Yukon is the smallest and westernmost of Canadas three federal territories. The territory has the smallest population of any province or territory in Canada, Whitehorse is the territorial capital and Yukons only city. The territory was split from the Northwest Territories in 1898 and was named the Yukon Territory, though officially bilingual, the Yukon Government recognizes First Nations languages. At 5,959 m, Yukons Mount Logan, in Kluane National Park and Reserve, is the highest mountain in Canada, most of Yukon has a subarctic climate, characterized by long cold winters and brief warm summers. The Arctic Ocean coast has a tundra climate, notable rivers include the Yukon River, after which the territory was named, as well as the Pelly, Peel and Tatshenshini rivers. Long before the arrival of Europeans and southern Yukon was populated by First Nations people, sites of archeological significance in Yukon hold some of the earliest evidence of the presence of human occupation in North America.
The sites safeguard the history of the first people and the earliest First Nations of the Yukon, the volcanic eruption of Mount Churchill in approximately 800 AD in what is now the U. S. Coastal and inland First Nations had extensive trading networks, European incursions into the area only began early in the 19th century with the fur trade, followed by missionaries. By the 1870s and 1880s gold miners began to arrive and this drove a population increase that justified the establishment of a police force, just in time for the start of the Klondike Gold Rush in 1897. The increased population coming with the gold led to the separation of the Yukon district from the Northwest Territories. Its northern coast is on the Beaufort Sea and its ragged eastern boundary mostly follows the divide between the Yukon Basin and the Mackenzie River drainage basin to the east in the Mackenzie mountains. Most of the territory is in the watershed of its namesake, the southern Yukon is dotted with a large number of large and narrow glacier-fed alpine lakes, most of which flow into the Yukon River system.
The larger lakes include Teslin Lake, Atlin Lake, Tagish Lake, Marsh Lake, Lake Laberge, Kusawa Lake, bennett Lake on the Klondike Gold Rush trail is a lake flowing into Nares Lake, with the greater part of its area within Yukon. Canadas highest point, Mount Logan, is in the territorys southwest, Mount Logan and a large part of the Yukons southwest are in Kluane National Park and Reserve, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Other national parks include Ivvavik National Park and Vuntut National Park in the north, other watersheds include the Mackenzie River, the Peel Watershed and the Alsek–Tatshenshini, and a number of rivers flowing directly into the Beaufort Sea. The two main Yukon rivers flowing into the Mackenzie in the Northwest Territories are the Liard River in the southeast, notable widespread tree species within Yukon are the black spruce and white spruce. Many trees are stunted because of the growing season and severe climate. The capital, Whitehorse, is the largest city, with about three-quarters of the population, the second largest is Dawson City, which was the capital until 1952
The Yukon River is a major watercourse of northwestern North America. The source of the river is located in British Columbia, the lower half of the river lies in the U. S. state of Alaska. The river is 3,190 kilometres long and empties into the Bering Sea at the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, the average flow is 6,430 m³/s. The total drainage area is 832,700 km², of which 323,800 km² is in Canada, the total area is more than 25% larger than Texas or Alberta. The longest river in Alaska and Yukon, it was one of the means of transportation during the 1896–1903 Klondike Gold Rush. A portion of the river in Yukon—The Thirty Mile section, from Lake Laberge to the Teslin River—is a national heritage river, paddle-wheel riverboats continued to ply the river until the 1950s, when the Klondike Highway was completed. The name Yukon, or ųųg han, is a contraction of the words in the Gwichin phrase chųų gąįį han, which means white water river and refers to the visual effect of glacial silt in the Yukon River. The contraction omits the consonant “ch” and the vowels “ąįį.
”In 1843, the Holikachuks had told the Russians that their name for the river was Yukkhana and that this name meant big river. Although it served as the name of a big river, Yukkhana does not literally correspond to a Holikachuk phrase that means big river. The Holikachuks had borrowed the upriver language name and conflated its meaning with the meaning of Kuigpak, two years later, the Gwich’ins told the Hudson’s Bay Company that their name for the river was Yukon and that the name meant white water river. White water river in fact corresponds to Gwich’in words that can be shortened to form Yukon, the Lewes River is the former name of the upper course of the Yukon, from Marsh Lake to the confluence of the Pelly River at Fort Selkirk. The Yukon River has had a history of pollution from mining, military installations, wastewater. The generally accepted source of the Yukon River is the Llewellyn Glacier at the end of Atlin Lake in British Columbia. Others suggest that the source is Lake Lindeman at the end of the Chilkoot Trail.
Either way, Atlin Lake flows into Tagish Lake, as eventually does Lake Lindeman after flowing into Bennett Lake, Tagish Lake flows into Marsh Lake. The Yukon River proper starts at the end of Marsh Lake. Some argue that the source of the Yukon River should really be Teslin Lake and the Teslin River, the upper end of the Yukon River was originally known as the Lewes River until it was established that it actually was the Yukon. North of Whitehorse, the Yukon River widens into Lake Laberge, other large lakes that are part of the Yukon River system include Kusawa Lake and Kluane Lake
Beaver Creek, Yukon
Beaver Creek is a community in Yukon, Canada. Located at kilometre 1870.6 of the Alaska Highway,1 nautical mile southeast of Beaver Creek Airport and close to the Alcan - Beaver Creek Border Crossing, it is Canadas westernmost community. The communitys main employers are a Canada Border Services Agency port, the White River First Nation, at the 2011 census Beaver Creek had a population of 103, a decrease of 8% since the 2006 census. It is the home of the White River First Nation, in addition to the Alaska Highway, the community is served by the Beaver Creek Airport. Like most of Yukon, Beaver Creek has a subarctic climate and it is situated at an elevation of approximately 650 metres. Beaver Creek experiences annual temperature average daily highs of 20 °C in July, record high temperature was 32.8 °C on June 15,1969 and the lowest was −55.0 °C on January 17,1971. Beaver Creek has an annual snowfall of 117.9 cm and 298.6 mm of rainfall. The airstrip at Snag,25 km east of Beaver Creek, experienced the lowest ever measured in North America.
Community Profile White River First Nation
The First Nations are the predominant Aboriginal peoples of Canada south of the Arctic. Those in the Arctic area are distinct and known as Inuit, the Métis, another distinct ethnicity, developed after European contact and relations primarily between First Nations people and Europeans. There are currently 634 recognized First Nations governments or bands spread across Canada, roughly half of which are in the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia. Under the Employment Equity Act, First Nations are a group, along with women, visible minorities. First Nations are not defined as a minority under the Act or by the criteria of Statistics Canada. Within Canada, First Nations has come into general use—replacing the deprecated term Indians—for the indigenous peoples of the Americas, individuals using the term outside Canada include supporters of the Cascadian independence movement, as well as U. S. tribes within the Pacific Northwest. The singular, commonly used on culturally politicized reserves, is the term First Nations person, North American indigenous peoples have cultures spanning thousands of years.
Some of their oral traditions accurately describe historical events, such as the Cascadia earthquake of 1700, written records began with the arrival of European explorers and colonists during the Age of Discovery, beginning in the late 15th century. European accounts by trappers, traders and missionaries give important evidence of early contact culture, in addition and anthropological research, as well as linguistics, have helped scholars piece together understanding of ancient cultures and historic peoples. Combined with development, this relatively non-combative history has allowed First Nations peoples to have an influence on the national culture. Collectively, First Nations, and Métis peoples constitute Aboriginal peoples in Canada, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, First Nations came into common usage in the 1980s to replace the term Indian band in referring to groups of Indians with common government and language. Elder Sol Sanderson says that he coined the term in the early 1980s, others say that the term came into common usage in the 1970s to avoid using the word Indian, which some Canadians considered offensive.
No legal definition of the term exists, some Aboriginal peoples in Canada have adopted the term First Nation to replace the word band in the formal name of their community. While the word Indian is still a term, its use is erratic. Some First Nations people consider the term offensive, while others prefer it to Aboriginal person/persons/people, the term is a misnomer given to indigenous peoples of North America by European explorers who erroneously thought they had landed on the Indian subcontinent. The use of the term Native Americans, which the United States government and it refers more specifically to the Aboriginal peoples residing within the boundaries of the United States. The parallel term Native Canadian is not commonly used, but Natives and autochthones are, under the Royal Proclamation of 1763, known as the Indian Magna Carta, the Crown referred to indigenous peoples in British territory as tribes or nations. The term First Nations is capitalized, unlike alternative terms and nations may have slightly different meanings
Alaska is a U. S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas–the southern parts of the Arctic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean lies to the south and southwest. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by area, the 3rd least populous, approximately half of Alaskas residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaskas economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, military bases and tourism are a significant part of the economy. The United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30,1867, the area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11,1912. It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3,1959, the name Alaska was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the peninsula. It was derived from an Aleut, or Unangam idiom, which refers to the mainland of Alaska. Literally, it means object to which the action of the sea is directed, Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere.
Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America and it is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use, Alaska is not part of the contiguous U. S. often called the Lower 48. The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system. Alaskas territorial waters touch Russias territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island, Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the area of the next three largest states, Texas and Montana. It is larger than the area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. Also referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States, as such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase.
The region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest and it contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, and Ketchikan, at one time Alaskas largest city. The Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital transportation link throughout the area. The Interior is the largest region of Alaska, much of it is uninhabited wilderness, Fairbanks is the only large city in the region
Stewart River (Yukon)
The Stewart River is a 533-kilometre tributary of Yukon River in the Yukon Territory of Canada. It originates in the Selwyn Mountains, which stand on the border between the Northwest Territories and the Yukon Territory, from there, the Stewart flows west, past the village of Mayo. The river is crossed by the Klondike Highway at the village of Stewart Crossing, after leaving the highway, the river travels southwest until it intersects the Yukon River 112 kilometres south of Dawson City. The mostly abandoned village of Stewart River is located at the mouth of the river, the Stewart River was explored by Robert Campbell of the Hudsons Bay Company in 1850. He named the river after a friend and assistant in the company. Stewart was instrumental in helping Campbell build and supply Fort Selkirk at the junction of the Pelly and it lay undeveloped until the Klondike Gold Rush opened the area to prospecting and mining. Because the Stewart River was located away from the Klondike River, individual miners and smaller companies explored gold prospects along the river, and in 1914, a large silver lode was found on a tributary of the Stewart.
This spurred mining, and in 1918, an even bigger silver source was found at the site of Keno City. Mining operations increased and, by 1923, the value of silver mined from the Stewart River area surpassed that of the gold taken from the Klondike, because the Stewart is shallower than the Yukon River, ordinary steamboats could not be used on the river. Special models had to be built, and these operated on the Stewart River until they were replaced by a network after World War II. The S. S. Keno, a Stewart River steamer, has preserved as a Canadian historic monument in Dawson City. List of longest rivers of Canada List of rivers of Yukon
The Tagish or Tagish Khwáan are a First Nations people that spoke their own Tagish language ethnolinguistic group that lived around Tagish Lake and Marsh Lake, in the Northwest Territories of Canada. Tagish people intermarried heavily with Tlingit people from the coast and the Tagish language is almost extinct, today Tagish people live mainly in Carcross or Whitehorse and are members of the Carcross/Tagish First Nation or the Kwanlin Dün First Nation. The word Tagish refers to the Tagish language, an Athabaskan language spoken by the ancestors of these people, Tagish means it is breaking up and gave its name to Tagish Lake. There are currently only two remaining people who speak Tagish fluently, Yukon Native Language Centre Carcross/Tagish First Nation
Teslin Tlingit Council
The Teslin Tlingit Council is a First Nation band government in the central Yukon in Canada, located in Teslin, Yukon along the Alaska Highway and Teslin Lake. The language originally spoken by the Teslin Tlingit or Deisleen Ḵwáan is Tlingit, together with the Taku River Tlingit or Áa Tlein Ḵwáan around Atlin Lake of the Taku River Tlingit First Nation in British Columbia, they comprise the Inland Tlingit. The Teslin Tlingit Council was one of the first four Yukon First Nations to sign a land claims agreement in 1992, the governmental structure of Teslin Tlingit Council incorporates traditional Teslin Tlingit Clan culture into contemporary organizational and management principles. TTC is both representative of the Clans and its Citizens and responsible—two characteristics it has in common with other democratic governments, the distinguishing feature of responsible government is the close relations between the executive and legislative branches. Accountable Governance TTC firmly believes in the principle of ensuring accountability, the structure of Teslin Tlingit Council incorporates traditional Teslin Tlingit Clan culture into contemporary organizational and management principles.
Representation by the five Teslin Tlingit Clans – Kukhhittan, Yanyedi, Deshitan, a member of each Clan sits on the Executive Council, and five representatives appointed by each Clan form the 25-member General Council. Under TTC’s Constitution, Clan membership and organization is determined by the inherited and observed by the Clan. Each Clan has a Leader and Elders recognized as such by the Clan, other than the Executive Elder, all members of Executive Council are appointed for four-year terms by General Council. Executive Council meets regularly throughout the year, and oversees the laws, Executive Council provides the link between the legislative branch and the administrative branch of Teslin Tlingit Council. The Chief Executive Officer, in conjunction with the other Executive Councillors, is responsible for the direction of TTC. The General Council is the branch of Teslin Tlingit Council. In practice, General Council is a forum where members bring forward government business for discussion and deliberation, General Council meets twice in March with the main task of passing the year’s budget, once in the summer for the Annual General Assembly, and once in November.
Additional meetings are arranged as needed to deal with specific issues, the Executive Council joins the General Council for meetings, and Management Board will generally attend to provide background information on issues of deliberation. The sessions are open to Citizens and community members, the Elders Council is composed of all Teslin Tlingit Elders aged 55 years or older, as stated in the Teslin Tlingit Council Constitution. Khixhi ka Yelth was born and raised in Teslin, Yukon and he is a member of the Kukkhittan Clan, one of the five Clans of the Teslin Tlingit First Nation. Brought up traditionally by his Grandmother, Yes-ketch, he learnt from a young age how to live off the land, on ratification of TTC’s Self-Government Agreement, Carl continued to represent his Clan, sitting as Kukkhittan Executive Councillor in the newly established TTC Government. Carl served a total of 10 years on the Executive Council, at the TTC’s 2012 Annual General Assembly, held on Teslin Tlingit’s Traditional Territory at Brooks Brook, Carl was appointed by the TTC General Council to serve as TTC’s Chief for the 2012-16 term.
To this end, the agreement sets out a comprehensive list of subject matters under which TTC assumes law-making authority, the use and good governance of its Settlement Lands and the people living on these lands
The Gwich’in are an Athabaskan-speaking First Nations of Canada and an Alaska Native people. They live in the part of North America, mostly above the Arctic Circle. Gwich’in men are known for their crafting of snowshoes, birchbark canoes. The women are renowned for their intricate and ornate beadwork and they continue to make traditional caribou-skin clothing and porcupine quillwork embroidery, both of which are highly regarded among Gwichin. Today the economy is mostly a mix of hunting and their name is sometimes spelled Kutchin or Gwitchin and translates as one who dwells or resident of. Historically, the French called the Gwichin Loucheux, as well as the Tukudh, Gwich’in often refer to themselves by the term Dinjii Zhuu instead of Gwich’in. Dinjii Zhuu literally translates as Small People, but figuratively it refers to all Indians, the Gwich’in language, part of the Athabaskan language family, has two main dialects and western, which are delineated roughly at the United States-Canada border.
Each village has unique dialect differences and expressions, the Old Crow people in the northern Yukon have approximately the same dialect as those bands living in Venetie and Arctic Village, Alaska. Approximately 300 Alaskan Gwichin speak their language, according to the Alaska Native Language Center, innovative language revitalization projects are underway to document the language and to enhance the writing and translation skills of younger Gwichin speakers. Three major clans survive from antiquity across Gwich’in lands, two are primary clans and the third has a lower/secondary status. The first clan are the Nantsaii, which translates as First on the land. The last clan is called the Tenjeraatsaii, which translates as In the middle or independents and this last clan is reserved for people who marry within their own clan, which is considered incestual. To a lesser degree, it is for children of people who are outside of the clan system, in ancient times this would refer to the children of Naain, people who were expelled from the tribe due to committing a crime.
It applied to the children of mothers who simply fell outside of the clan system, prior to 1900, being a Tenjeraatsaii automatically placed a Gwich’in at the third-lowest rung of the social ladder. They were to some degree ostracized, the second-lowest rung was reserved for war-captured slaves. The lowest social status was that of a banished Naain or bushman, the clan system is no longer well known or used among the Gwichin. Approximately 9,000 Gwich’in live in 15 small communities in the Northwest Territories and the Yukon Territory of Canada, Gwich’in comedies often contain bawdy humor. Other major characters from the Gwich’in oral tradition include, Ool Ti, Tłoo Thal, Kiizhazhal, numerous folk tales about prehistoric times all begin with the phrase Deenaadai, which translates roughly as In the ancient days
The Tlingit are an indigenous people of the Pacific Northwest Coast of North America. Their language is Lingít, meaning People of the Tides, the Russian name Koloshi or the related German name Koulischen may be encountered referring to the people in older historical literature, such as Shelikhovs 1796 map of Russian America. The Tlingit have a kinship system, with children considered born into the mothers clan. Their culture and society developed in the temperate rainforest of the southeast Alaska coast, the Tlingit maintained a complex hunter-gatherer culture based on semi-sedentary management of fisheries. An inland group, known as the Inland Tlingit, inhabits the far part of the province of British Columbia. With regular travel up rivers, the Tlingit developed extensive trade networks with Athabascan tribes of the interior. They overlap in territory with various Athabascan peoples, such as the Tahltan, Kaska, in Canada, the modern communities of Atlin, British Columbia, Teslin and Carcross, Yukon have reserves and are the representative Interior Tlingit populations.
The territory occupied by the modern Tlingit people in Alaska is not restricted to particular reservations, the corporation in the Tlingit region is Sealaska Corporation, which serves the Tlingit as well as the Haida and Tsimshian in Alaska. Tlingit people as a participate in the commercial economy of Alaska. As a consequence, they live in typically American nuclear family households with private ownership of housing, many possess land allotments from Sealaska or from earlier distributions predating ANCSA. Despite the legal and political complexities, the territory occupied by the Tlingit can be reasonably designated as their modern homeland. Tlingit people today consider the land from around Yakutat south through the Alaskan Panhandle, and including the lakes in the Canadian interior, as being Lingít Aaní, the Land of the Tlingit. Northern Tinglit live north of Frederick Sound to Cape Spencer, and including Glacier Bay and their territory can be battered by Pacific storms. These academic classifications are supported by similar self-identification among the Tlingit, the Tlingit culture is multifaceted and complex, a characteristic of Northwest Pacific Coast people with access to easily exploited rich resources.
In Tlingit culture a heavy emphasis is placed upon family and kinship and economic power are important indicators of rank, but so is generosity and proper behavior, all signs of good breeding and ties to aristocracy. Tlingit society is divided into two moieties, the Raven and the Eagle and these in turn are divided into numerous clans, which are subdivided into lineages or house groups. They have a kinship system, with descent and inheritance passed through the mothers line. These groups have heraldic crests, which are displayed on poles, feast dishes, house posts, jewelry
The Tanana Athabaskans, Tanana Athabascans or Tanana Athapaskans are an Alaskan Athabaskan peoples of the Athabaskan-speaking ethnolinguistic group. They are the inhabitants of the Tanana River drainage basin in east-central Alaska Interior, United States. Tanana River Athabaskan peoples are called in Lower Tanana and Koyukon language Ten Hʉtænæ, in Alaska, where they are the oldest, there are three or four groups identified by the languages they speak. These are the Tanana proper or Lower Tanana and/or Middle Tanana, Tanacross or Tanana Crossing, the Tanana Athabaskan culture is a hunter-gatherer culture and have a matrilineal system. Tanana Athabaskans were semi-nomadic and as living in semi-permanent settlements in the Tanana Valley lowlands, traditional Athabaskan land use includes fall hunting of moose, Dall sheep, and small terrestrial animals, and trapping. The Athabaskans did not have any formal tribal organization, Tanana Athabaskans were strictly territorial and used hunting and gathering practices in their semi-nomadic way of life and dispersed habitation patterns.
Each small band of 20–40 people normally had a winter camp with several seasonal hunting and fishing camps. Their neighbors are other Athabaskan-speaking peoples, in Alaska Koyukon, Gwichin, Hän, the language of the Upper Kuskokwim people more closely related to Lower Tanana language, but not neighbor. The homeland of the Tanana Athabaskan people can be divided into four distinct sections. 1) the Yukon Tanana upland draining to the Tanana River, 2) the Northway-Tanacross Lowlands, 3) the Eastern Alaskan range draining into the Tanana river, the Tanana Athabaskans have a system of matrilineal kinship. The Athabaskans loosely recognized membership in a bilateral group called regional band. In the winter, the band might split up into smaller units, called local bands. The regional band might meet again at a place and time in mid-winter for a gathering ceremony called a potlatch. At the end of the 19th century there were twelve regional bands living in the Tanana Athabaskan homeland,6 downriver bands and 6 upriver bands, the Lower Tanana regional bands, Minto or Minto Flats band – inhabiting the Minto Flats and Old Minto area.
Neighbors, Gwichin people, Koyukon people, Nenana-Toklat band, Wood River band, Nenana-Toklat band – inhabiting the Nenana River, Nenana Valley and Toklat River area. Neighbors, Koyukon people, Denaina people, Minto band, Wood River band, Wood River band – inhabiting the Wood River area. Neighbors, Denaina people, Nenana-Toklat band and Chena bands, Chena band — inhabiting the Chena River and Chena Village area. Neighbors, Gwichin people, Minto band, Salcha band, the Middle Tanana regional bands, Salcha or Salchaket band – inhabiting the Salcha River area