Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Glacial striations are scratches or gouges cut into bedrock by glacial abrasion. These scratches and gouges were first recognized as the result of a glacier in the late 18th century when Swiss alpinists first associated them with moving glaciers. They noted that if they were visible today that the glaciers must be receding. Glacial striations are usually multiple and parallel, representing the movement of the glacier using rock fragments and sand grains, embedded in the base of the glacier, as cutting tools. Large amounts of gravel and boulders carried along underneath the glacier provide the abrasive power to cut trough-like glacial grooves. Finer sediments in the base of the glacier further scour and polish the bedrock surface. Ice itself is not a hard material to change the shape of rock. Most glacial striations were exposed by the retreat of glaciers since the Last Glacial Maximum or the more recent Little Ice Age. As well as indicating the direction of flow of the glacial ice, the depth and extent of weathering of the striations may be used to estimate the duration of post-glacier exposure of the rock.
An outstanding example of glacial grooves can be found at the Glacial Grooves at Kelleys Island, the most impressive of which is 400 feet long,35 feet wide and these grooves cut into the Columbus Limestone. Striations cover the sides and bottoms of the grooves, the following affect the rate of abrasion, The amount of rock debris in the basal surface of the ice. As the bedrock is being worn away the abrading fragments within the glacier are being worn, similarly to sandpaper being worn away with use. A continued supply of abrading fragments is required to uphold a similar level of abrasion, the fragments must be harder than the bedrock. Quartz fragments will abrade shale but shale fragments will not abrade a quartz rich bedrock, a constant flow of melt water between the basal surface and the bedrock speeds abrasion. The meltwater constantly rinses away the rock allowing the coarser fragments to abrade bedrock. The faster the glacier moves, the faster the bedrock will be eroded, thicker ice is heavier ice which causes more downward force and increased pressure between the abrading fragments and the bedrock.
There is a limit to how much ice will enhance abrasion, if the friction force between fragments and bedrock is too great the ice will flow around the fragments. If the meltwater is under high pressure it will cause the ice to effectively buoy up
Gorham, New Hampshire
Gorham is a town in Coos County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 2,848 at the 2010 census, Gorham is located in the White Mountains, and parts of the White Mountain National Forest are in the south and northwest. Moose Brook State Park is in the west, the town is crossed by the Appalachian Trail. It is part of the Berlin, NH–VT Micropolitan Statistical Area, the community was first chartered in 1770 by Colonial Governor John Wentworth as a part of Shelburne, called Shelburne Addition. Gorham was first settled about 1802, by Robert Sargent and others, but for years it contained more than rocky farms, small logging operations. When incorporated in 1836, the town had only 150 inhabitants and it was named Gorham at the suggestion of Lot Davis, a resident from Gorham, and a relative of the Gorham family which incorporated that town in 1764. The St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railroad arrived in 1851, located halfway between Montreal and the New England seacoast, Gorham developed into a railroad town, with a major locomotive yard and repair facility.
With trains came tourists, and the Mount Madison House, Alpine House, Gorham House, crowds went from Boston and the seacoast to White Mountain Station, and from there to the Glen House in Pinkham Notch and Mount Washington. In 1861, travelers made the first trek up the Mount Washington Carriage Road, winding 8 miles to the summit of the 6, the Road to the Sky was an engineering feat of its day, advertised as the first man-made attraction in the United States. It would be renamed the Mount Washington Auto Road, and remains popular today, railroads benefited local industries as well, hauling freight for mills run by water power from the Androscoggin River. Logging flourished, with boards and building timber manufactured by the Libby and that business would eventually decline, as would railroads. In 1973, the train depot, built in 1907, was scheduled for demolition. The Gorham Historical Society saved the building, which now serves as a headquarters and it features displays on area history, with a collection including locomotives, boxcars and a caboose.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has an area of 32.3 square miles, of which 31.9 sq mi is land and 0.4 sq mi is water. The town center has an area of 0.9 sq mi, of which approximately 0.9 sq mi is land. Gorham is drained by the Androscoggin and Moose rivers, Gorham lies fully within the Androscoggin River watershed. The highest point in Gorham is along its border, on a spur of Mount Madison. While Gorham itself is surrounded by mountains, a small prominent peak within the town is 2
Mount Washington (New Hampshire)
Mount Washington, called Agiocochook by some Native American tribes, is the highest peak in the Northeastern United States at 6,288.2 ft and the most prominent mountain east of the Mississippi River. The mountain is notorious for its erratic weather, the mountain is located in the Presidential Range of the White Mountains, in the township of Sargents Purchase, Coös County, New Hampshire. While nearly the whole mountain is in the White Mountain National Forest, the Mount Washington Cog Railway ascends the western slope of the mountain, and the Mount Washington Auto Road climbs to the summit from the east. The mountain is popular with hikers, other common activities include glider flying, and annual cycle and running races such as the Auto Road Bicycle Hillclimb and Road Race. Before European settlers arrived in the region, the mountain was known by various peoples as Kodaak Wadjo or Agiochook or Agiocochook. The Algonquians called it Waumbik, white rocks, the first European to mention the mountain was Giovanni da Verrazzano.
Viewing it from the Atlantic Ocean in 1524, he described what he saw as high interior mountains, darby Field claimed to have made the first ascent of Mt. Washington in 1642. A geology party, headed by Manasseh Cutler, named the mountain in 1784, the Crawford Path, the oldest mountain hiking trail in the United States, was laid out in 1819 as a bridle path from Crawford Notch to the summit and has been in use ever since. Ethan Allen Crawford built a house on the summit in 1821, little occurred on the summit itself until the mid-19th century, when it was developed into one of the first tourist destinations in the nation, with construction of more bridle paths and two hotels. The Summit House opened in 1852, a 64-foot-long stone hotel anchored by four heavy chains over its roof, in 1853, the Tip-Top House was erected to compete. Rebuilt of wood with 91 rooms in 1872–1873, the Summit House burned in 1908, the Tip-Top House alone survived the fire, today it is a state historic site, recently renovated for exhibits.
Other Victorian era tourist attractions include a coach road —now the Mount Washington Auto Road—and the Mount Washington Cog Railway, for forty years, an intermittent daily newspaper, called Among the Clouds, was published by Henry M. Burt at the summit each summer, until 1917. CNL officials said they were directing their efforts against other hotels that use the mountains name and Trademark Office seeks registration of the trademark Mount Washington for any retail service, any restaurant service, and any entertainment service. The summit station of Mount Washington has a climate or tundra climate, although it receives an extremely high amount of precipitation. Lower elevations have a subarctic climate, the weather of Mount Washington is notoriously erratic. This is partly due to the convergence of several tracks, mainly from the Atlantic to the south, the Gulf region. The vertical rise of the Presidential Range, combined with its north-south orientation, low-pressure areas are more favorable to develop along the coastline in the winter due to the relative temperature differences between the Northeastern United States and the Atlantic Ocean.
With these factors combined, hurricane-force wind gusts are observed from the summit of the mountain on average of 110 days per year
U.S. Route 302
U. S. Route 302 is an east–west spur of U. S. Route 2 in northern New England in the United States. It currently runs 171 miles from Montpelier, Vermont, at US2, to Portland, Maine and it passes through the states of Vermont, New Hampshire and Maine. US302 enters Vermont after crossing the Connecticut River at the village of Wells River, the highway crosses US5 in the center of the village. The next major intersection for US302 is its intersection with Interstate 91 in Newbury, US302 winds through the rural towns of Ryegate, Groton and Orange, before entering East Barre. In East Barre, its intersection with Vermont Route 110 takes the form of a roundabout, after traveling down out of the hills surrounding the city of Barre, US302 makes up Washington Street and Main Street of Barre. It runs along the Jail Branch River and the Stevens Branch of the Winooski River in Barre, through Berlin, US302 is named William Scott Memorial Highway and was part of the Theodore Roosevelt International Trail in Vermont.
US302 enters the state of New Hampshire at an arch bridge over the Connecticut River beginning in Wells River. It follows Central Street on an alignment, passing through Woodsville until it reaches NH10. US302 follows the Ammonoosuc River through a mix of fields and forested land, passing through Bath as Lisbon Road, as it approaches Littleton, the roads name changes to Meadow Street and becomes a shopping strip just before crossing the river and interchanging with I-93. After a short stretch, the road meets Main Street at an intersection, defaulting onto Main Street. The route passes under Interstate 93 again and passes woodland, where it crosses I-93 for a third time at a second interchange. After turning eastward again, passing through Bartlett and intersecting NH16, the route follows Eastman Road south of North Conway, which it follows to its end at NH113 after bridging the Saco River once again. US302 turns east, passing through forested land as it crosses the Maine state border. US302 is known as the Roosevelt Trail through southern Maine because it was the beginning of the Theodore Roosevelt International Highway to Portland, the highway leaves Portland, bridging the Presumpscot River into Westbrook at Riverton.
The Roosevelt Trail bridges the Pleasant River at milepost 13, the highway follows the Saco River from Fryeburg into the White Mountains and enters New Hampshire near milepost 58. It is a highway for almost all of its length. Some of the sections feature a third passing lane. The eastern end of US302 was formerly at Longfellow Square in Portland, the highway follows a 19th-century stagecoach road from Portland through Windham to Bridgton
Pinkham Notch is a mountain pass in the White Mountains of north-central New Hampshire, United States. The notch is a result of erosion by the Laurentide ice sheet during the Wisconsinian ice age. Pinkham Notch was eroded into a glacial U-shaped valley whose walls are formed by the Presidential, due to the volatility of the areas climate and rugged character of the terrain, a number of rare or endemic ecosystems have developed throughout the notch. The notch was discovered in 1784 by Jeremy Belknap, but its isolation prevented further development for several years, the construction of New Hampshire Route 16 has led to increased accessibility and a rise in tourism. Its location makes it a hub for hiking and skiing, the notch separates the Presidential Range, which forms the western wall, from the Wildcat Range, which forms the eastern wall. Two rivers drain the notch, the Ellis River drains the south end and is a tributary of the Saco, and the Peabody River drains the north end and is a tributary of the Androscoggin.
The bulk of the slope of the notch is formed by Mount Washington. Mount Washington rises more than 4,000 feet above the floor of the notch, a number of glacial cirques are found on this side of the notch. The Great Gulf and its tributary cirques form the largest cirque in the White Mountains, South of the Great Gulf is Huntington Ravine, with a rocky, precipitous headwall renowned for its rock and ice climbing. The slope dips into the Ravine of Raymond Cataract, a non-glacial V-shaped valley with a notable waterfall, after this comes Tuckerman Ravine, with a uniform, smoother headwall that is known for its high-quality skiing. After passing the Gulf of Slides, a smaller and lesser-known cirque, the eastern slope of the notch consists of the Wildcat and Carter-Moriah Ranges, slightly lower than the Presidential Range to the west. The Wildcat Range consists of five peaks, named A, B, C, D, Wildcat A is the highest, at 4,422 feet. From the main ridge, the slopes drop very steeply, but not precipitously, the Wildcat Mountain Ski Area occupies the western slopes of Wildcat up to the col between D and E peaks.
As the notch rounds E peak, the slope becomes extremely steep, the Carter-Moriah Range lies to the north of Wildcat Ridge, forming the eastern side of Pinkham Notch all the way to the Androscoggin River. From south to north, the peaks overlooking the notch are Carter Dome, Mount Hight, South Carter Mountain, Middle Carter Mountain, North Carter Mountain, Imp Mountain, and Mount Moriah. The climate, and as a result, the flora and fauna, as elevations increase on the walls of the notch and ecosystems change to those of increasingly northern occurrence. Biomes range from a northern hardwood forest at the base of Mount Washington to alpine-Arctic vegetation near the summit comparable to vegetation found at the latitude of Labrador. The lowest elevations of Pinkham Notch are occupied by a hardwood forest
Crawford Notch is a major pass through the White Mountains of New Hampshire, located almost entirely within the town of Harts Location. Roughly half of town is contained in Crawford Notch State Park. North of the point of the notch, Crawford Brook flows more gently northwest to the Ammonoosuc River. The notch is traversed by U. S. Route 302, the notch became known to European settlers when found by Timothy Nash in 1771. The 1772 boundaries of Harts Grant reflected its shape and it was named for Abel Crawford, an explorer, trail-builder and hosteler in the early 19th century. The Tenth New Hampshire Turnpike from Portsmouth was extended through the notch to Lancaster in 1803, a well-documented historic event within the notch was a rockslide that killed the entire Samuel Willey family in August 1826. The family fled their home during the storm to a shelter but were buried by the slide and died in a mass of stone. Mount Willey, on the west side of the notch, is named in their memory, further down the notch, Nancy Brook and Mount Nancy are named for an earlier tragedy.
The depot remains a stop on the scenic Notch Train of the Conway Scenic Railroad, place Names of the White Mountains. Hanover, University Press of New England
Old Man of the Mountain
The rock formation was 1,200 feet above Profile Lake, and measured 40 feet tall and 25 feet wide. The site is located in the town of Franconia, the first recorded mention of the Old Man was in 1805. It collapsed on May 3,2003, Franconia Notch is a U-shaped valley that was shaped by glaciers. The Old Man formation was formed from freezing and thawing of water in cracks of the granite bedrock some time after the retreat of the most recent glaciers 12,000 years ago. The formation was first noted in the records of a Franconia surveying team around 1805, Francis Whitcomb and Luke Brooks, part of the surveying team, were the first two to record observing the Old Man. The official state history says several groups of surveyors were working in the Franconia Notch area at the time, the profile has been New Hampshires state emblem since 1945. It was put on the license plate, state route signs, and on the back of New Hampshires Statehood Quarter. Before the collapse, it could be seen from special viewing areas along Interstate 93 in Franconia Notch State Park, approximately 80 miles north of the states capital and thawing opened fissures in the Old Mans forehead. A team from the highway and park divisions maintained the patchwork each summer.
Nevertheless, the formation collapsed to the ground between midnight and 2 a. m, dismay over the collapse was so great that people left flowers at the base of the cliffs in tribute. Early after the collapse, many New Hampshire citizens considered replacement with a replica and that idea was rejected by an official task force in 2003 headed by former Governor Steve Merrill. In 2004, the legislature considered, but did not accept. On the first anniversary of the collapse in May 2004, the Old Man of the Mountain Legacy Fund began operating coin-operated viewfinders near the base of the cliff. When looking through them up at the cliff of Cannon Mountain one can see a before and it consists of a viewing platform with Steel Profilers, when aligned with the Cannon Cliff above, create what the profile looked like up on the cliff overlooking the Franconia Notch. The project was overseen by Friends of the Old Man of the Mountain/Franconia Notch, the Legacy Fund is a private 501 corporation with representatives from various state agencies and several private nonprofits.
In 2013, the board called a halt to further fundraising and they announced their intention to spend what was left on minor improvements and dissolve the board. It won an American Institute of Architects Un-Built Project Award, in 2009, Kenneth Gidge, a state representative from Nashua, proposed building a copper replica of the Old Man on level ground above the ledge at the original site where hiking trails already lead. Details of the history of the Old Man of the Mountain include, 17th millennium BC–6th millennium BC — New England undergoes the Wisconsin glaciation, glaciers cover New England and post-glacial erosion creates the cliff which would subsequently erode into the Old Man of the Mountain at Franconia Notch
A mountain range is a geographic area containing numerous geologically related mountains. A mountain system or system of ranges, sometimes is used to combine several geological features that are geographically related. Mountain ranges are usually segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys, individual mountains within the same mountain range do not necessarily have the same geologic structure or petrology. They may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earths land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the worlds longest mountain system. The Alpide belt includes Indonesia and southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, the belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges. The Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, mountain ranges outside of these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains.
If the definition of a range is stretched to include underwater mountains. The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, the sub-range relationship is often expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, and the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians. The position of mountains influences climate, such as rain or snow, when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the side, it warms again and is drier. Often, a shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are constantly subjected to forces which work to tear them down. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted and long after until the mountains are reduced to low hills, rivers are traditionally believed to be the principle erosive factor on mountain ranges, with their ability of bedrock incision and sediment transport.
The rugged topography of a range is the product of erosion. The basins adjacent to a mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. The early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example and this mass of rock was removed as the range was actively undergoing uplift
A summit is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically, a summit is a maximum in elevation. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous, the UIAA definition is that a summit is independent if it has a prominence of 30 metres or more, it is a mountain if it has a prominence of at least 300 metres. This can be summarised as follows, A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top, Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route. In many parts of the western United States, the term refers to the highest point along a road, highway. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit while the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit, geoid Hill List of highest mountains Maxima and minima Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder
New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west and the Atlantic Ocean to the east, New Hampshire is the 5th smallest by land area and the 9th least populous of the 50 United States. Concord is the capital, while Manchester is the largest city in the state and in northern New England, including Vermont. It has no sales tax, nor is personal income taxed at either the state or local level. The New Hampshire primary is the first primary in the U. S. presidential election cycle and its license plates carry the state motto, Live Free or Die. The states nickname, The Granite State, refers to its extensive granite formations, the state was named after the southern English county of Hampshire by Captain John Mason. New Hampshire is part of the New England region and it is bounded by Quebec, Canada, to the north and northwest and the Atlantic Ocean to the east, Massachusetts to the south, and Vermont to the west.
New Hampshires major regions are the Great North Woods, the White Mountains, the Lakes Region, the Seacoast, the Merrimack Valley, the Monadnock Region, and the Dartmouth-Lake Sunapee area. New Hampshire has the shortest ocean coastline of any U. S. coastal state, New Hampshire was home to the rock formation called the Old Man of the Mountain, a face-like profile in Franconia Notch, until the formation disintegrated in May 2003. Major rivers include the 110-mile Merrimack River, which bisects the lower half of the state north–south and ends up in Newburyport and its tributaries include the Contoocook River, Pemigewasset River, and Winnipesaukee River. The 410-mile Connecticut River, which starts at New Hampshires Connecticut Lakes and flows south to Connecticut, only one town – Pittsburg – shares a land border with the state of Vermont. The northwesternmost headwaters of the Connecticut define the Canada–U. S, the Piscataqua River and its several tributaries form the states only significant ocean port where they flow into the Atlantic at Portsmouth.
The Salmon Falls River and the Piscataqua define the southern portion of the border with Maine, the U. S. Supreme Court dismissed the case in 2002, leaving ownership of the island with Maine. New Hampshire still claims sovereignty of the base, the largest of New Hampshires lakes is Lake Winnipesaukee, which covers 71 square miles in the east-central part of New Hampshire. Umbagog Lake along the Maine border, approximately 12.3 square miles, is a distant second, Squam Lake is the second largest lake entirely in New Hampshire. New Hampshire has the shortest ocean coastline of any state in the United States, Hampton Beach is a popular local summer destination. It is the state with the highest percentage of area in the country. New Hampshire is in the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests biome, much of the state, in particular the White Mountains, is covered by the conifers and northern hardwoods of the New England-Acadian forests
New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange