New Haven, Illinois
New Haven is a village in Gallatin County, United States, along the Little Wabash River near its mouth at the Wabash River. The population was 433 at the 2010 United States Census, down from 477 at the 2000 census. Before the New Haven vicinity was settled, it was inhabited by multiple indigenous cultures; some countryside southeast of the village near the Wabash was the location of a village of a Late Woodland people known as the "Duffy Complex". New Haven is located in the northeast corner of Gallatin County at 37°54′26″N 88°7′37″W, it is bordered to the north by White County, the Little Wabash River forms part of the northern border. Illinois Route 141 passes through the northern part of the village, leading east 5 miles to the Indiana border at the Wabash River and 13 miles to Mount Vernon and west 12 miles to U. S. Route 45 northwest of Omaha, Illinois. Shawneetown, the Gallatin County seat, is 17 miles to the south. According to the 2010 census, New Haven has a total area of 1.258 square miles, of which 1.23 square miles is land and 0.028 square miles is water.
At the 2000 census, there were 477 people, 203 households and 138 families residing in the village. The population density was 395.7 per square mile. There were 240 housing units at an average density of 199.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 99.58% White, 0.42% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.05% of the population. There were 203 households of which 28.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.7% were married couples living together, 11.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.0% were non-families. 27.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.90. 23.1% of the population were under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 23.9% from 25 to 44, 28.5% from 45 to 64, 16.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.2 males.
The median household income was $27,083 and the median family income was $29,875. Males had a median income of $25,000 and females $19,500; the per capita income was $12,367. About 20.3% of families and 22.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.8% of those under age 18 and 11.3% of those age 65 or over. 1887. History of Gallatin, Hamilton and Williamson Counties, Illinois. Chicago: Goodspeed Publishing Co. Musgrave, Jon, ed. 2002. Handbook of Old Gallatin County and Southeastern Illinois. Marion, Ill.: IllinoisHistory.com. 464 pages. New Haven https://web.archive.org/web/20020823054622/http://www.lth6.k12.il.us/schools/gallatin/new_haven.htm
Carmi is a city, the county seat of White County, United States, along the Little Wabash River, where the population was 5,422 at the 2000 census. Carmi post office has been in operation since 1817, a WPA oil on canvas mural called Service to the Farmer by Davenport Griffen was first displayed there in 1939. Carmi is a biblical name. According to the 2010 census, Carmi has a total area of 2.531 square miles, of which 2.5 square miles is land and 0.031 square miles is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 5,422 people, 2,390 households, 1,477 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,187.7 people per square mile. There were 2,667 housing units at an average density of 1,076.1/sq mi. The racial makeup of the city was 98.30% White, 0.48% African American, 0.35% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.06% from other races, 0.57% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.65% of the population. There were 2,390 households out of which 23.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.7% were married couples living together, 9.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.2% were non-families.
35.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.16 and the average family size was 2.78. In the city, the population was spread out with 20.4% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 23.7% from 25 to 44, 21.7% from 45 to 64, 25.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 84.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $25,667, the median income for a family was $32,456. Males had a median income of $30,735 versus $16,693 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,886. About 11.7% of families and 15.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.4% of those under age 18 and 11.6% of those age 65 or over. Southeastern Illinois College David L. Stanley White County Center County Community School District #5: Carmi-White County High School - grades 7-12 Carmi-White County Middle School - grades 4-6 Jefferson Attendance Center - grades 2-3 Lincoln Attendance Center - grades K-1 Carmi Christian School WRUL 97.3 FM WROY 1460 AM Carmi Times Carmi Chronicle Little Egypt Erie Canal Soda Pop Festival Carmi Air Force Station http://home.midwest.net/~cbconly/carmi.htm
Equality is a village in Gallatin County, United States. The population was 595 at the 2010 census, down from 721 at the 2000 census. Near the village are two points of interest, the Crenshaw House and the Garden of the Gods Wilderness. Equality was the county seat of Gallatin County from 1826–1851. On Jan. 26, 1826, Equality was established by the General Assembly as the county seat of Gallatin County. The courthouse was built in 1827 for the amount of $1,300.00 dollars. Court was held there until 1851, when all legal documents were removed to Shawneetown, The building was used as a school, church & local society meetings, it was destroyed by fire Nov. 28, 1894. French settlers extracted salt near Equality as early as 1735, while Native Americans made salt here long before then. In 1803, the American Indians ceded their "Great Salt Springs" to the US government by treaty; the government leased the springs, requiring the holder to produce a certain quantity of salt each year or pay a penalty. The salt works is referred to as the "United States Saline" in old documents.
Isaac White was in charge of the salt works in 1811. White volunteered for the Indiana Militia that year, was killed at the Battle of Tippecanoe. Special territorial laws permitted exceptions to anti-slavery treaties at these salines, slaves were used extensively in manufacturing salt; the census of 1820 for Gallatin County listed 239 servants. During the 1820s, Gallatin County included. In 1826, the county seat was moved from Old Shawneetown, on the eastern edge of the county, to the new village of Equality, near the center of what was Gallatin County. Equality remained the county seat until the formation of Saline County in 1847. In 1838, a local salt maker and illegal slave trader kidnapper and illegal slave breeder, John Hart Crenshaw, began building his manor house at Hickory Hill just five miles east of Equality; the Great Salt Springs are located southeast of Equality, on federal land along the south bank of the Saline River, seven-tenths of a mile west of Illinois Route 1 on Salt Well Road.
Half Moon Lick, where the saltworks first developed as a large industry, is on private property southwest of Equality. Equality is located in western Gallatin County at 37°44′11″N 88°20′40″W, on the north side of the Saline River, a southeast-flowing tributary of the Ohio River. According to the 2010 census, Equality has a total area of 0.906 square miles, of which 0.89 square miles is land and 0.016 square miles is water. As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 721 people, 315 households, 206 families residing in the village; the population density was 800.3 people per square mile. There were 333 housing units at an average density of 369.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 99.17% White, 0.14% from other races, 0.69% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.66% of the population. There were 315 households out of which 29.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.5% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.6% were non-families.
32.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.90. In the village, the population was spread out with 24.3% under the age of 18, 6.1% from 18 to 24, 26.4% from 25 to 44, 25.5% from 45 to 64, 17.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 94.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.8 males. The median income for a household in the village was $22,171, the median income for a family was $27,625. Males had a median income of $26,250 versus $18,214 for females; the per capita income for the village was $12,961. About 14.0% of families and 20.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.4% of those under age 18 and 22.3% of those age 65 or over. 1887. History of Gallatin, Hamilton and Williamson Counties, Illinois. Chicago: Goodspeed Publishing Co. 1903 The Salines of Southern Illinois by Professor George W Smith Musgrave, Jon, ed. 2002.
Handbook of Old Gallatin County and Southeastern Illinois. Marion, Ill.: IllinoisHistory.com. 464 pages. Musgrave, Jon. 2004, Rev. ed. 2005. Slaves, Sex & Mr. Crenshaw: The Real Story of the Old Slave House and America's Reverse Underground R. R.. Marion, Ill.: IllinoisHistory.com. 705 pages. Stu Fliege. 2002. Trails & Tales of Illinois. Chicago: University of Illinois Press. Jon Musgrave. 2005. Slaves, Sex & Mr. Crenshaw. Marion, Ill.: IllinoisHistory.com. Gillum Ferguson. 2007. The Perilous Infancy of Saline County, Journal of Illinois History, Vol. 10, p. 49. Equality Illinois History Prairie Ghosts Stace England & The Salt Kings concept Music CD on "The Old Slave House" Glen O. Jones Lake Equality Masonic Lodge
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl
Ann Rutledge was Abraham Lincoln's first love. Born near Henderson, Ann Mayes Rutledge was the third of 10 children born to Mary Ann Miller Rutledge and James Rutledge. In 1829, her father, along with John M. Cameron, founded Illinois. Many of the facts of her life are lost to history, but some historians believe that she was the first love of Abraham Lincoln; the exact nature of the Lincoln–Rutledge relationship has been fiercely debated by historians and non-historians for more than a century. The story goes that Rutledge was engaged to marry John MacNamar, a dubious character who left for New York and promised to marry her upon his return. Rutledge and Lincoln met after this and fell in love while MacNamar was away and she promised to marry Lincoln after MacNamar released her. For a time Rutledge and MacNamar exchanged letters, but his letters became more formal and "less ardent in turn" and ceased completely. MacNamar never returned before her death. In 1835, a wave of typhoid hit the town of New Salem.
Ann Rutledge died at the age of 22 on August 25, 1835. This sad event left Lincoln depressed. Historian John Y. Simon reviewed the historiography of the subject and concluded, "Available evidence overwhelmingly indicates that Lincoln so loved Ann that her death plunged him into severe depression." An anonymous poem about suicide published locally three years after her death is attributed to Lincoln. Many years after Lincoln's first election as President, Isaac Cogdal, Lincoln's old friend, ventured to ask whether it was true that Lincoln had fallen in love with Ann. Lincoln replied: It is true—true indeed I did. I loved the woman dearly and soundly: She was a handsome girl—would have made a good, loving wife… I did and love the girl and think often of her now. Ann Mayes Rutledge was laid to rest in the Old Concord Burial Ground. At this time the cheap stone marker was replaced with a granite monument that included the lyrics of Edgar Lee Masters and reads: As biographer, Masters reported "very little to be found to justify" the story of Ann Rutledge, that Lincoln was never "deeply attached" to any woman.
After Lincoln's assassination in 1865, his friend and law partner William Herndon first revealed the story of the supposed romance between Rutledge and Lincoln, much to Mary Todd Lincoln's anger and dismay. However, Herndon despised Mary Todd Lincoln and may have fabricated or enhanced the story of a romance between Ann Rutledge and Abraham Lincoln to serve as a "thorn in the side" of Mary Todd Lincoln. Abraham Lincoln's surviving son Robert Todd Lincoln was upset by Herndon's claim. Most of Herndon's sources came from interviews with Lincoln's early friends in New Salem and Ann's relatives; the story was repeated by Herndon in several lectures and books. Several historians have claimed that the evidence of a love affair between Lincoln and Rutledge is tenuous at best. In his Lincoln the President, historian James G. Randall wrote a chapter entitled "Sifting the Ann Rutledge Evidence" which cast doubt on the nature of her and Lincoln's relationship. Lewis Gannett, writing in the Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association, claims that "Nearly sixty years after James G. Randall delivered a seeming coup de grâce to the Ann Rutledge legend, the legend may be nearing a second death."
However, since William Herndon was not the only witness to the Lincoln-Rutledge relationship, efforts to minimize her role in Lincoln's early life have so far failed. The 1930 D. W. Griffith film Abraham Lincoln features Rutledge as a main character. Actress Pauline Moore plays Ann Rutledge in John Ford's 1939 film Young Mr. Lincoln. Following Ann's death, Lincoln visits her graveside and makes the fateful decision to leave home and pursue a law practice in Springfield. Actress Mary Howard played Ann Rutledge in John Cromwell's 1940 film Abe Lincoln in Illinois; the film was adaptation of a play. It was revived on Broadway in 1993–94 with Rutledge portrayed by Marissa Chibas; the Lincoln-Rutledge relationship plays an important part in the growth of Lincoln in Seth Grahame-Smith's novel Abraham Lincoln, Vampire Hunter. In it, MacNamar is a vampire; when he learns that Rutledge has fallen in love with Lincoln, he returns to New Salem and kills her by infecting her. The symptoms of her infection resemble those of typhoid fever.
An earlier, more traditional novel on the subject is Bernie Babcock's The Soul of Ann Rutledge, Abraham Lincoln's Romance, published in 1919. A Gulf and Ohio Railroad passenger train between Chicago and St. Louis was named after her, a running companion to the Abraham Lincoln. Donald, David Herbert. Lincoln. New York: Touchstone. ISBN 0-684-80846-3. Herndon, William Henry. Herndon's Life of Lincoln. Cleveland, Ohio: World Publishing Company. Ann Rutledge Mr. Lincoln and Friends: Anne Rutledge Ann Rutledge In American Memory Works by or about Ann Rutledge in libraries Eric Wolfson's Ann Rutledge Blues Ann Rutledge at Find a Grave
Gallatin County, Illinois
Gallatin County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 5,589, making it the fifth-least populous county in Illinois, its county seat is Shawneetown. It is located in the southern portion of Illinois known locally as "Little Egypt". Located at the mouth of the Wabash River, Gallatin County, along with neighboring Posey County and Union County, Kentucky form the tri-point of the Illinois-Indiana-Kentucky Tri-State Area. Salt production served as the state's first major industry in the early 19th century. Saltworks developed first by Native Americans, the French had settled at the Great Salt Spring on the south side of the Saline River, about five miles downstream from Equality. Beginning in 1803, salt works were developed at Half Moon Lick, southwest of Equality on the north side of the Saline River. Half Moon Lick is now on private land, but the Great Salt Springs are on public lands in the Shawnee National Forest, about one mile west of the Saline River bridge across Illinois Route 1 on Salt Well Road.
Gallatin county was organized in 1812 from land in Randolph County. It was named for Albert Gallatin, Secretary of the Treasury; the bank at Shawneetown was the first in Illinois. It was in the John Marshall House, rebuilt and serves as the museum of the Gallatin County Historical Society; this should not be confused with the State Bank of Illinois building, a state historic site a block away in Old Shawneetown According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 328 square miles, of which 323 square miles is land and 5.1 square miles is water. The Wabash and Ohio rivers join in the northeastern part of the county; the Saline River is a major drainage in the county, it feeds into the Ohio River. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Shawneetown have ranged from a low of 21 °F in January to a high of 87 °F in July, although a record low of −22 °F was recorded in January 1994 and a record high of 104 °F was recorded in August 2007. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 3.22 inches in October to 5.02 inches in May.
U. S. Highway 45 Illinois Route 1 Illinois Route 13 Illinois Route 141 Illinois Route 142 White County - north Posey County, Indiana - northeast Union County, Kentucky - east Hardin County - south Saline County - west Hamilton County - northwest Shawnee National Forest Gallatin County government is led by a five-member county board. In addition, the county is divided into ten townships; as the most culturally Southern of all Illinois counties, Gallatin County was pro-Confederate during the Civil War and provided a few volunteers to the Confederate Army. It became solidly Democratic for the next century and a third, voting Republican only in the GOP landslides of 1920, 1952, 1972 and 1980. In those four elections, no Republican candidate received more than Richard Nixon’s 53.7 percent in his 3,000-plus-county 1972 triumph. Since 2000, Gallatin County has followed the same political trajectory as Tennessee, Kentucky, West Virginia and Appalachian regions of adjacent states, whereby the Democratic Party’s liberal views on social issues have produced dramatic swings to the Republican Party amongst its entirely Southern white population.
Over the five elections from 2000 to 2016, Gallatin County has seen a swing of 84 percentage points to the Republican Party – an average of 17 percentage points per election – so that Hillary Clinton’s 24.3 percent vote share in 2016 is half the worst Democrat percentage from before 2010. Whereas according to the 2010 census: 97.9% White 0.2% Black 0.3% Native American 0.1% Asian 0.0% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 1.2% Two or more races 1.2% Hispanic or Latino As of the 2010 census, there were 5,589 people, 2,403 households, 1,556 families residing in the county. The population density was 17.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,746 housing units at an average density of 8.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.9% white, 0.3% American Indian, 0.2% black or African American, 0.1% Asian, 0.4% from other races, 1.2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.2% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 23.6% were German, 22.9% were Irish, 10.7% were English, 7.0% were American.
Of the 2,403 households, 26.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.6% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.2% were non-families, 31.1% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.87. The median age was 44.4 years. The median income for a household in the county was $38,003 and the median income for a family was $48,892. Males had a median income of $38,801 versus $22,425 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,537. About 12.4% of families and 18.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.9% of those under age 18 and 14.9% of those age 65 or over. Shawneetown Equality Junction New Haven Old Shawneetown Omaha Ridgway National Register of Historic Places listings in Gallatin County, Illinois 1887. History of Gallatin, Hamilton and Williamson Counties, Illinois. Chicago: Goodspeed Publishing Co. Musgrave, Jon, ed. 2002.
Handbook of Old Gallatin County and Southeastern Illinois. Marion, Ill.: IllinoisHistory.com. 464 pages. Musgrave, Jon. 2004, Rev. ed. 2005. Slaves, Sex & Mr. Crenshaw: The Real Story of the Old Slave House and America's Reverse Underground R. R.. Marion, Ill.: IllinoisHistory.com. 608 pages. Waggoner, Horace Q. interviewer. 1978. "Lucille Law
Erie Canal Soda Pop Festival
The Erie Canal Soda Pop Festival was a rock festival held on the Labor Day weekend of 1972 near Griffin, Indiana on Bull Island, a strip of land in Illinois but on the Indiana side of the Wabash River. A crowd estimated at 200,000 to 300,000 attended the concert, four times what the promoters estimated. Food and water were in short supply, the gathering descended into relative anarchy. After the show was finished, remnants of the crowd members burned the main stage. Several months before the Festival, promoters Tom Duncan and Bob Alexander held a successful small festival at Bosse Field in Evansville, Indiana; that show included acts such as Ike and Tina Turner, New Riders of the Purple Sage, Edgar Winter. Based on that success and Alexander planned a bigger festival; the Erie Canal Soda Pop Festival was slated for Chandler, Indiana, a small town near Evansville, Indiana. However, various court battles stopped the festival from performance anywhere in Indiana. Shortly before the start of the concert, the promoters decided on a site near Griffin in Posey County, Indiana referred to locally as "Bull Island".
Due to the changing course of the Wabash River, Bull Island is located east of the Wabash River but is part of the State of Illinois. Thus, Bull Island was out of the jurisdiction of the various Indiana courts; the White County, Illinois government in the city of Carmi was surprised that the venue had ended up in its backyard, was unable to stop the concert. The promoters estimated a crowd of 55,000; as the Labor Day approached, it became obvious. As Bull Island was accessible by only two roads, traffic was backed up for 20 miles from the festival. Since Bull Island was technically part of Illinois but the only access was through Indiana, police protection and crowd control during the festival were non-existent. Coordination between the Indiana police and the Illinois police was woefully inadequate; the only police on the festival grounds were three county deputy sheriffs from White County, Illinois trying to police a crowd of 200,000 to 300,000. The scheduled lineup included Black Sabbath, Joe Cocker, the Allman Brothers, John Mayall, Cheech & Chong, Canned Heat, Fleetwood Mac, Ballin' Jack, Amboy Dukes, Bob Seger, Ravi Shankar, Albert King, Brownsville Station, Mike Quatro, Gentle Giant, Black Oak Arkansas, the Eagles, The Chambers Brothers, Boones Farm, Slade and Delbert & Glenn.
However, only bands that included Flash Cadillac & the Continental Kids, Black Oak Arkansas, Mike Quatro, Bang and Chong, Albert King, Brownsville Station, Canned Heat, Ravi Shankar, Rory Gallagher, Lee Michaels and Frosty, The Amboy Dukes, Farm, CK Thunder, Gentle Giant performed. Vince Vance and the Valiants played after Ted Nugent of The Amboy Dukes. Over the three days, the festival drifted into anarchy. Food and water were in short supply. A torrential rain soaked the festival. A truck bringing food into the festival was hijacked and burned; when some vendors overcharged for food and drinks, the crowd turned over many of the RVs and robbed the vendors. Drugs were available in a makeshift "shopping district", where dealers displayed their illegal goods. Numerous bands cancelled, three concert goers drowned in the Wabash River; as the festival ended, what was left of the crowd destroyed the music stand by fire. The promoters explained that they had sold 30,000 advance tickets for $20 and $25 each, had estimated a crowd of no more than 55,000 would attend.
Thus they were unprepared when more than 200,000 people showed up. Following the concert, the promoters were subjected to multiple lawsuits by the owner of Bull Island, the vendors, the Internal Revenue Service, the State of Illinois, the State of Indiana; the court fined them several thousand dollars. List of jam band music festivals Evansville Courier, September 2, 2012. Evansville Courier & Press 150th Anniversary Special Section, January 8, 1995. Illinois History Teacher Magazine, Vol 1, 1994 Bill Bloodworth.com Soda Pop Revisited, the 2012 revival of the original festival