wild in his 1725 biography written by "H. D." a pseudonym for Daniel Defoe. In Trilby by George du Maurier, published in 1894, a description of an art student ends with the sentence, "May he live long and prosper!"The phrase is attributed to Stephen Crane by Willa Cather in her essay "When I Knew Stephen Crane," first published in 1900: "You have to have the itch of the thing in your fingers, if you haven't,—well, you're damned lucky, you'll live long and prosper, that's all." Vulcan changeup, baseball pitch Open Hand Monument, conceived in 1948 by Le Corbusier, developed in 1964, completed in 1985 Media related to Vulcan salute at Wikimedia Commons Vulcan salute at Memory Alpha Gershom, Yonassan. Jewish Themes in Star Trek. Archived from the original on 2012-07-05. Retrieved 28 February 2015. A page by Rabbi Yonassan Gershom, with photos and diagrams of how the Salute forms the Hebrew letter Shin, the use of the Blessing Hands gesture on Jewish gravestones and jewelry, etc.
Yiddish Book Center. "Nimoy Explains Origin of Vulcan Greeting". Wexler Oral History Project. Remembering Leonard Nimoy; the New York Times. Leonard Nimoy on the Jewish provenance and cultural impact of the Vulcan salute
A sandwich is a food consisting of vegetables, sliced cheese or meat, placed on or between slices of bread, or more any dish wherein two or more pieces of bread serve as a container or wrapper for another food type. The sandwich began as a portable finger food in the Western world, though over time it has become prevalent worldwide. Sandwiches are a popular type of lunch food, taken to work, school, or picnics to be eaten as part of a packed lunch; the bread can be either plain, or coated with condiments such as mayonnaise or mustard, to enhance its flavour and texture. As well as being homemade, sandwiches are widely sold in restaurants and can be served hot or cold. There are both savoury sandwiches, such as deli meat sandwiches, sweet sandwiches, such as a peanut butter and jelly sandwich; the sandwich is named after John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich. The Wall Street Journal has described it as Britain's "biggest contribution to gastronomy"; the modern concept of a sandwich using slices of bread as found within the West can arguably be traced to 18th-century Europe.
However, the use of some kind of bread or bread-like substance to lie under some other food, or used to scoop up and enclose or wrap some other type of food, long predates the eighteenth century, is found in numerous much older cultures worldwide. The ancient Jewish sage Hillel the Elder is said to have wrapped meat from the Paschal lamb and bitter herbs in a soft matzah—flat, unleavened bread—during Passover in the manner of a modern wrap made with flatbread. Flat breads of only varying kinds have long been used to scoop or wrap small amounts of food en route from platter to mouth throughout Western Asia and northern Africa. From Morocco to Ethiopia to India, bread is baked in flat rounds, contrasting with the European loaf tradition. During the Middle Ages in Europe, thick slabs of coarse and stale bread, called "trenchers", were used as plates. After a meal, the food-soaked trencher was fed to a dog or to beggars at the tables of the wealthy, eaten by diners in more modest circumstances.
The immediate culinary precursor with a direct connection to the English sandwich was to be found in the Netherlands of the seventeenth century, where the naturalist John Ray observed that in the taverns beef hung from the rafters "which they cut into thin slices and eat with bread and butter laying the slices upon the butter"— explanatory specifications that reveal the Dutch belegde broodje, open-faced sandwich, was as yet unfamiliar in England. Perceived as food that men shared while gaming and drinking at night, the sandwich began appearing in polite society as a late-night meal among the aristocracy; the sandwich's popularity in Spain and England increased during the nineteenth century, when the rise of industrial society and the working classes made fast and inexpensive meals essential. In London, for example, at least seventy street vendors were selling ham sandwiches by 1850. In the United States, the sandwich was first promoted as an elaborate meal at supper. By the early twentieth century, as bread became a staple of the American diet, the sandwich became the same kind of popular, quick meal as was widespread in the Mediterranean.
The first written usage of the English word appeared in Edward Gibbon's journal, in longhand, referring to "bits of cold meat" as a "Sandwich". It was named after 4th Earl of Sandwich, an eighteenth-century English aristocrat, it is said that he ordered his valet to bring him meat tucked between two pieces of bread, others began to order "the same as Sandwich!" It is said that Lord Sandwich was fond of this form of food because it allowed him to continue playing cards cribbage, while eating, without using a fork, without getting his cards greasy from eating meat with his bare hands. The rumour in its familiar form appeared in Pierre-Jean Grosley's Londres, translated as A Tour to London in 1772; the sober alternative is provided by Sandwich's biographer, N. A. M. Rodger, who suggests Sandwich's commitments to the navy, to politics and the arts, mean the first sandwich was more to have been consumed at his desk. Before being known as sandwiches, this food combination seems to have been known as "bread and meat" or "bread and cheese".
These two phrases are found throughout English drama from the seventeenth centuries. In the United States, a court in Boston, Massachusetts ruled in 2006 that a sandwich includes at least two slices of bread and "under this definition, this court finds that the term'sandwich' is not understood to include burritos and quesadillas, which are made with a single tortilla and stuffed with a choice filling of meat and beans." The issue stemmed from the question of whether a restaurant that sold burritos could move into a shopping centre where another restaurant had a no-compete clause in its lease prohibiting other "sandwich" shops. In Spain, where the word sandwich is borrowed from the English language, it refers to a food item made with English sandwich bread, it is otherwise known as a bocadillo. Similar usage applies in other Spanish-speaking cultures, such as Mexico, where the word torta is used for a popular variety of roll-type sandwiches. In the United Kingdom and Australia, the term sandwich is more narrowly defined than in the United States: it refers only to an item which uses sliced bread from a loaf.
An item with similar fillings, but using an entire bread roll cut