United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Habersham County, Georgia
Habersham County is a county located in the northeast corner of the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 43,041; the county seat is Clarkesville. The county was created on December 15, 1818, named for Colonel Joseph Habersham of the Continental Army in the Revolutionary War. Habersham County comprises GA Micropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 279 square miles, of which 277 square miles is land and 2.3 square miles is water. The county includes part of Chattahoochee National Forest; the highest point in the county is a 4,400-foot knob less than 700 feet southeast of the top of Tray Mountain, the seventh-highest mountain in Georgia. Habersham shares this portion of Tray Mountain, just 30 vertical feet shy of the peak's 4,430-foot summit, with White County to the west and Towns County to the north. 2.4 miles to the northeast of Tray Mountain is Young Lick. The Appalachian Trail runs along the top of the high ridge between Young Lick and Tray, a part of the Blue Ridge Mountain crest.
Habersham is located in the Upper Chattahoochee River sub-basin of the ACF River Basin, with the northeastern corner of the county located in the Tugaloo River sub-basin in the larger Savannah River basin, the southeastern portion located in the Broad River sub-basin of the same Savannah River basin. The Chattahoochee River rises in what used to be Habersham County, as portrayed in Sidney Lanier's poem "Song of the Chattahoochee": Out of the hills of Habersham, Down the valleys of Hall, I hurry amain to reach the plain, Run the rapid and leap the fall, Split at the rock and together again; the county comprising much of Northeast Georgia, was cut up in the latter half of the 19th century and the first years of the 20th century. In 1857, its most western part was added to Lumpkin County, created in 1832; that same year, the area east of Lumpkin and west of present-day Habersham became White County. In 1859, Banks County was carved from Habersham's southern-most territory. In 1905, Stephens County was formed from parts of Habersham and Banks.
Rabun County - north Oconee County, South Carolina - east Stephens County - east Banks County - south Hall County - southwest White County - west Towns County - northwest Habersham county is served by the Habersham County School District. The Tallulah Falls School is located in Tallulah Falls. Piedmont College and North Georgia Technical College are located in Habersham county; as of the census of 2000, there were 35,902 people, 13,259 households, 9,851 families residing in the county. The population density was 129 people per square mile. There were 14,634 housing units at an average density of 53 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 88.88% White, 4.48% Black or African American, 1.89% Asian, 0.29% Native American, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 2.99% from other races, 1.36% from two or more races. 7.66% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 13,259 households out of which 32.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.90% were married couples living together, 9.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.70% were non-families.
22.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 2.98. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.50% under the age of 18, 11.10% from 18 to 24, 28.50% from 25 to 44, 23.10% from 45 to 64, 13.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 105.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,321, the median income for a family was $42,235. Males had a median income of $28,803 versus $23,046 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,706. About 8.80% of families and 12.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.40% of those under age 18 and 15.00% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 43,041 people, 15,472 households, 11,307 families residing in the county.
The population density was 155.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 18,146 housing units at an average density of 65.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 85.7% white, 3.4% black or African American, 2.2% Asian, 0.5% American Indian, 0.2% Pacific islander, 6.3% from other races, 1.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 12.4% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 15.6% were English, 13.9% were Irish, 13.7% were American, 9.9% were German. Of the 15,472 households, 34.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.8% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.9% were non-families, 23.2% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.08. The median age was 38.6 years. The median income for a household in the county was $40,192 and the median income for a family was $49,182. Males had a median income of $35,974 versus $27,971 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $19,286. About 15.7% of families and 19.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.2% of those under age 18 and 12.5% of those age 65 or over. As of 2012, the county is split into 14 voting precincts: North: Batesville, Cool Springs, Fai
Lumpkin County, Georgia
Lumpkin County is a county located in the north central portion of the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 29,966, its county seat is Dahlonega. This area was settled by the Cherokee, who occupied areas of what became delimited as southeastern Tennessee and western North Carolina. Lumpkin County was created on December 3, 1832; the county was named for Wilson Lumpkin. Lumpkin's daughter, Martha Wilson Lumpkin Compton, was the namesake of the town named Marthasville, the early-1840s name for Atlanta in Fulton County. In the 1830s, gold was discovered in the county near Auraria, leading to a rush of miners and development; the U. S. government established a mint in Dahlonega, operating for 23 years until the outbreak of the American Civil War. State contractors acquired gold from Lumpkin County to gild the dome of the current state capitol building in Atlanta. Agriculture and agritourism are top business industries. In addition, vineyards have been developed here and, since the mid-1990s, Lumpkin County has been recognized as "the heart of Georgia wine country."
The county features five licensed wineries, which attract many tourists. In 2015, state senator Steve Gooch introduced Georgia Senate Resolution 125 recognizing Lumpkin County as the Wine Tasting Room Capital of Georgia; the historic Dahlonega Square is a popular destination. It has gift shops, art galleries and artists' studios, additional tasting rooms. Lumpkin County is the home of the U. S. Army's Camp Frank D. Merrill, the base of the 5th Ranger Training Battalion of the U. S. Army Ranger School's mountain phase. Camp Frank D. Merrill is located in the northern end of the county, within the Blue Ridge Wildlife Management Area of the Chattahoochee National Forest. Three veterans' organizations are located in Lumpkin County, to serve the veterans and the community: the Heyward Fields American Legion Post 239, the US Army Mountain Ranger Association, the Lumpkin and White County Veterans of Foreign Wars Post 5533. Lumpkin County has an agency to help veterans, the Lumpkin County Veterans Affairs Advisory Committee.
This group is in charge of the Lumpkin County Veterans Memorial and the twice yearly veterans' memorial crosses, which are installed to line both sides of the major roads in Dahlonega from mid-May through the Fourth of July, again for the month of November. The crosses are adorned with the names of the county's veterans who have died, some in combat, those who returned home and died. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 284 square miles, of which 283 square miles is land and 1.3 square miles is water. The summit of Blood Mountain, which Lumpkin shares with Union County to the north, is the highest point in the county. At 4458 feet, Blood Mountain is the 5th-highest peak in Georgia and the highest point on Georgia's portion of the Appalachian Trail; the western forty percent of Lumpkin County is located in the Etowah River sub-basin of the ACT River Basin, while the eastern sixty percent of the county is located in the Upper Chattahoochee River sub-basin of the ACF River Basin.
Union County – north White County – east Hall County – southeast Dawson County – west Fannin County – northwest Chattahoochee National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 21,016 people, 7,537 households, 5,366 families residing in the county. The population density was 74 people per square mile. There were 8,263 housing units at an average density of 29 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 94.02% White, 1.46% Black or African American, 0.97% Native American, 0.38% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 1.57% from other races, 1.53% from two or more races. 3.46% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 7,537 households out of which 32.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.50% were married couples living together, 9.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.80% were non-families. 22% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.04.
In the county, the population was spread out with 24.30% under the age of 18, 15.40% from 18 to 24, 29.00% from 25 to 44, 21.60% from 45 to 64, 9.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 96.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $39,167, the median income for a family was $46,368. Males had a median income of $31,289 versus $23,955 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,062. About 9.00% of families and 13.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.50% of those under age 18 and 16.30% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 29,966 people, 10,989 households, 7,645 families residing in the county; the population density was 105.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 12,925 housing units at an average density of 45.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 94.4% white, 1.1% black or African American, 0.6% American Indian, 0.5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 1.5% from other races, 1.8% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 4.5% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 17.6% were American, 17.5% were Irish, 15.6% were English, 14.4% were German, 5.0% were Scotch-Irish. Of the 10
ACF River Basin
The ACF River Basin is the drainage basin, or watershed, of the Apalachicola River, Chattahoochee River, Flint River, in the Southeastern United States. This area is alternatively known as the Apalachicola Basin and is listed by the United States Geological Survey as basin HUC 031300, as well as sub-region HUC 0313, it is located in the South Atlantic-Gulf Water Resource Region, listed as HUC 03. The basin is further sub-divided into 14 sub-basins; the ACF River Basin begins in the mountains of northeast Georgia, drains much of metro Atlanta, most of west Georgia and southwest Georgia and adjoining counties of southeast Alabama, before it splits the central part of the Florida Panhandle and flows into the Gulf of Mexico at Apalachicola Bay, near Apalachicola, Florida. It drains an area of 20,355 square miles. Most of the northern half of the basin abuts the Eastern Continental Divide on the east, the ACT River Basin to the west; these states and Alabama have been involved in a water-use dispute for two decades, known as the Tri-state water dispute.
Georgia has lobbied the United States Congress to end navigation on the Appalachicola and lower Chattahoochee, to conserve more water during droughts. Keeping the two rivers at a navigable depth during these times requires large releases from dams upstream, sending potential drinking water downstream for shipping, dropping lakes to levels dangerous to boaters. Other ecological conservation and economic concerns include protecting harvests of oysters in Apalachicola Bay, which require a large enough flow of fresh water to prevent excessive saltwater intrusion from the Gulf. Numerous endangered and imperiled species occur in the basin, including many endemic mussels The cost of dredging silt, much of it from uncontrolled growth across metro Atlanta's fine red clay soil, has been called wasteful to float so little ship traffic. U. S. Army Corps of Engineers: ACF Basin website Florida DEP: Apalachicola River Watershed
Georgia State Route 17
State Route 17 is a 294-mile-long state highway that travels south-to-north through portions of Chatham, Screven, Burke, Warren, McDuffie, Elbert, Franklin, Habersham and Towns counties in the east-central and northeastern parts of the U. S. state of Georgia. The highway connects Interstate 16 in Bloomingdale to the North Carolina state line, northwest of Hiawassee, via Millen, Wrens, Washington, Royston, Toccoa and Hiawassee. SR 17 begins at exit 152 on the westernmost exit for I-16 in Chatham County. SR 17 travels north to Bloomingdale. After entering Effingham County, SR 17 departs US 80/SR 26, continues northwest, paralleling the Ogeechee River through rural parts of Effingham and Jenkins Counties before arriving in Millen. After a short concurrency with SR 23 and SR 67 in Millen, SR 17 continues west northwest, still parallel to the Ogeechee River, to Louisville. SR 17 travels concurrent with US 1/US 221/SR 4 from Louisville north to Wrens. In Wrens, SR 17 continues to the northwest to Thomson.
In Thomson, SR 17 travels concurrent with US 78/SR 10 north to Washington. Just north of Thomson is an interchange with I-20. In Washington, SR 17 intersects US 378, departs the concurrency with US 78/SR 10, before leaving the town. After traveling through Washington, SR 17 travels through the small town of Tignall as it continues into the mountains of northeast Georgia, first passing through Elberton, where it has a short concurrency with SR 72 Bowman, where it intersects SR 172, bypassing the main part of the city of Royston. In Canon, it intersects and begins to travel concurrent with SR 51. In Lavonia, SR 17 goes through downtown before becoming a divided highway as it has a partial cloverleaf interchange with I-85 just north of downtown Lavonia. Afterwards, the divided highway ends, SR 17 continues on its way through rural Stephens County before reaching the city of Toccoa. Southeast of Toccoa, the highway turns to a westerly direction, bypassing the city on another divided highway towards Clarkesville, traveling concurrent with US 123/SR 365 in the process.
Sometime after entering Habersham County, the highway departs northwest, with US 123 ending soon after and SR 365 heading southwest towards the cities of Gainesville and Atlanta. There is a concurrency with SR 115 somewhere around the Clarkesville area. Outside of Clarkesville, the highway continues northwest, traveling through the historic Nacoochee Valley. SR 17 begins a concurrency with SR 75; the highways travel north through the tourist town of Helen. The two highway continue north over Unicoi Gap descend into the Hiawassee River valley. East of the town of Hiawassee, the highways begin a concurrency with US 76/SR 2. In Hiawassee, SR 75 departs to the northeast. A few miles to the west, north-northeast of Young Harris, SR 17 departs US 76/SR 2, begins a short concurrency to the north with SR 515 until they both reach their northern terminus at the North Carolina state line; the road continues into North Carolina as North Carolina Highway 69. The following sections of SR 17 are included as part of the National Highway System, a system of roadways important to the nation's economy and mobility: From Louisville to a point southeast of Clarkesville The concurrency with US 76/SR 2 SR 17 was established at least as early as 1919 from SR 26 in Swainsboro to Warrenton.
It extended from SR 12 in Thomson, with no indication on the 1920 map as to whether it was concurrent with SR 12 between these segments to the South Carolina state line northeast of Toccoa. Between Royston and Toccoa, SR 17 took a more western path, through Canon and Carnesville, than it does today. At this time, an unnumbered road was built from Canon to Toccoa, on the current path of SR 17. SR 2 was built on an alignment from west-northwest of Clayton to west-southwest of Hiawassee. By the end of 1921, SR 17 was proposed to be extended southward through Lyons to Baxley; the Louisville–Gibson segment was shifted eastward to become the Louisville–Wrens segment. This new path was concurrent with SR 24. SR 17 traveled west from Wrens to Gibson and resumed its previous path. SR 17 was indicated to be concurrent with SR 12 between Thomson; the Canon–Carnesville segment was redesignated as part of SR 51. SR 17 was designated on the unnumbered road from Canon to Toccoa; the segment from Toccoa to the South Carolina state line was redesignated as part of SR 13.
An unnumbered road was built from Hiawassee to the North Carolina state line north of that city. By the end of 1926, US 1 was designated on the Swainsboro–Wrens segment, while US 78 was designated on the Thomson–Washington segment. SR 17, concurrent with SR 32, was built from Baxley to Lyons, was built on the Lyons–Swainsboro segment; the Emanuel County portion of the Swainsboro–Louisville segment, as well as the segment of SR 17 and SR 24 from Louisville to Wrens, was under construction. The Jefferson County portion of the Swainsboro–Louisville segment half of the Thomson–Washington segment, a segment just north of Washington, from just south of the Wilkes–Elbert county line to the Elbert–Hart county line, from the Franklin–Stephens county line to Toccoa, from west of Clayton to Hiawassee, had a "sand clay or top soil" surface; the segment in the vicinity of Washington, as well as a longer segment farther north of Washington, had a completed hard surface
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
The Chattahoochee River forms the southern half of the Alabama and Georgia border, as well as a portion of the Florida - Georgia border. It is a tributary of the Apalachicola River, a short river formed by the confluence of the Chattahoochee and Flint rivers and emptying from Florida into Apalachicola Bay in the Gulf of Mexico; the Chattahoochee River is about 430 miles long. The Chattahoochee and Apalachicola rivers together make up the Apalachicola–Chattahoochee–Flint River Basin; the Chattahoochee makes up the largest part of the ACF's drainage basin. The source of the Chattahoochee River is located in Jacks Gap at the southeastern foot of Jacks Knob, in the southeastern corner of Union County, in the southern Blue Ridge Mountains, a subrange of the Appalachian Mountains; the headwaters of the river flow south from ridges. The Appalachian Trail crosses the river's uppermost headwaters; the Chattahoochee's source and upper course lies within Chattahoochee National Forest. From its source in the Blue Ridge Mountains, the Chattahoochee River flows southwesterly to Atlanta and through its suburbs.
It turns due-south to form the southern half of the Georgia/Alabama state line. Flowing through a series of reservoirs and artificial lakes, it flows by Columbus, the second-largest city in Georgia, the Fort Benning Army base. At Columbus, it crosses the Fall Line of the eastern United States. From Lake Oliver to Fort Benning, the Chattahoochee Riverwalk provides cycling and walking along 15 miles of the river's banks. Farther south, it merges with the Flint River and other tributaries at Lake Seminole near Bainbridge, to form the Apalachicola River that flows into the Florida Panhandle. Although the same river, this portion was given a different name by separated settlers in different regions during the colonial times; the name Chattahoochee is thought to come from a Muskogean word meaning "rocks-marked", from chato plus huchi. This refers to the many colorful granite outcroppings along the northeast-to-southwest segment of the river. Much of that segment of the river runs through the Brevard fault zone.
A local Georgia nickname for the Chattahoochee River is "The Hooch". The vicinity of the Chattahoochee River was inhabited in prehistoric times by indigenous peoples since at least 1000 BC; the Kolomoki Mounds, now protected in the Kolomoki Mounds Historic Park near present-day Blakely in Early County in southwest Georgia, were built from 350 AD to 650 AD and constitute the largest mound complex in the state. Among the historical Indigenous nations, the Chattahoochee served as a dividing line between the Muscogee and the Cherokee territories in the Southeast; the Chattahoochee River became the dividing point for the Creek Confederacy, which straddled the river and became known as the Upper Creek Red Sticks and the Lower Creek White Sticks. The United States accomplished the removal of Native Americans, to extinguish their claims and make way for European-American settlement, through a series of treaties, land lotteries, forced removals lasting from 1820 through 1832; the Muscogee were first removed from the southeastern side of the river, the Cherokee from the northwest.
The Chattahoochee River was of considerable strategic importance during the Atlanta Campaign by Union General William Tecumseh Sherman of the American Civil War. Between the tributaries of Proctor Creek and Nickajack Creek on the Cobb and Fulton county lines in metropolitan Atlanta, are nine remaining fortifications nicknamed "Shoupades" that were part of a defensive line occupied by the Confederate Army in early July 1864. Designed by Confederate Brigadier General Francis A. Shoup, the line became known as Johnston's River Line after Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. A month prior to the Battle of Atlanta, Shoup talked with Johnston on June 18, 1864 about building fortifications. Johnston agreed, Shoup supervised the building of 36 small elevated earth and wooden triangular fortifications, arranged in a sawtooth pattern to maximize the crossfire of defenders. Sherman tried to avoid the Shoupade defenses by crossing the river to the northeast.
The nine remaining Shoupades consist of the earthworks portion of the original earth and wooden structures. Two of the last battles of the war, West Point and Columbus took place at strategically important crossings of the Chattahoochee. Since the nineteenth century, early improvements and alterations to the river were for the purposes of navigation; the river was a major transportation route. In the twentieth century, the United States Congress passed legislation in 1944 and 1945 to improve navigation for commercial traffic on the river, as well as to establish hydroelectric power and recreational facilities on a series of lakes to be created by building dams and establishing reservoirs. Creating the manmade, 46,000-acre Walter F. George Lake required evacuating numerous communities, including the majority-Native American settlement of Oketeyeconne, Georgia; the lakes were complete in 1963, covering over numerous historic and prehistoric sites of settlement. Beginning in the late twentieth century, the nonprofit organization called "Upper Chattahoochee Riverkeeper" has advocated for the preservation of the environment and ecology of the northern part of the river the part traversing Metropolitan Atlanta.
In 2010, a campaign to create a whitewater river course was launched in the portion of the Chattahoochee River that runs through Columbus, Georgia. Between 2010 and 2013, const