An arch bridge is a bridge with abutments at each end shaped as a curved arch. Arch bridges work by transferring the weight of the bridge and its loads into a horizontal thrust restrained by the abutments at either side. A viaduct may be made from a series of arches, although other more economical structures are used today; the oldest existing arch bridge is the Mycenaean Arkadiko Bridge in Greece from about 1300 BC. The stone corbel arch; the well-preserved Hellenistic Eleutherna Bridge has a triangular corbel arch. The 4th century BC Rhodes Footbridge rests on an early voussoir arch. Although true arches were known by the Etruscans and ancient Greeks, the Romans were – as with the vault and the dome – the first to realize the potential of arches for bridge construction. A list of Roman bridges compiled by the engineer Colin O'Connor features 330 Roman stone bridges for traffic, 34 Roman timber bridges and 54 Roman aqueduct bridges, a substantial part still standing and used to carry vehicles.
A more complete survey by the Italian scholar Vittorio Galliazzo found 931 Roman bridges of stone, in as many as 26 different countries. Roman arch bridges were semicircular, although a number were segmental arch bridges, a bridge which has a curved arch, less than a semicircle; the advantages of the segmental arch bridge were that it allowed great amounts of flood water to pass under it, which would prevent the bridge from being swept away during floods and the bridge itself could be more lightweight. Roman bridges featured wedge-shaped primary arch stones of the same in size and shape; the Romans built both single spans and lengthy multiple arch aqueducts, such as the Pont du Gard and Segovia Aqueduct. Their bridges featured from an early time onwards flood openings in the piers, e.g. in the Pons Fabricius in Rome, one of the world's oldest major bridges still standing. Roman engineers were the first and until the industrial revolution the only ones to construct bridges with concrete, which they called Opus caementicium.
The outside was covered with brick or ashlar, as in the Alcántara bridge. The Romans introduced segmental arch bridges into bridge construction; the 330 m-long Limyra Bridge in southwestern Turkey features 26 segmental arches with an average span-to-rise ratio of 5.3:1, giving the bridge an unusually flat profile unsurpassed for more than a millennium. Trajan's bridge over the Danube featured open-spandrel segmental arches made of wood; this was to be the longest arch bridge for a thousand years both in terms of overall and individual span length, while the longest extant Roman bridge is the 790 m-long long Puente Romano at Mérida. The late Roman Karamagara Bridge in Cappadocia may represent the earliest surviving bridge featuring a pointed arch. In medieval Europe, bridge builders improved on the Roman structures by using narrower piers, thinner arch barrels and higher span to rise ratios on bridges. Gothic pointed arches were introduced, reducing lateral thrust, spans increased as with the eccentric Puente del Diablo.
The 14th century in particular saw bridge building reaching new heights. Span lengths of 40 m unheard of in the history of masonry arch construction, were now reached in places as diverse as Spain and France and with arch types as different as semi-circular and segmental arches; the bridge at Trezzo sull'Adda, destroyed in the 15th century featured a span length of 72 m, not matched until 1796. Constructions such as the acclaimed Florentine segmental arch bridge Ponte Vecchio combined sound engineering with aesthetical appeal; the three elegant arches of the Renaissance Ponte Santa Trinita constitute the oldest elliptic arch bridge worldwide. Such low rising structures required massive abutments, which at the Venetian Rialto bridge and the Fleischbrücke in Nuremberg were founded on thousands of wooden piles rammed obliquely into the grounds to counteract more the lateral thrust. In China, the oldest existing arch bridge is the Zhaozhou Bridge of 605 AD, which combined a low span-to-rise ratio of 5.2:1, with the use of spandrel arches.
The Zhaozhou Bridge, with a length of 167 feet and span of 123 feet, is the world's first wholly stone open-spandrel segmental arch bridge, allowing a greater passage for flood waters. Bridges with perforated spandrels can be found worldwide, such as in China. Greece and Wales. In more modern times and brick arches continued to be built by many civil engineers, including Thomas Telford, Isambard Kingdom Brunel and John Rennie. A key pioneer was Jean-Rodolphe Perronet, who used much narrower piers, revised calculation methods and exceptionally low span-to-rise ratios. Different materials, such as cast iron and concrete have been used in the construction of arch bridges. Stone and other such materials are strong in compression and somewhat so in shear, but cannot resist much force in tension; as a result, masonry arch bridges are designed to be under compression, so far as is possible. Each arch is constructed over a temporary falsework frame, known as a centring. In the first compression arch bridges, a keystone in the middle of the bridge bore the weight of the rest of the bridge.
The more weight, put ont
The Pont Flavien is a Roman bridge across the River Touloubre in Saint-Chamas, Bouches-du-Rhône department, southern France. The single-arch crossing, built from limestone, was on a Roman road - the Via Julia Augusta - between Placentia and Arles, it is the only surviving example of a Roman bridge bounded by triumphal arches from the Augustan period, although similar bridges existed elsewhere, as indicated by portrayals on coins of the late 1st century BC. The bridge replaced an earlier wooden structure on the same site, it measures 21.4 metres long by 6.2 metres wide. The two arches at either end, each standing 7 metres high with a single wide bay, are constructed of the same local stone as the bridge and are broader than they are tall. At the corners of the arches are fluted Corinthian pilasters at the top of which are carved eagles. Acanthus scrolls extend partway along the pediments, in the middle of, an inscription that reads: L·DONNIVS·C·F·FLAVOS·FLAMEN·ROMAE ET·AVGVSTI·TESTAMENTO·FIEREI·IVSSIT ARBITRATV·C·DONNEI·VENAE·ET·C·ATTEI·RVFEIIn translation, this means: Lucius Donnius, son of Caius, flamen of Rome and Augustus, has ordained in his will that be built under the direction of Cauis Donnius Vena and Caius Attius Rufius.
Lucius Donnius Flavos was evidently a figure of some importance and owned land in the vicinity of the bridge. He was a Romanised Gaul, to have been an aristocrat of the Avatici, a local Gallic tribe, he was also a significant player in the affairs of the nearby city of Arelate, as he served the imperial cult, most in one of the city's temples. He may have built his mausoleum nearby; as the inscription indicates, the bridge was constructed at Flavos' instigation following his death. Its stylistic elements are typical of funerary monuments; the frieze of the arches decorated with a wave pattern symbolises the constant rebirth of life. The eagles carved above the capitals and the pairs of free-standing lions atop the arches' pediments are common features of tombs and, in the case of the lions, were popular in Provence in the latter part of the first century BC; the combination of arches and a bridge may have been intended to symbolise the passage of life. Because the Pont Flavien was a private monument it did not have the triumphal imagery associated with Roman arches and does not bear any portrait of Flavos.
He would most have been depicted in figure at his tomb but this, assuming it was nearby, has long since disappeared. In the 20s BC, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa carried out a programme of road building in Provence on behalf of the Emperor Augustus, constructing the Via Julia Augusta; this would have given Flavos an opportunity to make his mark in a visible way, proclaiming his dedication to Roman values and highlighting the importance of his own personage. Considering the date of the stylistic elements, the Pont Flavien was most built some time between 20 and 10 BC; the bridge was used until as late as the latter part of the 20th century. It has suffered accidental damage over the years, it has been resurfaced to prevent the collapse of the bridge and the parapet has been replaced. The bridge was a traditional stopping point for the Compagnons du Tour de France, journeyman masons who underwent a tour of notable monuments around the country and who left their graffiti on the bridge; the western arch has collapsed at least twice.
It was rebuilt in 1763 by Jean Chastel, who restored the sculptures. The second collapse was during the Second World War, when the arch was first damaged when a German tank collided with it collapsed when an American truck hit it in 1945, it was rebuilt in 1949 and some years a modern bridge was built 50 metres to the south to bypass it. The Pont Flavien is now reserved for pedestrian use only. In 1977, prior to the landscaping of the surrounding area, an archaeological excavation was carried out by the Antiquités Historiques de Provence under the direction of Anne Roth Congés. List of Roman bridges Roman architecture Roman engineeringPont Flavien on Youtube Media related to Pont Flavien at Wikimedia Commons Pont Flavien at Structurae "Pont Flavien". Brueckenweb.de
Pyotr Alexandrovich Chikhachyov, last name spelled Chikhachev or Tchihatchev was a Russian naturalist and geologist, admitted into the Russian Academy of Sciences in 1876 as an honorary member. He authored geographical and geological descriptions of the Altai and Asia Minor. One of the Altai mountain ranges is named after him, he was born in the Large Gatchina palace, the summer residence of the dowager empress Maria Fyodorovna. His father was a retired colonel of the Preobrazhensky regiment. Getting home education in Tsarskoye Selo, under the direction of lyceum professors, Chikhachyov finished his education abroad, attending the lectures of famous geologists and mineralogists, worked in Paris. Not a professional scientist, with sufficient money and scientific preparation, could give himself up to his interest in scientific expeditions and research; these produced essential scientific results, due to the observation of their author and careful treatment of the scientific material collected during expeditions, to which Chikhachyov attracted prominent specialists in different fields.
Chikhachyov's independent scientific activity began in 1841, when he published geological descriptions of Monte Gargano in South Italy and the environs of city of Nice. In 1842, he published a geological description of the southern provinces of the Neapolitan kingdom. In the same year he took charge of a large expedition to the Altai, he reached the sources of the rivers Abakan and Chulyshman. Traveling across the Southern Altai, Chikhachyov reached, he investigated the Sayan Mountains, about which the most fantastic stories were told, not only in Western Europe but in Russia. In the Northern Altai he found the richest coal deposits in the world, which he called the Kuznetsk Coal Basin, he studied the culture and customs of various nomadic and settled tribes of this region. In 1845, he published a voluminous work about Altai, entitled Voyage scientifique dans l'Altai Oriental et les parties adjacentes de la frontière de Chine, presented a report on his Siberian explorations and the results of study of the collected material.
Chikhachyov soon began a comprehensive study of Asia Minor, to which he devoted twenty years of his life. After the Altai trip, he became the attaché of the Russian embassy in Constantinople, he took advantage of his two-year stay there to study Turkish, leaving the diplomatic service, undertook during 1847-1863 a series of expeditions in Asia Minor, during which he made extensive scientific researches and collections. The results were published by Chikhachyov in an enormous work, Asie Mineure: Description physique, statistique et archéologique de cette contrée; this work, embracing the geography, climatology, zoology and paleontology of Asia Minor, represents the classic work of Chikhachyov in cooperation with numerous experts on different branches of the natural sciences. After completing his Asia Minor researches, Chikhachyov ended his great travels and expeditions, having reached old age, but did not stop scientific work. In early 1878, at the age of 71, he visited Algeria and Tunis, in 1880 he published a description of his travel under the title Espagne, Algérie et Tunisie.
Besides his geographical and natural-historical works, Chikhachyov published a number of political works on the Eastern Question. In 1890, he published a few natural-scientific articles under the title Etudes de géographie et d'histoire naturelle; these represent fragments from what Chikhachyov conceived as a large scientific work on the world's deserts which he did not have time to finish, dying in 1890 of pneumonia. In encouragement of travelers across Asia, Chikhachyov left to the French Academy of Sciences the sum of 100,000 francs. A mountain range in Altai near the border of Russia and Kazakhstan is named after him. Aside from the above-mentioned books, his publications include Le Bosphore et Constantinople and Considérations géologiques sur les îles Océaniques. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Tchihatcheff, Pierre Alexandrowitsch de". Encyclopædia Britannica. 26. Cambridge University Press. Khronos biography
An emperor is a monarch, the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife, mother, or a woman who rules in her own right. Emperors are recognized to be of a higher honour and rank than kings. In Europe, the title of Emperor has been used since the Middle Ages, considered in those times equal or equal in dignity to that of Pope due to the latter's position as visible head of the Church and spiritual leader of the Catholic part of Western Europe; the Emperor of Japan is the only reigning monarch whose title is translated into English as Emperor. Both emperors and kings are monarchs, but emperor and empress are considered the higher monarchical titles. Inasmuch as there is a strict definition of emperor, it is that an emperor has no relations implying the superiority of any other ruler and rules over more than one nation, therefore a king might be obliged to pay tribute to another ruler, or be restrained in his actions in some unequal fashion, but an emperor should in theory be free of such restraints.
However, monarchs heading empires have not always used the title in all contexts—the British sovereign did not assume the title Empress of the British Empire during the incorporation of India, though she was declared Empress of India. In Western Europe, the title of Emperor was used by the Holy Roman Emperor, whose imperial authority was derived from the concept of translatio imperii, i.e. they claimed succession to the authority of the Western Roman Emperors, thus linking themselves to Roman institutions and traditions as part of state ideology. Although ruling much of Central Europe and northern Italy, by the 19th century the Emperor exercised little power beyond the German-speaking states. Although technically an elective title, by the late 16th century the imperial title had in practice come to be inherited by the Habsburg Archdukes of Austria and following the Thirty Years' War their control over the states had become nearly non-existent. However, Napoleon Bonaparte was crowned Emperor of the French in 1804 and was shortly followed by Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, who declared himself Emperor of Austria in the same year.
The position of Holy Roman Emperor nonetheless continued until Francis II abdicated that position in 1806. In Eastern Europe, the monarchs of Russia used translatio imperii to wield imperial authority as successors to the Eastern Roman Empire, their status was recognised by the Holy Roman Emperor in 1514, although not used by the Russian monarchs until 1547. However, the Russian emperors are better known by their Russian-language title of Tsar after Peter the Great adopted the title of Emperor of All Russia in 1721. Historians have liberally used emperor and empire anachronistically and out of its Roman and European context to describe any large state from the past or the present; such pre-Roman titles as Great King or King of Kings, used by the Kings of Persia and others, are considered as the equivalent. Sometimes this reference has extended to non-monarchically ruled states and their spheres of influence such as the Athenian Empire of the late 5th century BC, the Angevin Empire of the Plantagenets and the Soviet and American "empires" of the Cold War era.
However, such "empires" did not need to be headed by an "emperor". Empire became identified instead with vast territorial holdings rather than the title of its ruler by the mid-18th century. For purposes of protocol, emperors were once given precedence over kings in international diplomatic relations, but precedence amongst heads of state who are sovereigns—whether they be kings, emperors, princes, princesses and to a lesser degree presidents—is determined by the duration of time that each one has been continuously in office. Outside the European context, emperor was the translation given to holders of titles who were accorded the same precedence as European emperors in diplomatic terms. In reciprocity, these rulers might accredit equal titles in their native languages to their European peers. Through centuries of international convention, this has become the dominant rule to identifying an emperor in the modern era. In the Roman tradition a large variety in the meaning and importance of the imperial form of monarchy developed: in intention it was always the highest office, but it could as well fall down to a redundant title for nobility that had never been near to the "Empire" they were supposed to be reigning.
The name of the position split in several branches of Western tradition, see below. The importance and meaning of coronation ceremonies and regalia varied within the tradition: for instance Holy Roman Emperors could only be crowned emperor by the Pope, which meant the coronation ceremony took place in Rome several years after these emperors had ascended to the throne in their home country; the first Latin Emperors of Constantinople on the other hand had to be present in the newly conquered capital of their empire, because, the only place where they could be granted to become emperor. Early Roman Emperors avoided any type of ceremony or regalia different from what was usual for republican offices in the Roman Republic: the most intrusive change had been changing the color of their robe to purple. New symbols of worldly and/or spiritual power, like the orb, became an essential part of the imperial accessories. Rules for indicating successors varied: there was a tendency towards male inheritance of the supreme o
The Pons Fabricius or Ponte dei Quattro Capi, is the oldest Roman bridge in Rome, still existing in its original state. Built in 62 BC, it spans half of the Tiber River, from the Campus Martius on the east side to Tiber Island in the middle. Quattro Capi refers to the two marble pillars of the two-faced Janus herms on the parapet, which were moved here from the nearby Church of St Gregory in the 14th century. According to Dio Cassius, the bridge was built in 62 BC, the year after Cicero was consul, to replace an earlier wooden bridge destroyed by fire, it was commissioned by Lucius Fabricius, the curator of the roads and a member of the gens Fabricia of Rome. Intact from Roman antiquity, it has been in continuous use since; the Pons Fabricius has a length of 62 m, is 5.5 m wide. It is constructed from two wide arches, supported by a central pillar in the middle of the stream, its core is constructed of tuff. Its outer facing today is made of bricks and travertine. An original inscription on the travertine commemorates its builder in Latin: L. FABRICIVS.
C. F. CVR. VIAR | FACIVNDVM. COERAVIT | IDEMQVE | PROBAVIT, it is repeated four times, once on each side of each arch. A inscription, in smaller lettering, records that the bridge was restored under Pope Innocent XI in 1679. List of Roman bridges Roman architecture Roman engineering O’Connor, Roman Bridges, Cambridge University Press, p. 66, ISBN 0-521-39326-4 Media related to Ponte Fabricio at Wikimedia Commons LacusCurtius: Pons Fabricius Pons Fabricius at Structurae The Waters of Rome: Tiber River Bridges and the Development of the Ancient City of Rome Tiber Island information Ponte Fabricio
The Ottoman Empire known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire; the Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror. During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of Africa. At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained numerous vassal states; some of these were absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.
With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians; the empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy and military throughout the 17th and much of the 18th century. However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian empires; the Ottomans suffered severe military defeats in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, which prompted them to initiate a comprehensive process of reform and modernisation known as the Tanzimat. Thus, over the course of the 19th century, the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organised, despite suffering further territorial losses in the Balkans, where a number of new states emerged.
The empire allied with Germany in the early 20th century, hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation which had contributed to its recent territorial losses, thus joined World War I on the side of the Central Powers. While the Empire was able to hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent with the Arab Revolt in its Arabian holdings. During this time, atrocities were committed by the Young Turk government against the Armenians and Pontic Greeks; the Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France. The successful Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy; the word Ottoman is a historical anglicisation of the name of Osman I, the founder of the Empire and of the ruling House of Osman.
Osman's name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān. In Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı Devleti; the Turkish word for "Ottoman" referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, subsequently came to be used to refer to the empire's military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term "Turk" was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, was seen as a disparaging term when applied to urban, educated individuals. In the early modern period, an educated urban-dwelling Turkish-speaker, not a member of the military-administrative class would refer to himself neither as an Osmanlı nor as a Türk, but rather as a Rūmī, or "Roman", meaning an inhabitant of the territory of the former Byzantine Empire in the Balkans and Anatolia; the term Rūmī was used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond.
In Western Europe, the two names "Ottoman Empire" and "Turkey" were used interchangeably, with "Turkey" being favoured both in formal and informal situations. This dichotomy was ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name. Most scholarly historians avoid the terms "Turkey", "Turks", "Turkish" when referring to the Ottomans, due to the empire's multinational character; as the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman I, a figure of obscure origins from whom the name Ottoman is derived. Osman's early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River.
It is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their
Mysia was a region in the northwest of ancient Asia Minor. It was located on the south coast of the Sea of Marmara, it was bounded by Bithynia on the east, Phrygia on the southeast, Lydia on the south, Aeolis on the southwest, Troad on the west and by the Propontis on the north. In ancient times it was inhabited by the Mysians, Aeolian Greeks and other groups; the precise limits of Mysia are difficult to assign. The Phrygian frontier was fluctuating, while in the northwest the Troad was only sometimes included in Mysia; the northern portion was known as "Lesser Phrygia" or, while the southern was called "Greater Phrygia" or "Pergamene Phrygia". Mysia was in times known as Hellespontine Phrygia or "Acquired Phrygia", so named by the Attalids when they annexed the region to the Kingdom of Pergamon. Under Augustus, Mysia occupied the whole of the northwest corner of Asia Minor, between the Hellespont and the Propontis to the north and Phrygia to the east, Lydia to the south, the Aegean Sea to the west.
The chief physical features of Mysia are the two mountains—Mount Olympus at in the north and Mount Temnus in the south, which for some distance separates Mysia from Lydia and is afterwards prolonged through Mysia to the neighbourhood of the Gulf of Adramyttium. The major rivers in the northern part of the province are the Macestus and its tributary the Rhyndacus, both of which rise in Phrygia and, after diverging through Mysia, unite their waters below the lake of Apolloniatis about 15 miles from the Propontis; the Caïcus in the south rises in Temnus, from thence flows westward to the Aegean Sea, passing within a few miles of Pergamon. In the northern portion of the province are two considerable lakes, Artynia or Apolloniatis and Aphnitis, which discharge their waters into the Macestus from the east and west respectively; the most important cities were Pergamon in the valley of the Caïcus, Cyzicus on the Propontis. The whole sea-coast was studded with Greek towns, several of which were places of considerable importance.
Further south, on the Eleatic Gulf, were Elaea and Cyme. A minor episode in the Trojan War cycle in Greek mythology has the Greek fleet land at Mysia, mistaking it for Troy. Achilles wounds their king, after he slays a Greek; this coastal region ruled by Telephus is alternatively named "Teuthrania" in Greek mythology, as it was ruled by King Teuthras. In the Iliad, Homer represents the Mysians as allies of Troy, with the Mysian forces led by Ennomus and Chromius, sons of Arsinous. Homeric Mysia appears to have been much smaller in extent than historical Mysia, did not extend north to the Hellespont or the Propontis. Homer does not mention any cities or landmarks in Mysia, it is not clear where Homeric Mysia was situated, although it was located somewhere between the Troad and Lydia/Maeonia. A number of Mysian inscriptions have survived in a dialect of the Phrygian language, written using a variant of the Phrygian alphabet. There are a small number of references to a Lutescan language indigenous to Mysia in Aeolic Greek sources.
Under the Persian Achaemenid Empire, the northwest corner of Asia Minor, still occupied by Phrygians but by Aeolians, was called "Phrygia Minor" - and by the Greeks "Hellespontos". After Rome's defeat of Antiochus the Great in the Roman-Syrian War of 192 to 188 BC, the area, held by the Diadoch Seleucid Empire, passed to Rome's ally, the kingdom of Pergamon, and, on the death of King Attalus III of Pergamon in 133 BC, to Rome itself, which made it part of the province of Asia and a separate proconsular Roman province, called "Hellespontus". According to the Acts of the Apostles, the apostles Paul and Timothy came to Mysia during Paul's second missionary journey; the narrative suggests that they were uncertain where to travel during this part of the journey, being "forbidden by the Holy Spirit to preach the word in Asia". Shortly afterwards Paul had a vision of a "man of Macedonia" who invited the apostles to travel westwards to Macedonia; the remains of several Roman bridges can still be found: Aesepus Bridge across the Aesepus Constantine's Bridge across the Rhyndacus Makestos Bridge across the Makestos White Bridge across the Granicus Ancient regions of Anatolia Mysians Mysian language Telephus Aeolis