2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Cannon County, Tennessee
Cannon County is a county located in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 13,801, its county seat is Woodbury. Cannon County is part of the Nashville-Davidson-Murfreesboro-Franklin, TN Metropolitan Statistical Area. Cannon County was established by the Tennessee state legislature on January 31, 1836, it was formed from portions of Rutherford, Smith and Warren counties and was named for Governor Newton Cannon. This was part of the Middle Tennessee region, with mixed farming and livestock raising, including of thoroughbred horses. There were more slaveholders here than in Eastern Tennessee. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 266 square miles, of which 266 square miles is land and 0.06 square miles is water. DeKalb County Warren County Coffee County Rutherford County Wilson County Headwaters Wildlife Management Area Short Mountain State Natural Area As of the census of 2000, there were 12,826 people, 4,998 households, 3,643 families residing in the county.
The population density was 48 people per square mile. There were 5,420 housing units at an average density of 20 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.87% White, 1.46% Black or African American, 0.33% Native American, 0.12% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.40% from other races, 0.81% from two or more races. 1.22% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,998 households out of which 33.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.60% were married couples living together, 9.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.10% were non-families. 24.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 2.99. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.40% under the age of 18, 8.30% from 18 to 24, 28.90% from 25 to 44, 23.70% from 45 to 64, 13.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years.
For every 100 females, there were 96.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,809, the median income for a family was $38,424. Males had a median income of $28,659 versus $21,489 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,405. About 9.60% of families and 12.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.00% of those under age 18 and 17.80% of those age 65 or over. The policy-making and legislative authority in Cannon County is vested in the Board of County Commissioners. Commissioners are elected to four-year terms by a simple majority of the residents in their district; each district has two commissioners, all ten seats are up for election at the same time. Commissioners set personnel policies for the county, appropriate funds for county departments, set the property tax rate; the county mayor serves as chair of the County Commission and breaks a tie if one occurs during voting.
Members meet in January, April and October with special call meetings taking place when necessary. County officials: County Executive: Brent Bush Sessions Court Judge: Susan Melton Circuit Court Clerk: Katina George County Clerk: Lana Jones Clerk & Master: Dana Davenport Register of Deeds: Sandy Hollandsworth Property Assessor: Angela Schwartz Trustee: Norma Knox Sheriff: Darrell Young Constable 1st District: None Constable 2nd District: Charles Nokes Constable 3rd District: None Constable 4th District: None Constable 5th District: NoneEach official is elected to a four-year term. With the exception of the tax assessor, the terms of most of the officials above will end on September 1, 2022; the tax assessor's term will end on September 1, 2020. The general sessions judge is elected to an eight-year term, the clerk and master is appointed to a six-year term by the chancellor. Board of County Commissioners. District 1: Jeannine Floyd James Russell Reed District 2: Corey Davenport Karen Ashford District 3: Jim Bush Greg Mitchell District 4: Brent Brandon Randy Gannon District 5: Kim Davenport Ronnie Mahaffey Auburntown Woodbury National Register of Historic Places listings in Cannon County, Tennessee Chamber of Commerce TNGenWeb Cannon County on FamilySearch Wiki.
Cannon County at Curlie
Coffee County, Tennessee
Coffee County is a county located in the southern part of Tennessee, in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the county's population was 52,796, its county seat is Manchester. Coffee County is part of TN Micropolitan Statistical Area, it is part of Middle Tennessee, one of the three Grand Divisions of the state. Coffee County was formed in 1836 from parts of Bedford and Franklin counties, it was named for John Coffee, a prominent planter, land speculator, militia officer. Similar to other counties in this area of the state, planters here cultivated tobacco and hemp, produced by the labor of enslaved African Americans. In the period after Reconstruction and into the early 20th century, whites in Coffee County committed eight lynchings of blacks; this was the fifth-highest total of any county in the state, but three other counties had eight lynchings each. Coffee County has twelve Century Farms, the classification for farms that have been operating for more than 100 years; the oldest Century Farm is Shamrock Acres, founded in 1818.
Other Century Farms include: Beckman Farm Brown Dairy Farm Carden Ranch Crouch-Ramsey Farm Freeze Farm The Homestead Farm Jacobs Farm Long Farm Shamrock Acres Sunrise View Farm Thomas Farm, site of the Farrar Distillery According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 435 square miles, of which 429 square miles is land and 5.6 square miles is water. Cannon County Warren County Grundy County Franklin County Moore County Bedford County Rutherford County Interstate 24 U. S. Route 41 U. S. Route 41A Arnold Engineering Development Complex Wildlife Management Area Bark Camp Barrens Wildlife Management Area Hickory Flats Wildlife Management Area Maple Hill Wildlife Management Area May Prairie State Natural Area Normandy Wildlife Management Area Old Stone Fort State Archaeological Park Short Springs State Natural Area As of the census of 2000, there were 48,014 people, 18,885 households, 13,597 families residing in the county; the population density was 112 people per square mile.
There were 20,746 housing units at an average density of 48 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 93.43% White, 3.59% Black or African American, 0.30% Native American, 0.74% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.91% from other races, 1.00% from two or more races. 2.19% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 18,885 households out of which 32.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.90% were married couples living together, 11.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.00% were non-families. 24.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 2.96. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.10% under the age of 18, 8.30% from 18 to 24, 28.40% from 25 to 44, 23.60% from 45 to 64, 14.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.10 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $34,898, the median income for a family was $40,228. Males had a median income of $32,732 versus $21,014 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,137. About 10.90% of families and 14.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.80% of those under age 18 and 15.20% of those age 65 or over. The Bonnaroo Music Festival has been held annually in the county since 2002. Arnold Engineering Development Center George Dickel Tennessee whiskey distillery Old Stone Fort — part of Old Stone Fort State Archaeological Park, just west of Manchester Short Springs State Natural Area Farrar Distillery – on the U. S. National Register of Historic Places Manchester Tullahoma Hillsboro Lakewood Park New Union Beechgrove Belmont Fudgearound Noah Ovoca Pocahontas Shady Grove Summitville National Register of Historic Places listings in Coffee County, Tennessee The Saturday Independent Official site Industrial Board of Coffee County Coffee County Schools Coffee County, TNGenWeb – genealogy resources Bonnaroo Music Festival site Coffee County at Curlie
A frontier is the political and geographical area near or beyond a boundary. The term came from French in the 15th century, with the meaning "borderland"—the region of a country that fronts on another country. A frontier can be referred to as a "front". A difference has been established in academic scholarship between Frontier and Border, the latter denoting a fixed and clear-cut form of state boundary. In the European Union, the frontier is the region beyond the expanding borders of the European Union itself. EU has designated the countries surrounding it as part of the European Neighbourhood; this is a region of less-developed countries, many of which aspire to become part of the union. Current applicants include many small countries in the Balkans and South Caucasus. Romania and Bulgaria joined EU in 2007. Proposals to admit Turkey have been debated but are now stalled on the ground that Turkey is beyond Europe's historic frontier and it is yet to comply with the 35 point policy areas set out by EU.
If all or most East European states become members, the frontier may be the boundaries with Russia and Turkey. The expansion of Russia to the north and east exploited ever-changing frontier regions over several centuries and involved the development and settlement of Cossack communities; the term "frontier" was used in colonial Australia in the meaning of country that borders the unknown or uncivilised, the boundary, border country, the borders of civilisation, or as the land that forms the furthest extent of what was termed "the inside" or "settled" districts. The "outside" was another term used in colonial Australia, this term covered not only the frontier but the districts beyond. Settlers at the frontier thus referred to themselves as "the outsiders" or "outside residents" and to the area in which they lived as "the outside districts". At times one might hear the "frontier" described as "the outside borders"; however the term "frontier districts" was used predominantly in the early Australian colonial newspapers whenever dealing with skirmishes between black and white in northern New South Wales and Queensland, in newspaper reports from South Africa, whereas it was not so used when dealing with affairs in Victoria, South Australia and southern New South Wales.
The use of the word "frontier" was thus connected to descriptions of frontier violence, as in a letter printed in the Sydney Morning Herald in December 1850 which described murder and carnage at the northern frontier and calling for the protection of the settlers saying: "...nothing but a strong body of Native Police will restore and keep order in the frontier districts, as the squatters are taxed for the purpose of such protection". The word "frontier" has meant a region at the edge of a settled area in North American development, it was a transition zone where explorers and settlers were arriving. Frederick Jackson Turner said that "the significance of the frontier" was that as pioneers moved into the "frontier zone," they were changed by the encounter. For example, Turner argues in 1893 that in the United States, unlimited free land in this zone was available, thus offered the psychological sense of unlimited opportunity. This, in turn, had many consequences such as optimism, future orientation, shedding the restraints of land scarcity, the wastage of natural resources.
In the earliest days of European settlement of the Atlantic coast, the frontier was any part of the forested interior of the continent lying beyond the fringe of existing settlements along the coast and the great rivers, such as the St. Lawrence, Hudson, Susquehanna River and James. English, French and Dutch patterns of expansion and settlement were quite different. Only a few thousand French migrated to Canada; these habitants settled in villages along the St. Lawrence river, building communities that remained stable for long stretches, rather than leapfrogging west the way the English and Americans did. Although French fur traders ranged through the Great Lakes and Mississippi River watersheds, as far as the Rocky Mountains, they did not settle down. French settlement in these areas was limited to a few small villages on the lower Mississippi and in the Illinois Country; the Dutch set up fur trading posts in the Hudson River valley, followed by large grants of land to patroons, who brought in tenant farmers that created compact, permanent villages.
They did not push westward. In contrast, the English colonies pursued a more systematic policy of widespread settlement of the New World, for cultivation and exploitation of the land, which required the extension of European property rights to the new continent; the typical English settlements were small -- under 3 square kilometres. Conflict with the Native Americans arose out of i.e. who would rule. Early frontier areas east of the Appalachian Mountains included the Connecticut River valley; the French and Indian Wars of the 1760s resulted in a complete victory for the British, who took over the French colonial territory west of the Appalachians to the Mississippi River. Americans began moving across the Appalachians into areas such the Ohio Country and the New River Valley. Most of the frontier movement was east to west; the frontier in New England lay to the north. Throughout American history, the expansion of settlement was from the east to the west, thus the frontier is identified with "t
Confederate States of America
The Confederate States of America referred to as the Confederacy, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865. The Confederacy was formed by seven secessionist slave-holding states—South Carolina, Florida, Georgia and Texas—in the Lower South region of the United States, whose economy was dependent upon agriculture cotton, a plantation system that relied upon the labor of African-American slaves; each state declared its secession from the United States, which became known as the Union during the ensuing civil war, following the November 1860 election of Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln to the U. S. presidency on a platform which opposed the expansion of slavery into the western territories. Before Lincoln took office in March, a new Confederate government was established in February 1861, considered illegal by the government of the United States. States volunteered militia units and the new government hastened to form its own Confederate States Army from scratch overnight.
After the American Civil War began in April, four slave states of the Upper South—Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina—also declared their secession and joined the Confederacy. The Confederacy accepted Missouri and Kentucky as members, although neither declared secession nor were they largely controlled by Confederate forces; the government of the United States rejected the claims of secession and considered the Confederacy illegally founded. The War began with the Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861, a Union fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. No foreign government recognized the Confederacy as an independent country, although Great Britain and France granted it belligerent status, which allowed Confederate agents to contract with private concerns for arms and other supplies. In early 1865, after four years of heavy fighting which led to 620,000–850,000 military deaths, all the Confederate forces surrendered and the Confederacy vanished; the war lacked a formal end.
By 1865 Jefferson Davis, the President of the Confederate States of America for the duration of the civil war, lamented that the Confederacy had "disappeared". On February 22, 1862, the Confederate Constitution of seven state signatories – Mississippi, South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia and Texas – replaced the Provisional Constitution of February 8, 1861, with one stating in its preamble a desire for a "permanent federal government". Four additional slave-holding states – Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina – declared their secession and joined the Confederacy following a call by U. S. President Abraham Lincoln for troops from each state to recapture Sumter and other seized federal properties in the South. Missouri and Kentucky were represented by partisan factions adopting the forms of state governments without control of substantial territory or population in either case; the antebellum state governments in both maintained their representation in the Union. Fighting for the Confederacy were two of the "Five Civilized Tribes" – the Choctaw and the Chickasaw – in Indian Territory and a new, but uncontrolled, Confederate Territory of Arizona.
Efforts by certain factions in Maryland to secede were halted by federal imposition of martial law. A Unionist government was formed in opposition to the secessionist state government in Richmond and administered the western parts of Virginia, occupied by Federal troops; the Restored Government recognized the new state of West Virginia, admitted to the Union during the war on June 20, 1863, re-located to Alexandria for the rest of the war. Confederate control over its claimed territory and population in congressional districts shrank from 73% to 34% during the course of the American Civil War due to the Union's successful overland campaigns, its control of the inland waterways into the South, its blockade of the southern coast. With the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, the Union made abolition of slavery a war goal; as Union forces moved southward, large numbers of plantation slaves were freed. Many joined the Union lines, enrolling in service as soldiers and laborers; the most notable advance was Sherman's "March to the Sea" in late 1864.
Much of the Confederacy's infrastructure was destroyed, including telegraphs and bridges. Plantations in the path of Sherman's forces were damaged. Internal movement became difficult for Southerners, weakening the economy and limiting army mobility; these losses created an insurmountable disadvantage in men and finance. Public support for Confederate President Jefferson Davis's administration eroded over time due to repeated military reverses, economic hardships, allegations of autocratic government. After four years of campaigning, Richmond was captured by Union forces in April 1865. A few days General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant signalling the collapse of the Confederacy. President Davis was captured on May 10, 1865, jailed in preparation for a treason trial, never held; the initial Confederacy was established in the Montgomery Convention in February 1861 by seven states (South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
The Calfkiller River is a 42.4-mile-long stream in the east-central portion of Middle Tennessee in the United States. It is a tributary of the Caney Fork, is part of the Cumberland and Mississippi watersheds; the river is believed to be named for a Cherokee chief. The river rises at the base of the Cumberland Plateau, just southwest of Monterey in eastern Putnam County, with the convergence of several smaller streams that drop off the Plateau. Several of these headwater streams are impounded at the Plateau's edge, including one which forms Monterey Lake; the river winds its way southward, slicing a broad valley in an otherwise hilly section of the Eastern Highland Rim. State Highway 84 runs along the western bank of the river's upper section. After crossing into White County, the river's valley broadens as it veers southwestward and continues through a series of rural communities. Just south of Sparta, the river passes under Highway 84, which continues along the river's east bank. In Sparta, the river continues southward, flanked by steep embankments along the east bank.
The City of Sparta maintains a park along the west bank of the river on both sides of the US-70 bridge. The Old Sparta Cemetery, which rests atop a hill in downtown Sparta, offers a sweeping view of this section of the river. Just north of Sparta, the river bends around the Camp Heights area before turning southward again; the river spills over an old dam once used by the Sparta Hydroelectric Plant and passes under State Highway 111, which follows the river's eastern bank for several miles. The river continues through rural White County, passing about a mile east of Doyle before emptying into the Caney Fork at river mile 104; this section of the Caney Fork, part of Great Falls Lake, provides the county line between White and Van Buren County. Hodges Bridge Road crosses the Caney Fork downstream from the Calfkiller's mouth; the watershed of the Calfkiller River covers 175 square miles. Several of the river's tributaries originate atop the Cumberland Plateau, including Whetstone Creek, part of the river's headwaters, Bridge Creek, which empties into the river just south of the Putnam-White county line, Doe Creek, which joins the river near the Big Spring community, Wildcat Creek, which empties into the river near Sparta, is noted for its 30-foot waterfall visible from Highway 70 east of the town.
Tributaries that enter river's western bank include Plum Creek and Cherry Creek, near the Yankeetown community, Mill Creek, near the river's headwaters. According to Goodspeed's History of White County, the Calfkiller River is named after a Cherokee chief who lived in the valley when the first European-American settlers arrived in the area around 1800, following the American Revolutionary War. Throughout the early 19th century, they harnessed the river to power numerous small gristmills. In the years before the Civil War, an iron works and a cotton mill operated along the banks of the river in the vicinity of the current TN-111 bridge. A number of Civil War skirmishes were fought along the Calfkiller River. On August 9, 1863, Union forces under Charles Minty attacked a Confederate scouting detachment under George Dibrell near Wildcat Creek scattering the Rebels after intense fighting. Another skirmish occurred on November 30 of that year, when a band of Confederate guerrillas unsuccessfully ambushed a detachment of the U.
S. First Tennessee Cavalry at Yankeetown. On February 22, 1864, a band of Confederates under John Hughes attacked a detachment of the Fifth Tennessee Cavalry along the river, in what became known as the "Battle of Dug Hill." Hughs captured and executed over a dozen federals. Confederate guerrilla leader Champ Ferguson, who lived in the Calfkiller Valley, is buried in France Cemetery, along the banks of the river near the Putnam-White county line. In 1902, the Sparta Light and Power Company built a small waterwheel-powered electric plant just downstream from Sparta. After this plant burned in 1907, it was replaced by a more modern plant that used a concrete dam to divert water through a flume to a powerhouse located downstream; the plant operated until the 1930s, when the Tennessee Valley Authority began providing electricity to the area from major hydroelectric projects. The dam is still visible from the TN-111 bridge, has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Calfkiller Brewing Company - Sparta-based microbrewery named after the river Falling Water River List of rivers of Tennessee