Arkansas is a state in the southern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2018. Its name is of Siouan derivation from the language of the Osage denoting their related kin, the Quapaw Indians; the state's diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U. S. Interior Highlands, to the densely forested land in the south known as the Arkansas Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River and the Arkansas Delta. Arkansas is the 33rd most populous of the 50 United States; the capital and most populous city is Little Rock, located in the central portion of the state, a hub for transportation, business and government. The northwestern corner of the state, such as the Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Area and Fort Smith metropolitan area, is a population and economic center; the largest city in the state's eastern part is Jonesboro. The largest city in the state's southeastern part is Pine Bluff.
The Territory of Arkansas was admitted to the Union as the 25th state on June 15, 1836. In 1861, Arkansas withdrew from the United States and joined the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. On returning to the Union in 1868, the state continued to suffer due to its earlier reliance on slavery and the plantation economy, causing the state to fall behind economically and socially. White rural interests continued to dominate the state's politics until the civil rights movement. Arkansas began to diversify its economy following World War II and relies on its service industry, poultry, tourism and rice; the culture of Arkansas is observable in museums, novels, television shows and athletic venues across the state. People such as politician and educational advocate William Fulbright; the name Arkansas was applied to the Arkansas River and derives from a French term, the plural term for Quapaws, a Dhegiha Siouan-speaking Native American people who settled in Arkansas around the 13th century.
This comes from an Algonquian term, /akansa/, for the Quapaws, is also the root term for Kansas. The name has been spelled in a variety of fashions. In 1881, the pronunciation of Arkansas with the final "s" being silent was made official by an act of the state legislature after a dispute arose between Arkansas's two U. S. senators as one favored the pronunciation as AR-kən-saw while the other favored ar-KAN-zəs. In 2007, the state legislature passed a non-binding resolution declaring that the possessive form of the state's name is Arkansas's, followed by the state government. Arkansas borders Louisiana to the south, Texas to the southwest, Oklahoma to the west, Missouri to the north, Tennessee and Mississippi to the east; the United States Census Bureau classifies Arkansas as a southern state, sub-categorized among the West South Central States. The Mississippi River forms most of Arkansas's eastern border, except in Clay and Greene, counties where the St. Francis River forms the western boundary of the Missouri Bootheel, in many places where the channel of the Mississippi has meandered from its original 1836 course.
Arkansas can be split into two halves, the highlands in the northwest half and the lowlands of the southeastern half. The highlands are part of the Southern Interior Highlands, including The Ozarks and the Ouachita Mountains; the southern lowlands include the Arkansas Delta. This dual split can yield to general regions named northwest, northeast, southeast, or central Arkansas; these directionally named regions are broad and not defined along county lines. Arkansas has seven distinct natural regions: the Ozark Mountains, Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas River Valley, Gulf Coastal Plain, Crowley's Ridge, the Arkansas Delta, with Central Arkansas sometimes included as a blend of multiple regions; the southeastern part of Arkansas along the Mississippi Alluvial Plain is sometimes called the Arkansas Delta. This region is a flat landscape of rich alluvial soils formed by repeated flooding of the adjacent Mississippi. Farther away from the river, in the southeast portion of the state, the Grand Prairie consists of a more undulating landscape.
Both are fertile agricultural areas. The Delta region is bisected by a geological formation known as Crowley's Ridge. A narrow band of rolling hills, Crowley's Ridge rises from 250 to 500 feet above the surrounding alluvial plain and underlies many of the major towns of eastern Arkansas. Northwest Arkansas is part of the Ozark Plateau including the Ozark Mountains, to the south are the Ouachita Mountains, these regions are divided by the Arkansas River; these mountain ranges are part of the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains; the highest point in the state is Mount Magazine in the Ouachita Mountains, which rises to 2,753 feet above sea level. Arkansas has many rivers and reservoirs within or along its borders. Major tributaries of the Mississippi River include the Arkansas River, the White River, the St. Francis River; the Arkansas is fed by the Mulberry River and the Fou
Hugh Lawson White
Hugh Lawson White was a prominent American politician during the first third of the 19th century. After filling in several posts in Tennessee's judiciary and state legislature since 1801, thereunder as a Tennessee Supreme Court justice, he was chosen to succeed former presidential candidate Andrew Jackson in the United States Senate in 1825 and became a member of the new Democratic Party, supporting Jackson's policies and his future presidential administration. However, he left the Democrats in 1836 and was a Whig candidate in that year's presidential election. An ardent strict constructionist and lifelong states' rights advocate, White was one of President Jackson's most trusted allies in Congress in the late 1820s and early 1830s. White fought against the national bank and the use of federal funds for internal improvements, led efforts in the Senate to pass the Indian Removal Act of 1830. In 1833, at the height of the Nullification Crisis, White, as the Senate's president pro tempore, coordinated negotiations over the Tariff of 1833.
Suspicious of the growing power of the presidency, White began to distance himself from Jackson in the mid-1830s, realigned himself with Henry Clay and the burgeoning Whig Party. He was forced out of the Senate when Jackson's allies, led by James K. Polk, gained control of the Tennessee state legislature and demanded his resignation. White was born in what is now Iredell County, North Carolina, the eldest son of James White and Mary Lawson White. James, a Revolutionary War veteran, moved his family to the Tennessee frontier in the 1780s, played an active role in the failed State of Franklin. In 1786, he constructed White's Fort, which would develop into Knoxville, Tennessee. Young Hugh was a sentinel at the fort, helped manage its small gristmill. In 1791, White's Fort was chosen as the capital of the newly created Southwest Territory, James White's friend, William Blount, was appointed governor of the territory. Hugh Lawson White worked as Blount's personal secretary, was tutored by early Knoxville minister and educator, Samuel Carrick.
In 1793, he fought in the territorial militia under John Sevier during the Cherokee–American wars. Historian J. G. M. Ramsey credited Hugh Lawson White's company with the killing of the Chickamauga Cherokee war chief, King Fisher, White's granddaughter and biographer, Nancy Scott, stated that White fired the fatal shot. White studied law in Lancaster, under James Hopkins, was admitted to the bar in 1796. Two years he married Elizabeth Carrick, the daughter of his mentor, Samuel. In 1801, White was appointed judge of the Superior Court of Tennessee the state's highest court. In 1807, he resigned after being elected to the state legislature, he left the state legislature in 1809, following his appointment to the state's Court of Errors and Appeals. He resigned this position in 1815, he served in the state senate until 1817. As a state legislator, White helped reform the state's land laws, engineered the passage of an anti-dueling measure. In 1812, White was named president of the Knoxville branch of the Bank of Tennessee.
White was described as a cautious banker, his bank was one of the few in the state to survive the Panic of 1819. In 1821, President James Monroe appointed White to a commission to settle claims against Spain, following the Adams-Onís Treaty in which that nation sold Florida to the United States. In 1825, the Tennessee state legislature chose White to replace Andrew Jackson in the United States Senate. White spearheaded the Southern states' opposition to sending delegates to the 1826 Congress of Panama, a general gathering of various nations in the Western Hemisphere, many of which had declared their independence from Spain and abolished slavery. White argued that if the U. S. attended the congress, it would violate the commitment to neutrality put forth by President Washington decades earlier, stated that the nation should not get involved in foreign treaties for the sake of "gratifying national vanity."Following Jackson's election to the presidency in 1828, White became one of the Jackson Administration's key congressional allies.
White was chairman of the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs, which drew up the Indian Removal Act of 1830, a major initiative of Jackson. The act called for the relocation of the remaining Native American tribes in the southeastern United States to territories west of the Mississippi River, would culminate in the so-called Trail of Tears. In an 1836 speech, White described himself as a "strict constructionist," arguing that the federal government could not pass any laws outside its powers stated in the Constitution. Like many Jacksonians, he was a staunch states' rights advocate, he opposed the national bank, rejected federal funding for internal improvements. He supported Jackson's call for the elimination of the Electoral College, opposed federal intervention into the issue of slavery. Like most Southern senators, White opposed the Tariff of 1828, which placed a high tax on goods imported from overseas to protect growing northern industries. White argued that while the federal government had the power to impose tariffs, it should only do so when it benefited the nation as a whole, not one section at the expense of another.
During the resulting Nullification Crisis in late 1832 and early 1833, as the Senate's pres
President of the United States
The president of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. In contemporary times, the president is looked upon as one of the world's most powerful political figures as the leader of the only remaining global superpower; the role includes responsibility for the world's most expensive military, which has the second largest nuclear arsenal. The president leads the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP; the president possesses international hard and soft power. Article II of the Constitution establishes the executive branch of the federal government, it vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The power includes the execution and enforcement of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal executive, diplomatic and judicial officers, concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances. The president directs the foreign and domestic policies of the United States, takes an active role in promoting his policy priorities to members of Congress. In addition, as part of the system of checks and balances, Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution gives the president the power to sign or veto federal legislation; the power of the presidency has grown since its formation, as has the power of the federal government as a whole. Through the Electoral College, registered voters indirectly elect the president and vice president to a four-year term; this is the only federal election in the United States, not decided by popular vote. Nine vice presidents became president by virtue of a president's intra-term resignation. Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 sets three qualifications for holding the presidency: natural-born U. S. citizenship.
The Twenty-second Amendment precludes any person from being elected president to a third term. In all, 44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms, so he is counted twice, as both the 22nd and 24th president. Donald Trump of New York is the current president of the United States, he assumed office on January 20, 2017. In July 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, the Thirteen Colonies, acting jointly through the Second Continental Congress, declared themselves to be 13 independent sovereign states, no longer under British rule. Recognizing the necessity of coordinating their efforts against the British, the Continental Congress began the process of drafting a constitution that would bind the states together. There were long debates on a number of issues, including representation and voting, the exact powers to be given the central government. Congress finished work on the Articles of Confederation to establish a perpetual union between the states in November 1777 and sent it to the states for ratification.
Under the Articles, which took effect on March 1, 1781, the Congress of the Confederation was a central political authority without any legislative power. It could make its own resolutions and regulations, but not any laws, could not impose any taxes or enforce local commercial regulations upon its citizens; this institutional design reflected how Americans believed the deposed British system of Crown and Parliament ought to have functioned with respect to the royal dominion: a superintending body for matters that concerned the entire empire. The states were out from under any monarchy and assigned some royal prerogatives to Congress; the members of Congress elected a President of the United States in Congress Assembled to preside over its deliberation as a neutral discussion moderator. Unrelated to and quite dissimilar from the office of President of the United States, it was a ceremonial position without much influence. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies.
With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. By 1786, Americans found their continental borders besieged and weak and their respective economies in crises as neighboring states agitated trade rivalries with one another, they witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their Mediterranean commerce preyed upon by North African pirates, their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest. Civil and political unrest loomed. Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in 1785, Virginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September 1786 in Annapolis, with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms; when the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other states, Alexander Hamilton led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in Philadelphia.
Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washington's attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. When the Constitutional Convention convened in May 1787, the 12 state delegations in attendance (Rh
Real estate is "property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water. Also: the business of real estate, it is a legal term used in jurisdictions whose legal system is derived from English common law, such as India, Wales, Northern Ireland, United States, Pakistan and New Zealand. Residential real estate may contain either a single family or multifamily structure, available for occupation or for non-business purposes. Residences can be classified by. Different types of housing tenure can be used for the same physical type. For example, connected residences might be owned by a single entity and leased out, or owned separately with an agreement covering the relationship between units and common areas and concerns. Major categoriesAttached / multi-unit dwellings Apartment or Flat – An individual unit in a multi-unit building; the boundaries of the apartment are defined by a perimeter of locked or lockable doors. Seen in multi-story apartment buildings.
Multi-family house – Often seen in multi-story detached buildings, where each floor is a separate apartment or unit. Terraced house – A number of single or multi-unit buildings in a continuous row with shared walls and no intervening space. Condominium – A building or complex, similar to apartments, owned by individuals. Common grounds and common areas within the complex are shared jointly. In North America, there are rowhouse style condominiums as well; the British equivalent is a block of flats. Cooperative – A type of multiple ownership in which the residents of a multi-unit housing complex own shares in the cooperative corporation that owns the property, giving each resident the right to occupy a specific apartment or unit. Semi-detached dwellings Duplex – Two units with one shared wall. Detached dwellings Detached house or single-family detached house Portable dwellings Mobile homes or residential caravans – A full-time residence that can be movable on wheels. Houseboats – A floating home Tents – Usually temporary, with roof and walls consisting only of fabric-like material.
The size of an apartment or house can be described in square meters. In the United States, this includes the area of "living space", excluding the garage and other non-living spaces; the "square meters" figure of a house in Europe may report the total area of the walls enclosing the home, thus including any attached garage and non-living spaces, which makes it important to inquire what kind of surface area definition has been used. It can be described more by the number of rooms. A studio apartment has a single bedroom with no living room. A one-bedroom apartment has a dining room separate from the bedroom. Two bedroom, three bedroom, larger units are common. Other categoriesChawls Villas HavelisThe size of these is measured in Gaz, Marla and acre. See List of house types for a complete listing of housing types and layouts, real estate trends for shifts in the market, house or home for more general information, it is common practice for an intermediary to provide real estate owners with dedicated sales and marketing support in exchange for commission.
In North America, this intermediary is referred to as a real estate broker, or a real estate agent in everyday conversation, whilst in the United Kingdom, the intermediary would be referred to as an estate agent. In Australia the intermediary is referred to as a real estate agent or real estate representative or the agent
U.S. Route 167
U. S. Route 167 runs for 500 miles from Ash Flat, Arkansas at U. S. Route 62/US Route 412 to Abbeville, Louisiana at Louisiana Highway 14, it goes through the cities of Little Rock, Alexandria and Lafayette, Louisiana. Some of the highway's route parallels Interstate 49 in Louisiana. Between Junction City, AR and Ruston, LA, U. S. 167 runs concurrent with U. S. 63. U. S. Highway 167 in Louisiana runs 241.05 miles in a north–south direction from the national southern terminus at Louisiana Highway 14 Business in Abbeville to the Arkansas state line at Junction City. The route cuts through the center of Louisiana for its entire length and passes through two of the state's metropolitan areas and Alexandria. Between those cities, US 167 ranges in character from an urban freeway to a traveled two-lane collector. During this stretch, it overlaps the southern 23 miles of Interstate 49 from Lafayette through Opelousas before making a diversion through rural Evangeline Parish to serve the small city of Ville Platte.
US 167 follows a combination of I-49 and the Pineville Expressway through Alexandria and Pineville, crossing the Red River via the twin-span Purple Heart Memorial Bridge. US 167 remains a surface four-lane highway through northern Louisiana and is the primary north–south route through Winnfield and Ruston; the northern portion of the route, beginning at the I-20 interchange in Ruston carries the first 35 miles of US 63. On its southern end, US 167 began near Colfax, Louisiana when designated as one of the original numbered U. S. Highways in 1926. However, the route was extended to Abbeville in 1949 over a number of existing state highways, more than doubling its length within Louisiana. Since that time, US 167 has experienced several alignment shifts as freeways were constructed in its two urban areas. More all but 40 miles of the route was widened to four lanes as part of the Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development TIMED program. From the south, US 167 begins at an intersection with LA 14 Bus. in the Vermilion Parish city of Abbeville, located in southern Louisiana.
The route heads north on Park Avenue, an undivided four-lane thoroughfare, crosses mainline LA 14. US 167 travels due north from Abbeville and becomes a divided four-lane highway on a wide right-of-way upon entering rural surroundings; the highway will repeat this pattern throughout the majority of its distance in Louisiana. Passing through Maurice, US 167 has a brief concurrency with LA 92; the highway curves to the northeast and crosses into Lafayette Parish. US 167 enters the suburban outgrowth of Lafayette and crosses the city limits just beyond a junction with LA 733; the highway, locally known as Johnston Street, becomes a busy commercial corridor near the Acadiana Mall and intersects several major thoroughfares on the southwest side of town, including LA 3073 and LA 3025. Nearing the downtown area, US 167 passes the University of Louisiana at Lafayette, located at a junction with US 90 Bus./LA 182. The route turns northwest onto the Evangeline Thruway, a one-way pair, overlaps US 90 for about ten blocks.
This short stretch represents the only non-freeway six-lane portion of US 167 in Louisiana. On the north side of town, the highway passes through a cloverleaf interchange with I-10 at exit 103, connecting with Baton Rouge to the east and Lake Charles to the west; this interchange marks the southern terminus of I-49. US 167 utilizes the alignment of I-49 for the next 23 miles; the freeway carries six lanes of traffic but narrows to four through lanes. The highway crosses from Lafayette into Carencro at exit 2, which connects to LA 98. Carencro proper is served by exit 4, connecting with LA 726. North of Carencro, I-49/US 167 intersects the parallel LA 182 before crossing into St. Landry Parish. In St. Landry Parish, the freeway cuts through the adjacent communities of Sunset and Grand Coteau, served by exit 11 to LA 93. Further north, the route skirts the eastern edge of the city of Opelousas, accessed by exit 18 to LA 31 and exit 19 to US 190. US 167 departs from the alignment of I-49 at the next exit and heads west through a point known as Nuba and a junction with LA 10 and LA 182.
Narrowing to an undivided two-lane highway, US 167 travels northwest, overlapping LA 10 into Evangeline Parish. Here, the highway enters the city of Ville Platte and diverges onto the one-way pair of LaSalle and Main Streets through the center of town. During this stretch, US 167 intersects and overlaps LA 29. After narrowing to two lanes again, US 167 turns due north at the western edge of Ville Platte and separates from LA 10; the highway passes to the east of Millers Lake and through an area known as Bayou Chicot, where it intersects LA 106. A few miles US 167 reaches a T-intersection with LA 13 in Turkey Creek. US 167 turns north to continue the path of LA 13 and travels several miles through a sparsely populated area. US 167 crosses into Rapides Parish just north of Clearwater and crosses under I-49 at exit 61. Soon afterward, it reaches a T-intersection with US 71 near Meeker and departs from the last stretch of two-lane pavement along its route. US 167 turns northwest and follows the alignment of US 71 alongside the Union Pacific Railroad line for the next 13 miles through Lecompte and Chambers.
In Chambers, the highway passes the Louisiana State University at Alexandria, located about four miles south of the Alexandria city limits. Upon entering
Jackson County, Arkansas
Jackson County is located in the Arkansas Delta in the U. S. state of Arkansas. The county is named for Andrew Jackson, a national hero during the War of 1812. By the county's formation in 1829, Jackson had become the seventh President of the United States. Jackson County is home to seven incorporated towns and four incorporated cities, including Newport, the largest city and county seat; the county is the site of numerous unincorporated communities and ghost towns. Occupying 633.94 square miles, Jackson County is the 41st largest county of the 75 in Arkansas. As of the 2010 Census, the county's population is 17,997 people in 7,601 households. Based on population, the county is the 40th-largest county in Arkansas. Although terrain rises in the west, most of Jackson County is within the Arkansas Delta, characterized by flat terrain with fertile soils. Covered in forest and swamps, the area was cleared for agriculture by early settlers, it is drained by the White River. Although no Interstate highways are located in Jackson County, two United States highways and fifteen Arkansas state highways run in the county.
A Union Pacific Railroad line crosses the county. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 642 square miles, of which 634 square miles is land and 7.6 square miles is water. Lawrence County Craighead County Poinsett County Cross County Woodruff County White County Independence County Cache River National Wildlife Refuge As of the 2000 census, there were 18,418 people, 6,971 households, 4,830 families residing in the county; the population density was 29 people per square mile. There were 7,956 housing units at an average density of 13 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 80.57% White, 17.56% Black or African American, 0.33% Native American, 0.18% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.40% from other races, 0.95% from two or more races. 1.27% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 6,971 households out of which 27.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.20% were married couples living together, 13.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.70% were non-families.
27.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.92. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.20% under the age of 18, 11.50% from 18 to 24, 26.00% from 25 to 44, 23.80% from 45 to 64, 16.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 91.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $25,081, the median income for a family was $32,661. Males had a median income of $26,744 versus $17,830 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,564. About 13.20% of families and 17.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.00% of those under age 18 and 16.70% of those age 65 or over. The Grimes Unit and the McPherson Unit, prisons of the Arkansas Department of Correction, are located in Newport, off of Arkansas Highway 384, 4 miles east of central Newport.
The prison houses the state’s death row for women. The Jackson County Sheriff's Office is the primary county-wide law enforcement agency. Campbell Station Diaz Grubbs Newport Swifton Tuckerman Amagon Beedeville Jacksonport Tupelo Weldon Possum Grape Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county; each township includes unincorporated areas. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships. Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research; each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps and publications. The townships of Jackson County are listed below. Source: Jackson County is represented in the Arkansas State Senate by the Republican Ronald R. Caldwell, a real estate businessman from Wynne in Cross County. List of lakes in Jackson County, Arkansas National Register of Historic Places listings in Jackson County, Arkansas Jackson County official website
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government