American Indian Movement
The American Indian Movement is a Native American advocacy group in the United States, founded in July 1968 in Minneapolis, Minnesota. AIM was formed to address Native American affirmation, treaty issues and leadership while addressing incidents of police harassment and racism against Natives forced to move away from reservations and tribal culture by the Indian Termination Policies. AIM's paramount objective is to create "real economic independence for the Indians". From November 1969 to June 1971, AIM participated in the occupation of the abandoned federal penitentiary known as Alcatraz, organized by seven Indian movements, including the Indian of All Tribes and Richard Oakes, a Mohawk activist. In October 1972, AIM and other Indian groups gathered members from across the United States for a protest in Washington, D. C. known as the Trail of Broken Treaties. According to public documents obtained under the Freedom of Information Act, advanced coordination occurred between Washington, D. C.-based Bureau of Indian Affairs and the authors of a twenty-point proposal drafted with the help of the AIM for delivery to the United States government officials focused on proposals intended to enhance United States–Indian relations.
In the decades since AIM's founding, the group has led protests advocating indigenous American interests, inspired cultural renewal, monitored police activities and coordinated employment programs in cities and in rural reservation communities across the United States. AIM has supported indigenous interests outside the United States as well. By 1993, AIM had split into two main factions. One faction is the AIM-Grand Governing Council based in Minneapolis; the other faction is AIM-International Confederation of Autonomous Chapters, based in Denver Colorado. While government-directed Indian termination policies were enforced during the Eisenhower administration, hastily executed uranium mining contracts to permit it preceded the imposition of unprecedented-scale government-sanctioned commercial uranium extraction operations from various parts of traditional Indian western North American tribal lands and the uranium mining was permitted. However, the uranium mining contracts were signed without tribal permissions, Navajo workers were not informed of the health risks involved with working in uranium mines.
On March 6, 1968, President Johnson signed Executive Order 11399, establishing the National Council on Indian Opportunity. President Johnson said "the time has come to focus our efforts on the plight of the American Indian" and NCIO's formation would "launch an undivided, Government-wide effort in this area". While knowing little of the American Indian issues, Johnson tried to connect the nation's trust responsibility to the tribes and nations to civil rights, an area with which he was much more familiar. In Congress, the Democratic chairman of the House Subcommittee on Indian Affairs, James Haley from Florida, supported Indian rights. In the 1960s Haley met with president Kennedy and then-vice-president Johnson, pressed for Indian self-determination and control in transactions over land. One struggle was over the long-term leasing of American Indian land. Non-Indian businesses and banks said they could not invest in leases of 25 years with generous options, as the time was too short for land-based transactions.
Relieving the long-term poverty on most reservations through business partnerships by leasing land was seen as infeasible. A return to the 19th century 99-year leases was seen as a possible solution. But, an Interior Department memo said, "a 99-year lease is in the nature of a conveyance of the land"; these battles over land had their beginnings in the 1870s when federal policy related to wholesale taking, not leases. In the 1950s, many Native Americans believed that leases were too a way for outsiders to control Indian land. Wallace "Mad Bear" Anderson was a Tuscarora leader in New York in the 1950s, he struggled to resist the New York City planner Robert Moses' plan to take tribal land in upstate New York for use in a state hydropower project to supply New York City. The struggle ended in a bitter compromise; as had civil rights and antiwar activists, AIM used the American press and media to present its message to the United States public. It created events to attract the press. If successful, news outlets would seek out AIM spokespersons for interviews.
Rather than relying on traditional lobbying efforts, AIM took its message directly to the American public. Its leaders looked for opportunities to gain publicity. Sound bites such as the "AIM Song" became associated with the movement. During ceremonies on Thanksgiving Day 1970 to commemorate the 350th anniversary of the Pilgrims' landing at Plymouth Rock, AIM seized the replica of the Mayflower in Boston. In 1971, members occupied Mount Rushmore for a few days, as it was created in the Black Hills of South Dakota, long sacred to the Lakota; this area was within the Great Sioux Reservation as created by the Treaty of Fort Laramie in 1868. After the discovery of gold, in 1874, the federal government took the land in 1877 and sold it for mining and settlement to European Americans. Native American activists in Milwaukee staged a takeover of an abandoned Coast Guard station along the Lake Michigan; the takeover was inspired by the 1969 Alcatraz occupation. Activists cited the Treaty of Fort Laramie and demanded the abandoned federal property revert to the control of the Native peoples of Milw
Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa
Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa is an Anishinaabe band located near Cloquet, Minnesota. Their land-base is the Fond du Lac Indian Reservation, located in Carlton and Saint Louis County, Minnesota, 20 miles west of Duluth, they are one of six bands who comprise the federally recognized Minnesota Chippewa Tribe, organized in 1934 under a new constitution. In July 2007, their enrolled members numbered 4,044; the Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa inhabited the area along the lower courses of the Saint Louis River, where the present-day cities of Duluth and Superior, Wisconsin developed. The Wayekwaa-gichigamiing controlled the river access to both the Saint Louis and the Nemadji River rivers, major trade-routes during the decades of the fur trade with European traders. In the same area is Spirit Island of the "Sixth Stopping Place", one of the former seven Anishinaabe administrative centers; the Fond du Lac Band's regional economic influence helped establish the American Fur Company's trading post in what now is the Fond du Lac neighborhood of Duluth.
Two different Treaties of Fond du Lac were signed by the Fond du Lac Band. Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa is one of six members of the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe, from which it receives certain administrative services and support; the tribal government issues its own license plates. In the 2000 United States Census, the reservation recorded a population of 3,728 people and in July, 2007, MCT reported 4,044 people enrolled through Fond du Lac; the largest community on the reservation is the city of Cloquet, of which only the sparsely populated western half of the city is on reservation land. That part has a population of 1,204 persons out of the city's total of 11,201; the only community on the reservation is Brookston, at the reservation's northern end. The tribe operates two casinos, the Fond du Luth Casino in Duluth and the Black Bear Casino Resort on the reservation. An agreement signed with the City of Duluth, in which property with-in city limits was given to the tribe to build the Fond du Luth Casino in return for profit sharing $6 million 20%, from slot machine gross revenue, was agreed upon in 1994.
Profits are no longer shared with the city due to violation of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act. This decision has been controversial, but each battle in court has seen the Band prevailing; the revised Constitution and By-Laws of the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe were approved by the Secretary of Interior on March 3, 1964. The governing body of the Fond du Lac Indian Reservation is the Reservation Business Committee, composed of a Chairman, Secretary-Treasurer, three Representatives: one from District I, one from District II and one from District III. All are elected to four-year terms on a staggered basis, with the Chairman and Secretary-Treasurer serving as members of the Executive Committee of the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe; the current members of the Reservation Business Committee are: Chairman: Kevin Dupuis Sr. Secretary/Treasurer: Ferdinand Martineau Jr. District-I Representative: Wally Dupuis District-II Representative: Bruce Savage District-III Representative: Roger SmithIn August 2018, the Duluth News Tribune Newspaper broke a story/report that the Fond Du Lac Band was open to working with Enbridge Energy Inc, an Energy and Pipeline Corporation headquartered in Edmonton, Alberta to allow the new Enbridge Line 3 Replacement Pipeline route cross through the reservation next to the companies other 6 pipelines that cross the reservation.
1 Month in September 2018, Enbridge Inc announced in a press release that they reached an agreement with the Fond Du Lac Band Government. The Line 3 Pipeline Replacement Route will be the Route Segment Alternative option, crossing the reservation alongside the other 6 pipelines the company operates; the Fond Du Lac Band Reservation Business Committee consisting of the Chairman, Secretary/Treasurer, the 3 Dist 1, Dist 2, Dist 3, Committeeman voted 4-0 on a Motion to approve the Enbridge RSA 22 Agreement granting a 30 Year Easment on the new pipeline in exchange for a $260,000,000 Cash Settlement with the company. William Houle - Chairman of the Fond du Lac Band from 1974–1988 Jim Northrup - Author, "Fond du Lac Follies" columnist Thomas David Petite - Inventor Minnesota Indian Affairs Council Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa - Official tribal government website Bemaadizing: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Indigenous Life
Winona LaDuke is an American environmentalist and writer, known for her work on tribal land claims and preservation, as well as sustainable development. In a December 2018 interview she described herself as an industrial hemp grower. In 1996 and 2000, she ran for Vice President as the nominee of the Green Party of the United States, on a ticket headed by Ralph Nader, she is the executive director of Honor the Earth, a Native environmental advocacy organization that played an active role in the Dakota Access Pipeline protests. Winona LaDuke was born in 1959 in California, to Betty Bernstein and Vincent LaDuke, her father was from the Ojibwe White Earth Reservation in Minnesota, her mother of Jewish European ancestry from the Bronx, New York. Though LaDuke spent some of her childhood in Los Angeles, she was raised in Ashland, Oregon. Due to her father's heritage, she was enrolled with the Ojibwe Nation at an early age, but she did not live at White Earth, or on any other reservation, until 1982.
She started work at White Earth after she graduated from college, when she got a job there as principal of the high school. After her parents married, Vincent LaDuke worked as an actor in Hollywood, with supporting roles in Western movies, while Betty LaDuke completed her academic studies; the couple separated when Winona was five, her mother took a position as an art instructor at Southern Oregon College, now Southern Oregon University at Ashland, a small logging and college town near the California border. In the 1980s, LaDuke's father Vincent reinvented himself as a New Age spiritual leader and went by the name Sun Bear. While growing up in Ashland, LaDuke attended public school and was on the debate team in high school, she attended Harvard University, where she became part of a larger group of Indian activists, graduated in 1982 with a Bachelor of Arts in Economics. When LaDuke moved to White Earth she did not know the Ojibwe language, or many people, was not accepted. While working as the principal of the local Minnesota reservation high school she completed research for her master's thesis on the reservation's subsistence economy and became involved in local issues.
She completed an M. A. in Community Economic Development through the distance-learning program of Antioch University. While working as a principal at the high school, LaDuke became an activist. In 1985 she helped, she worked with Women of All Red Nations to publicize American forced sterilization of Native American women. Next she became involved in the struggle to recover lands for the Anishinaabe. An 1867 treaty with the United States had provided a territory of more than 860,000 acres for the White Earth Indian Reservation. Under the Nelson Act of 1889, an attempt to have the Anishinaabe assimilate by adopting a European-American model of subsistence farming, communal tribal land had been allotted to individual households; the US classified any land in excess as surplus. In addition, many Anishinaabe sold their land individually over the years. By the mid-20th century, the tribe held only one-tenth of the land within its reservation. In 1989, LaDuke founded the White Earth Land Recovery Project in Minnesota with the proceeds of a human rights award from Reebok.
The goal is to buy back land within the reservation, bought by non-Natives and to create enterprises that provide work to Anishinaabe. By 2000, the foundation had bought 1200 acres, which it held in a conservation trust for eventual cession to the tribe; the non-profit is working to reforest the lands and a revive cultivation of wild rice, long a traditional food. It markets that and other traditional products, including hominy, buffalo sausage and other products, it has started an Ojibwe language program, a herd of buffalo, a wind-energy project. LaDuke is Executive Director of Honor the Earth, an organization she co-founded with the non-Native folk-rock duo, the Indigo Girls in 1993; the organization's mission is: to create awareness and support for Native environmental issues and to develop needed financial and political resources for the survival of sustainable Native communities. Honor the Earth develops these resources by using music, the arts, the media, Indigenous wisdom to ask people to recognize our joint dependency on the Earth and be a voice for those not heard.
LaDuke was selected by The Evergreen State College Class of 2014 to be a keynote speaker and delivered her address at the school's graduation on June 13, 2014. In 2016, LaDuke was involved in the Dakota Access Pipeline protests, participating at the resistance camps in North Dakota as well as speaking to the media on the issue. In 1996 and 2000, LaDuke ran as the vice-presidential candidate with Ralph Nader on the Green Party ticket, she was not endorsed by other tribal government. LaDuke endorsed the Democratic Party ticket for the president and vice-president in 2004, 2008, 2012. In 2016, Robert Satiacum, Jr. a faithless elector from Washington cast his presidential vote for Native American activist, Faith Spotted Eagle. WELRP has worked to revive cultivation and harvesting of wild rice, a traditional food of the Ojibwe people, it sells traditional foods and crafts through its label, Native Harvest. Honor the Earth is a national advocacy group encouraging public support and funding for Native environmental gr
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill known as UNC-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, or Carolina is a public research university in Chapel Hill, North Carolina. It is the flagship of the 17 campuses of the University of North Carolina system. After being chartered in 1789, the university first began enrolling students in 1795, which allows it to be one of three schools to claim the title of the oldest public university in the United States. Among the claimants, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is the only one to have held classes and graduated students as a public university in the eighteenth century; the first public institution of higher education in North Carolina, the school opened its doors to students on February 12, 1795. The university offers degrees in over 70 courses of study through fourteen colleges and the College of Arts and Sciences. All undergraduates receive a liberal arts education and have the option to pursue a major within the professional schools of the university or within the College of Arts and Sciences from the time they obtain junior status.
Under the leadership of President Kemp Plummer Battle, in 1877 North Carolina became coeducational and began the process of desegregation in 1951 when African-American graduate students were admitted under Chancellor Robert Burton House. In 1952, North Carolina opened its own hospital, UNC Health Care, for research and treatment, has since specialized in cancer care; the school's students and sports teams are known as "Tar Heels". UNC's faculty and alumni include 9 Nobel Prize laureates, 23 Pulitzer Prize winners, 49 Rhodes Scholars. Additional notable alumni include a U. S. President, a U. S. Vice President, 38 Governors of U. S. States, 98 members of the United States Congress, 9 Cabinet members, 39 Henry Luce Scholars, 9 World Cup winners and 3 astronauts as well as founders and CEOs of Fortune 500 companies; the campus covers 729 acres of Chapel Hill's downtown area, encompassing the Morehead Planetarium and the many stores and shops located on Franklin Street. Students can participate in over 550 recognized student organizations.
The student-run newspaper The Daily Tar Heel has won national awards for collegiate media, while the student radio station WXYC provided the world's first internet radio broadcast. In 2018, UNC was ranked amongst the top 30 universities in the United States according to the Academic Ranking of World Universities, Washington Monthly, U. S. News & World Report. Internationally, UNC is ranked 33rd and 34th in the world by Academic Ranking of World Universities and U. S. News and World Report, respectively. UNC is regarded as a Public Ivy, an institution which provides an Ivy League collegiate experience at a public school price. North Carolina is one of the charter members of the Atlantic Coast Conference, founded on June 14, 1953. Competing athletically as the Tar Heels, North Carolina has achieved great success in sports, most notably in men's basketball, women's soccer, women's field hockey. Chartered by the North Carolina General Assembly on December 11, 1789, the university's cornerstone was laid on October 12, 1793, near the ruins of a chapel, chosen because of its central location within the state.
The first public university chartered under the US Constitution, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is one of three universities that claims to be the oldest public university in the United States and the only such institution to confer degrees in the eighteenth century as a public institution. During the Civil War, North Carolina Governor David Lowry Swain persuaded Confederate President Jefferson Davis to exempt some students from the draft, so the university was one of the few in the Confederacy that managed to stay open. However, Chapel Hill suffered the loss of more of its population during the war than any village in the South, when student numbers did not recover, the university was forced to close during Reconstruction from December 1, 1870 until September 6, 1875. Despite initial skepticism from university President Frank Porter Graham, on March 27, 1931, legislation was passed to group the University of North Carolina with the State College of Agriculture and Engineering and Woman's College of the University of North Carolina to form the Consolidated University of North Carolina.
In 1963, the consolidated university was made coeducational, although most women still attended Woman's College for their first two years, transferring to Chapel Hill as juniors, since freshmen were required to live on campus and there was only one women's residence hall. As a result, Woman's College was renamed the "University of North Carolina at Greensboro", the University of North Carolina became the "University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill." In 1955, UNC Chapel Hill desegregated its undergraduate divisions. During World War II, UNC Chapel Hill was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. During the 1960s, the campus was the location of significant political protest. Prior to the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, protests about local racial segregation which began in Franklin Street restaurants led to mass demonstrations and disturbance; the climate of civil unrest prompted the 1963 Speaker Ban Law prohibiting speeches by communists on state campuses in North Carolina.
The law was criticized by university Chancellor William Brantley Aycock and university President William Friday, but was not reviewed by the North Carolina General Assembly until 1965. Small amendments to allow "infrequent" visits failed to placate the student body when the university's board of trustees overruled new Chancellor Paul Frederick Sh
Peggy Flanagan is the 50th and current lieutenant governor of Minnesota. Her election on November 6, 2018, made her the second Native American woman to be elected to statewide executive office in U. S. history. She served as a member of the Minnesota House of Representatives from 2015 to 2019. A member of the Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party, she represented District 46A in the western Twin Cities metropolitan area. A member of the White Earth Band of Ojibwe she joined fellow DFLer Susan Allen, Republican Steve Green, an enrolled member of the White Earth Band of Ojibwe as the only other Natives in the Minnesota State House. On July 28, 2016, Flanagan became the first Native American woman to address the Democratic National Convention, from the podium. Flanagan has worked on issues relating to education and political organizing for urban Native Americans in Minneapolis, through the Greater Minneapolis Council of Churches. Elected to the city's School Board, she served from 2005 to 2009.
Flanagan was raised by a single mother in St. Louis Park, just west of Minneapolis. Flanagan attended local schools and received a bachelor's degree in child psychology from the University of Minnesota in 2002. While in college, Flanagan worked for the campaign of Democratic US Senator Paul Wellstone becoming an organizer for the urban Native American community. After college, she worked for the Council of Churches, doing outreach work between Native American families and the Minneapolis public school system. In her first run for elective office, Flanagan won a seat on the Minneapolis Board of Education in 2004. In a six-candidate field that featured two incumbents, the political newcomer Flanagan garnered the most votes, she was elected along with Lydia Lee and incumbent Sharon Henry-Blythe and served one term on the board, from 2005 to 2009. In 2008, she challenged State Representative Joe Mullery in the Democratic primary, but dropped out of the race due to her mother's health problems. After working in a handful of other jobs, Flanagan joined Wellstone Action as a trainer of activists and candidates.
Flanagan advocated for the successful 2014 effort to raise Minnesota's minimum wage. Flanagan was elected to the Minnesota House of Representatives unopposed in a special election on November 3, 2015, was sworn-in on November 9, 2015. Susan Allen and Republican Steve Green were the only other Natives in the Minnesota State House at that time. Three other Native women sought election to the Minnesota state legislature in November 2016: Mary Kelly Kunesh-Podein and Jamie Becker-Finn ran for state representative seats and Chilah Brown ran for the Minnesota Senate. Kunesh-Podein and Beck-Finn were elected to the Minnesota House of Representatives and assumed office in January 2017. In 2017, Allen, Kunesh-Podein and Beck-Finn formed the Minnesota House Native American Caucus to represent issues of both urban and rural Native Americans and their other constituents in the legislature. Flanagan was invited to address the 2016 Democratic National Convention, speaking from the podium on July 28, 2016.
She was the first Native American woman. In 2017, she became a candidate for lieutenant governor, joining Congressman Tim Walz as their ticket won the DFL primary in the 2018 Minnesota gubernatorial election, they won the general election, thus she become the first racial minority woman elected to statewide office in Minnesota as well as the second Native American woman elected to statewide executive office in the United States. Flanagan was given a leading part in setting up the Walz administration. Flanagan has one daughter with her former husband, whom she divorced in 2017. Flanagan resides in Minnesota. On January 12, 2018, Flanagan revealed on her personal Facebook page that she was in a relationship with the Minnesota Public Radio News host Tom Weber. Peggy Flanagan at Minnesota Legislators Past & Present Rep. Peggy Flanagan, Official Minnesota House of Representatives website Peggy Flanagan, official campaign website
Joseph Napoleon "Big Chief" Guyon was an American Indian from the Ojibwa tribe, an American football and baseball player and coach. He played college football at the Carlisle Indian Industrial School from 1912 to 1913 and Georgia Institute of Technology from 1917 to 1918 and with a number of professional clubs from 1919 to 1927, he was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1966 and the College Football Hall of Fame in 1971. Guyon was born on the White Earth Indian Reservation in Minnesota, he received only a sixth-grade education from the American government. Guyon spent time in Magdalena, New Mexico. Guyon attended and played college football at the Carlisle Indian Industrial School from 1912 to 1913 under head coach Pop Warner. Sportswriters tried to call him "Injun Joe" after the character in The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, but it never much caught on outside the press; the 1912 team posted a 12–1–1 record, scored 454 points, was Jim Thorpe's greatest season. Guyon played on the team as left tackle.
In the game against Army featuring the likes of future US President Dwight D. Eisenhower, Leland Devore was ejected for manhandling Guyon; the 1913 team went 10 -- scoring 296 points. Guyon shifted to Thorpe's place at halfback and was honored by Walter Camp as a second-team All-American. From 1914 to 1915, Guyon attended the Keewatin Academy in Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin, to regain college eligibility. Guyon attended and played football at Georgia Tech from 1917 to 1918 under head coach John Heisman. Guyon was used as a halfback, his brother Charles "Wahoo" Guyon was the assistant coach. For his time spent playing at Georgia Tech, Guyon was a unanimous selection for an Associated Press Southeast Area All-Time football team 1869-1919 era. Fullback Judy Harlan said about Guyon, "Once in a while the Indian would come out in Joe, such as the nights Heisman gave us a white football and had us working out under the lights. That's when Guyon would give out the blood curdling war whoops." The 1917 team went 9–0, scored 491 points, was crowned national champion, was for many years considered "the greatest the South produced."
Guyon played right halfback, where he was the team's power best passer. He was a unanimous All-Southern selection, considered by some the South's best back, his first run from scrimmage for Tech was a 75-yard touchdown against Wake Forest. In a 63–0 rout of Washington & Lee, Guyon knocked a Washington & Lee player out of the game by "wearing an old horse collar shaped into a shoulder pad but reinforced with a little steel" according to Judy Harlan. Against Vanderbilt University he had arguably his greatest game, running 12 times for 344 yards in an 83–0 blowout. According to sportswriter Morgan Blake, "Guyon has been great in all games this year, but Saturday he was the superman". Against Tulane, each of the four members of the backfield eclipsed 100 yards rushing. "Strupper, Guyon and Harlan form a backfield with no superiors and few equals in football history" wrote the Times-Picayune. He passed for two touchdowns and ran for one, passing 91 yards and running 112: "Guyon's passing was so accurate it suggest possibilities yet undeveloped in the Tech offense".
In the large, 68–7 win over Auburn, Guyon once dove at its star Moon Ducote and missed, but Guyon gave chase from behind and tackled him at the 26-yard line. The 1918 team went 6–1, scoring 462. Guyon was used as a fullback, though sometimes as a tackle, he was honored as a tackle on Frank G. Menke's first All-America team. Guyon signed to play professional football with the Canton Bulldogs in 1919. After the NFL was organized in 1920, he played seven more seasons with the Washington Senators, Cleveland Indians, Oorang Indians, Rock Island Independents, Kansas City Cowboys, the New York Giants. From 1919 to 1924, he teamed with Jim Thorpe, they parted ways late in the 1924 season. He stayed with the Cowboys in 1925. In 1927, Guyon joined the Giants and helped lead the team to the 1927 NFL Championship. Guyon coached the Bulldogs of Union University in Jackson, Tennessee in 1919, he returned to Union in 1923 and coached all sports from 1923 to 1927. Union inducted Guyon into its sports hall of fame in 2008.
Guyon coached the backfield of the 1920 Georgia Tech team. He coached high school football at St. Xavier High School in Louisville, Kentucky from 1931 to 1933, with a 16–7–2 record. Guyon was a "minor league baseball star". Guyon had hit over.340 three consecutive years for the Louisville Colonels in the American Association, which at AA, was at the highest classification of the era. His playing career as an outfielder extended from 1920 through 1936 with a break during his college coaching career. Guyon was the head coach of the Clemson Tigers baseball team at Clemson University from 1928 to 1931, he managed the Anderson Electrics in the Palmetto League in 1931, the Asheville Tourists in 1932, the Fieldale Towlers in 1936. McCarty, Bernie. "Georgia Tech's 1917 backfield, better than the Four Horsemen: Part 1". College Football Historical Society Newsletter. 1. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. McCarty, Bernie. "Georgia Tech's 1917 backfield, better than the Four Horsemen: Part 2". College Football Historical Society Newsletter.
1. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Umphlett, Wiley Lee. Creating the Big Game: John W. Heisman and the Invention of American Football. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-28404-5. Joe Guyon at the Pro Football Hall of Fame Joe Guyon at t
National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum
The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum is an American history museum and hall of fame, located in Cooperstown, New York, operated by private interests. It serves as the central point for the study of the history of baseball in the United States and beyond, displays baseball-related artifacts and exhibits, honors those who have excelled in playing and serving the sport; the Hall's motto is "Preserving History, Honoring Excellence, Connecting Generations." The word Cooperstown is used as shorthand for the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum to Canton for the Pro Football Hall of Fame in Canton, Ohio. The Hall of Fame was established in 1939 by the owner of a local hotel. Clark had sought to bring tourists to a city hurt by the Great Depression, which reduced the local tourist trade, Prohibition, which devastated the local hops industry. A new building was constructed, the Hall of Fame was dedicated on June 12, 1939; the erroneous claim that Civil War hero Abner Doubleday invented baseball in Cooperstown was instrumental in the early marketing of the Hall.
An expanded library and research facility opened in 1994. Dale Petroskey became the organization's president in 1999. In 2002, the Hall launched Baseball As America, a traveling exhibit that toured ten American museums over six years; the Hall of Fame has since sponsored educational programming on the Internet to bring the Hall of Fame to schoolchildren who might not visit. The Hall and Museum completed a series of renovations in spring 2005; the Hall of Fame presents an annual exhibit at FanFest at the Major League Baseball All-Star Game. Jeff Idelson replaced Petroskey as president on April 16, 2008, he had been acting as president since March 25, 2008, when Petroskey was forced to resign for having "failed to exercise proper fiduciary responsibility" and making "judgments that were not in the best interest of the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum." Among baseball fans, "Hall of Fame" means not only the museum and facility in Cooperstown, New York, but the pantheon of players, umpires and pioneers who have been enshrined in the Hall.
The first five men elected were Ty Cobb, Babe Ruth, Honus Wagner, Christy Mathewson and Walter Johnson, chosen in 1936. As of January 2018, 323 people had been elected to the Hall of Fame, including 226 former Major League Baseball players, 35 Negro league baseball players and executives, 22 managers, 10 umpires, 30 pioneers and organizers. 114 members of the Hall of Fame have been inducted posthumously, including four who died after their selection was announced. Of the 35 Negro league members, 29 were inducted posthumously, including all 24 selected since the 1990s; the Hall of Fame includes Effa Manley. The newest members elected on January 22, 2019, are players Edgar Martínez, Roy Halladay, Mike Mussina and Mariano Rivera, with Rivera becoming the first player to be elected unanimously. Players are inducted into the Hall of Fame through election by either the Baseball Writers' Association of America, or the Veterans Committee, which now consists of four subcommittees, each of which considers and votes for candidates from a separate era of baseball.
Five years after retirement, any player with 10 years of major league experience who passes a screening committee is eligible to be elected by BBWAA members with 10 years' membership or more who have been covering MLB at any time in the 10 years preceding the election. From a final ballot including 25–40 candidates, each writer may vote for up to 10 players. Any player named on 75% or more of all ballots cast is elected. A player, named on fewer than 5% of ballots is dropped from future elections. In some instances, the screening committee had restored their names to ballots, but in the mid-1990s, dropped players were made permanently ineligible for Hall of Fame consideration by the Veterans Committee. A 2001 change in the election procedures restored. Players receiving 5% or more of the votes but fewer than 75% are reconsidered annually until a maximum of ten years of eligibility. Under special circumstances, certain players may be deemed eligible for induction though they have not met all requirements.
Addie Joss was elected despite only playing nine seasons before he died of meningitis. Additionally, if an otherwise eligible player dies before his fifth year of retirement that player may be placed on the ballot at the first election at least six months after his death. Roberto Clemente's induction in 1973 set the precedent when the writers chose to put him up for consideration after his death on New Year's Eve, 1972; the five-year waiting period was established in 1954 after an evolutionary process. In 1936 all players were eligible, including active ones. From the 1937 election until the 1945 election, there was no waiting period, so any retired player was eligible, but writers were discouraged from voting for current major leaguers. Since there was no formal rule preventing a writer from casting a ballot for an active player, the scribes did not always comply with the informal guideline.