Cañon Pintado, meaning painted canyon, is an archaeological site of Native American rock art located in the East Four Mile Draw, 10.5 miles south of Rangely in Rio Blanco County, Colorado. Led by Ute guides, the Dominguez-Escalante Expedition, Spanish missionaries in search of a route to California in 1776, passed through this region as they moved north and west into Utah; the first Europeans to the area, they named it Cañon Pintado, meaning "painted canyon". The rock art was made by people of the Fremont culture and the Ute. No one has been able to positively identify the significance of the paintings, they were made to mark significant events or for religious purposes; the Fremont people were described in a Rangely Museum brochure:The Fremont people built villages, farmed the valley areas and on high points located watchtowers. In hidden places on the cliffs are still found cisterns and granaries where they stored corn and seeds. Petroglyphs of corn stalks are at a number of these sites; the Utes hunted the area and used the valley until they were moved to a reservation in 1881.
There are many accessible rock art sites located just south of Rangely along Colorado Highway 139. However, there are thousands of well preserved sites in the immediate area, including numerous sites on County Road 23 and County Road 65. There is evidence; the markings may indicate the significance winter or summer solstice but more data is required to verify these results. Nearby are the following National Register of Historic Places listings in Rio Blanco County, all three are prehistoric Fremont culture sites:Prehistoric sites Collage Shelter Site - dated from 500 - 1499 AD. Carrot Men Pictograph Site - dated from 500 - 1499 AD. Fremont Lookout Fortification Site - dated from 0 - 1499 AD. List of prehistoric sites in Colorado
South Dakota is a U. S. state in the Midwestern region of the United States. It is named after the Lakota and Dakota Sioux Native American tribes, who compose a large portion of the population and dominated the territory. South Dakota is the seventeenth largest by area, but the fifth smallest by population and the 5th least densely populated of the 50 United States; as the southern part of the former Dakota Territory, South Dakota became a state on November 2, 1889 with North Dakota. Pierre is the state capital and Sioux Falls, with a population of about 187,200, is South Dakota's largest city. South Dakota is bordered by the states of North Dakota, Iowa, Nebraska and Montana; the state is bisected by the Missouri River, dividing South Dakota into two geographically and distinct halves, known to residents as "East River" and "West River". Eastern South Dakota is home to most of the state's population, the area's fertile soil is used to grow a variety of crops. West of the Missouri, ranching is the predominant agricultural activity, the economy is more dependent on tourism and defense spending.
Most of the Native American reservations are in West River. The Black Hills, a group of low pine-covered mountains sacred to the Sioux, are in the southwest part of the state. Mount Rushmore, a major tourist destination, is there. South Dakota has a temperate continental climate, with four distinct seasons and precipitation ranging from moderate in the east to semi-arid in the west; the state's ecology features species typical of a North American grassland biome. Humans have inhabited the area for several millennia, with the Sioux becoming dominant by the early 19th century. In the late 19th century, European-American settlement intensified after a gold rush in the Black Hills and the construction of railroads from the east. Encroaching miners and settlers triggered a number of Indian wars, ending with the Wounded Knee Massacre in 1890. Key events in the 20th century included the Dust Bowl and Great Depression, increased federal spending during the 1940s and 1950s for agriculture and defense, an industrialization of agriculture that has reduced family farming.
While several Democratic senators have represented South Dakota for multiple terms at the federal level, the state government is controlled by the Republican Party, whose nominees have carried South Dakota in each of the last 13 presidential elections. Dominated by an agricultural economy and a rural lifestyle, South Dakota has sought to diversify its economy in areas to attract and retain residents. South Dakota's history and rural character still influence the state's culture. South Dakota is in the north-central United States, is considered a part of the Midwest by the U. S. Census Bureau; the culture and geography of western South Dakota have more in common with the West than the Midwest. South Dakota has a total area of 77,116 square miles, making the state the 17th largest in the Union. Black Elk Peak named Harney Peak, with an elevation of 7,242 ft, is the state's highest point, while the shoreline of Big Stone Lake is the lowest, with an elevation of 966 ft. South Dakota is bordered to the north by North Dakota.
The geographical center of the U. S. is 17 miles west of Castle Rock in Butte County. The North American continental pole of inaccessibility is between Allen and Kyle, 1,024 mi from the nearest coastline; the Missouri River is the longest river in the state. Other major South Dakota rivers include the Cheyenne, Big Sioux, White Rivers. Eastern South Dakota has many natural lakes created by periods of glaciation. Additionally, dams on the Missouri River create four large reservoirs: Lake Oahe, Lake Sharpe, Lake Francis Case, Lewis and Clark Lake. South Dakota can be divided into three regions: eastern South Dakota, western South Dakota, the Black Hills; the Missouri River serves as a boundary in terms of geographic and political differences between eastern and western South Dakota. The geography of the Black Hills, long considered sacred by Native Americans, differs from its surroundings to such an extent it can be considered separate from the rest of western South Dakota. At times the Black Hills are combined with the rest of western South Dakota, people refer to the resulting two regions divided by the Missouri River as West River and East River.
Eastern South Dakota features higher precipitation and lower topography than the western part of the state. Smaller geographic regions of this area include the Coteau des Prairies, the Dissected Till Plains, the James River Valley; the Coteau des Prairies is a plateau bordered on the east by the Minnesota River Valley and on the west by the James River Basin. Further west, the James River Basin is low, flat eroded land, following the flow of the James River through South Dakota from north to south; the Dissected Till Plains, an area of rolling hills and fertile soil that covers much of Iowa and Nebraska, extends into the southeastern corner of South Dakota. Layers deposited during the Pleistocene epoch, starting around two million years ago, cover most of eastern South Dakota; these are the youngest rock and sediment layers in the state, the product of several successive periods of glaciation which deposited a large amount of rocks and soil, known as till, over the area. The Great Plains cover most of the western two-thirds of South Dakota.
West of the Missouri Rive
Ute Mountain Ute Tribe
The Ute Mountain Ute Tribe is one of three federally recognized tribes of the Ute Nation, are descendants of the historic Weeminuche Band who moved to the Southern Ute reservation in 1897. Their reservation is headquartered at Towaoc, Colorado on the Ute Mountain Ute Indian Reservation in southwestern Colorado, northwestern New Mexico and small sections of Utah; the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe are descendants of the Weeminuche band lived west of the Great Divide along the Dolores River of western Colorado, in the Abajo Mountains, in the Valley of the San Juan River and its northern tributaries and in the San Juan Mountains including eastern Utah. They moved to the Southern Ute reservation in 1897. Two thousand years ago, the Utes lived and ranged in the mountains and desert over much of the Colorado Plateau: much of present-day eastern Utah, western Colorado, northern Arizona and northwestern New Mexico; the use of lands in the Four Corners area, where the Ute Mountain Ute tribe now live, came later.
Most anthropologists agree that Utes were established in the Four Corners area by 1500 C. E; the Ute people were hunters and gatherers who moved on foot to hunting grounds and gathering land based upon the season. The men hunted animals, including deer, buffalo and other small mammals and birds. Women gathered grasses, berries and greens in woven baskets. Ute in the western part of their territory lived in ramadas; as a result of American westward expansion, the Utes now possess only a small fraction of the land that they once traveled seasonally. The Ute people consist of three populations of people: Ute Indian Tribe of the Uintah and Ouray Reservation near Fort Duchesne in northeastern Utah; the Southern Ute live on a reservation in southwestern Colorado near Ignacio. The Ute Mountain Ute Tribe headquartered in Towaoc, the subjects of this article; the Mesa Verde Region, the present day area containing the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe reservation and the Mesa Verde National Park, was the northern most edge of the colonial territory of Spain.
Initial exploration of the American Southwest by the Spanish occurred in 1540, but Spaniards didn't settle into present day New Mexico until 1598. They established their first capital near the pueblo of Ohkay Owingeh, which they renamed San Juan de los Caballeros. In 1626 an account was taken of the Utes by a Spanish scribe in New Mexico. About 1640 the Utes began trading with the Spanish for horses. Spanish traders followed trails to Ute Utes traveled to New Mexican towns; the Utes brought buckskin, dried meats and slaves to exchange for horses and blankets. Spanish officials negotiate the first peace treaty with the Utes in 1670. In search of gold, Juan de Rivera made three expeditions between 1761 and 1765 from Taos through southwestern Colorado to the Gunnison River, he did not return with gold, but did establish trade with Utes and other Native Americans along the Gunnison River. On July 29, 1776 two Franciscan priests, Francisco Atanasio Domínguez and Silvestre Vélez de Escalante and eight men left Santa Fe to conduct an expedition through Ute territory to find a route to Spanish missions in California.
They traveled through western Colorado and Utah, documenting the "lush, mountainous land filled with game and timber, strange ruins of stone cities and villages, rivers showing signs of precious metals." Beset by hunger and illness, the men returned to Santa Fe. The maps and information provided from the expedition provided useful information for future travel and their route from Santa Fe to the Salt Lake Valley became known as the Old Spanish Trail; the Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819 established an official boundary line between Spanish and United States possessions in the southwest. Spanish territory included the southern plains, a large part of the western Rocky Mountains, the entire western plateau region of Colorado. With the boundary, the Spanish did little to maintain their northern borders; when Mexico gained its independence from Spain, the Spanish lands became Mexican land. American fur trappers encountered the Utes; the Santa Fe Trail was opened in 1821 by William Bucknell. William Bent and Ceran St. Vrain complete Bent's Fort in 1834 on the Arkansas River, a trading stop along the Santa Fe trail.
In 1848 the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends the Mexican–American War and New Mexico and southern Colorado are ceded to the United States. The next year, the first United States treaty is made with Utes made at New Mexico. Americans recruited Southern Utes to aid them in conflicts with the Navajos, which the Ute saw as an economic need. In 1868 both the Navajo and Ute tribes were removed to reservations; as more Americans moved into the western frontier, conflicts arose with the establishment of forts, reduction in land and access to ancient hunting and gathering grounds, significant reduction in the Ute population from disease and malnutrition. In 1868 Utes are confined to western third of Colorado Territory by treaty. In 1873 the gold and silver rush occurred in San Juan Mountains. In the 1870s, Utes were pushed to the western part of the state of Colorado and held just a small portion of their land in Utah. Between 1859 and 1879 the Ute population fell from 8,000 to 2,000 due
Chipeta or White Singing Bird was a Native American woman, the second wife of Chief Ouray of the Uncompahgre Ute tribe. Born a Kiowa Apache, she was raised by the Utes in, Colorado. An advisor and confidant of her husband, Chipeta continued as a leader of her people after his death in 1880, she was diplomat. She used diplomacy to try to achieve peace with the white settlers in Colorado and in 1985, Chipeta was inducted into Colorado Women's Hall of Fame. Chipeta, "White Singing Bird" in the Ute language, was born into the Kiowa Apache tribe in about 1843 or 1844, she was raised by the Uncompahgre Utes of present-day Colorado. She became a skilled artisan in beadwork and tanning. In 1859, she married Chief Ouray of the Uncompahgres, she came to act as his advisor and confidant sitting beside him at tribal council meetings. In 1863, Chipeta and her husband helped create the first treaty of Colorado. Chipeta's brother, was jealous of Ouray's power and tried to murder him to which he failed. Ouray took out his knife in order to kill the traitor but Chipeta grabbed it out of the sheath before Ouray could grab it, thus saving her brother's life.
Described as "beautiful", she sang in three languages. Chipeta was renowned for her exquisite beadwork. One time upon learning of a raid to be done on her white neighbors by the Utes she traveled on her pony and swam the Gunnison River to warn the settlers of the raid, saving their lives, she rescued her children from hostile Utes after a four-day ride. The family recounts: "his wife did everything to make us comfortable. We were given the whole house and found carpets on the floor, lamps on the tables and a stove with fire brightly burning. Mrs. Ouray shed tears over us." Both Chipeta and her husband were known for helping white settlers travel through the wilderness such as showing them the direction of a ford to cross a river. Although Chipeta never bore children, she adopted four and raised them as her own, although one account does say that she did bear one son, stolen by a band of Kiowas. Chipeta sought to live peacefully with the white settlers in Colorado. Tensions were rising. In addition, the government, through the White River Indian Agency, was pressing the Utes to take up farming, give up racing their horses, convert to Christianity.
The Ute resentment boiled up in an uprising in September 1879, marked by the Meeker Massacre at the Agency, where the Utes killed 11 white men and took three women and two children captive. In a related battle at Milk Creek, the Utes pinned down forces from Fort Steele for several days before reinforcements arrived; the Uncompahgre did not take part in the uprising. General Charles Adams, a former US Indian agent, negotiated release of the captives. One of the captives was adult daughter of the late Indian agent Nathan Meeker; the captives were brought to Ouray's home after their release. Adams held an inquiry into the events in Colorado. On January 7, 1880, Chipeta and Chief Ouray led a delegation of Utes to Washington, DC to negotiate a treaty regarding reservation resettlement, they had been asked to testify before a congressional inquiry into the Ute uprising. As Chipeta and the other Utes attempted to board a train at Alamosa, they were lynched by an angry mob of white people, who believed them associated with the Meeker Massacre.
On March 7, 1880, Chipeta was welcomed as a delegate by Secretary of Interior Carl Schurz at the US Capitol. She testified before a Congressional inquiry into the Meeker Massacre. At the hearing, she took the witness stand and answered, through an interpreter, the 10 questions put to her; the Utes ratified a treaty with the US government. Both the White River and Uncompahgre Utes were forced out. Following passage of the Ute Removal Act of 1880, Chipeta and other Utes were removed to the Uintah Indian Reservation in Utah. Chief Ouray died in Colorado earlier that year. After his death, the reservation was renamed to honor him. Chipeta continued as a leader of the Utes and was respected as a wise woman. Chipeta was a respected woman on the reservation; the government promised her a house to be built and fixed up on the reservoir however this was never conceived. The government instead put her in a two-roomed house on the White River without any furniture; this house was in a location where there could be no irrigation so Chipeta relied on rations given to her by government officials.
Oftentimes officials had to turn away people from the rations claiming. Chipeta was known to be kind and thankful for whatever the government officials did for her and was never known to be demanding, she was very respected by member of the tribe and was always allowed to meetings of the council in which no other Ute woman was accepted. When entertaining guests, Chipeta would prepare and cook meals herself with her own utensils without any help from other women. Chipeta became blind in her late age. Chipeta died August 1924 at the Uintah and Ouray Reservation in Utah. On March 15, 1925, she was reburied at the site of her former home near Colorado. On May 25, 1925, remains believed to be that of Ouray were reburied in the cemetery on the Southern Ute reservation. List of Native American artists Visual arts by indigenous peoples of the Americas Becker, Cynthia S. and P. David Smith, Chipeta: Queen of the Utes, Lake City, Colorado: Western Reflections Publi
White River (Green River tributary)
White River is a river 195 miles long, in the U. S. is a tributary of the Green River. The river rises in two forks in northwestern Colorado in northeastern Garfield County in the Flat Tops Wilderness Area in the White River National Forest; the North Fork rises in Wall Lake, flows northwest southwest. The South Fork rises ten miles south of the north, flows southwest northwest, past Spring Cave; the two forks join near Buford in eastern Rio Blanco County. It flows west northwest, past Meeker, across the broad valley between the Danforth Hills on the north and the Roan Plateau on the south. Downstream from Meeker, it is joined by Yellow Creek. In western Rio Blanco County, it turns southwest, flows past Rangely, where it is joined by Douglas Creek, into Uintah County, where it joins the Green 2 miles south of Ouray; the White River is navigable by small boats throughout most of its length. But in low water years the water level may be too low for navigation for a period of several months. Flows vary from 400 cu ft/s in late summers of dry years to well over 3,000 cu ft/s in spring.
According to the Köppen climate classification system, White River has a semi-arid climate, abbreviated "BSk" on climate maps. Media related to White River at Wikimedia Commons
The sun dance is a ceremony practiced by some Indigenous people of United States of America and Canada those of the Plains cultures. It involves the community gathering together to pray for healing. Individuals make personal sacrifices on behalf of the community. After European colonization of the Americas, with the formation of the Canadian and United States governments, both countries passed laws intended to suppress Indigenous cultures and encourage assimilation to majority-European culture, they banned Indigenous ceremonies and, in many schools and other areas, prohibited Indigenous people from speaking their native languages. In some cases they were not allowed to visit sacred sites when these had been excluded from the territory of community; the sun dance was one of the prohibited ceremonies, as was the potlatch of the Pacific Northwest peoples. Canada lifted its prohibition against the practice of the full ceremony in 1951, but in the United States, Indigenous peoples were not allowed to practice the sun dance or other sacred ceremonies until the late 1970s, after they gained renewed sovereignty and civil rights following a period of high activism, including legal challenges to the government.
Congress passed the American Indian Religious Freedom Act in 1978, enacted to protect basic civil liberties, to protect and preserve the traditional religious rights and cultural practices of American Indians, Eskimos and Native Hawaiians. Several features are common to the ceremonies held by sun dance cultures; these include dances and songs passed down through many generations, the use of a traditional drum, a sacred fire, praying with a ceremonial pipe, fasting from food and water before participating in the dance, and, in some cases, the ceremonial piercing of skin and a trial of physical endurance. Certain plants are prepared for use during the ceremony; the sun dance is a grueling ordeal for the dancers, a physical and spiritual test that they offer in sacrifice for their people. According to the Oklahoma Historical Society, young men dance around a pole to which they are fastened by "rawhide thongs pegged through the skin of their chests."While not all sun dance ceremonies include piercing, the object of the sun dance is to offer personal sacrifice for the benefit of one's family and community.
The dancers fast for many days, in the open whatever weather occurs. At most ceremonies, family members and friends stay in the surrounding camp and pray in support of the dancers. Much time and energy by the entire community are needed to conduct the sun dance gatherings and ceremonies. Communities organize for at least a year to prepare for the ceremony. One leader or a small group of leaders are in charge of the ceremony, but many elders help out and advise. A group of helpers do many of the tasks required to prepare for the ceremony; as this is a sacred ceremony, people are reluctant to discuss it in any great detail. Given a long history of cultural misappropriation, Indigenous people are suspicious that non-Indigenous people may abuse or misuse the traditional ways. Elders and medicine men are concerned that the ceremony should only be passed along in the right ways; the words used at a sun dance are in the native language and are not translated for outsiders. Not talking about this ceremony is part of the respect the people display for it.
In addition, the detailed way in which a respected elder speaks and explains a sun dance to younger members of the community is unique and not quoted, nor is it intended for publication. In 1993, responding to what they believed was a frequent desecration of the sun dance and other Lakota sacred ceremonies, US and Canadian Lakota and Nakota nations held "the Lakota Summit V", it was an international gathering of about 500 representatives from 40 different peoples and bands of the Lakota. They unanimously passed the following'Declaration of War Against Exploiters of Lakota Spirituality': "Whereas sacrilegious "sundances" for non-Indians are being conducted by charlatans and cult leaders who promote abominable and obscene imitations of our sacred Lakota sundance rites. We hereby and henceforth declare war against all persons who persist in exploiting and misrepresenting the sacred traditions and spiritual practices of the Lakota and Nakota people." - Mesteth, Wilmer, et al In 2003, the 19th-Generation Keeper of the Sacred White Buffalo Calf Pipe of the Lakota asked non-Indigenous people to stop attending the sun dance.
This statement was supported by keepers of sacred bundles and traditional spiritual leaders from the Cheyenne, Dakota and Nakota nations, who issued a proclamation that non-Indigenous people would be banned from sacred altars and the Seven Sacred Rites and the sun dance, effective March 9, 2003 onward: The Wi-wanyang-wa-c'i-pi: The only participants allowed in the centre will be Native People. The non-Native people need to respect our decision. If there have been any unfinished commitments to the sundance and non-Natives have concern for this decision. Our purpose for the sundance is for the survival of the future generations to come and foremost. If the non-Natives understand this purpose, they will understand this decision and know that by their departure from this Ho-c'o-ka is their sincere contribution to the survival of our future generations. Though only some nations' sun dances include the body piercings, the Canadian government outla
Pahvant was a band of Ute people that lived in present-day Utah. Called the "Water People", they hunted waterfowl, they were farmers and hunter-gatherers. In the 18th century they were known to be friendly and attentive, but after a chief's father was killed by emigrating white settlers, a group of Pahvant Utes killed John Williams Gunnison and seven of his men during his exploration of the area; the bodies of water of their homeland were dried up after Mormons had diverted the water for irrigation. Having intermarried with the Paiutes, they were absorbed into the Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah and relocated to reservations. Pahvants lived west of the Wasatch Range in the Pavant Range towards the Nevada border along the Sevier River in the desert around Sevier Lake and Fish Lake, therefore they called themselves Pahvant, meaning "living near the water", or "water people"; the Moanunts, another Ute band, lived on the other side of Sevier River. The two bands were two distinct groups of people. In their way of living they resembled their neighbors, the Kaibab Paiute, intermarried with neighboring Goshute and Southern Paiute.
Their hunting and gathering grounds extended west to the present-day border of Nevada. They camped in six villages during the winter season; the hunted fished along the Sevier River and hunted deer in the mountains. They gathered roots and pine nuts, they farmed for many years along Corn Creek. They had horses by the mid-19th century; the Pahvants and the Moanunts were visited in 1776 by the Dominguez–Escalante expedition. The Pahvants were considered friendly and attentive. About 1850, Mormons began to move into San Pete and Millard counties, taking the "most valuable lands" of the Pahvant and other tribes and plowing native plants, which resulted in periods of starvation and survival strategies that included begging for food and taking crops and livestock; the Indians have been driven from their lands and their hunting grounds destroyed without compensation wherefore they are in many instances reduced to a state of suffering, bordering on starvation. In this situation some of the most daring and desperate approach the settlements and demand compensation for their lands, where upon the slightest pretexts, they are shot down or driven to the mountains."
Brigham Young's response to Holeman's charge was to deny it and advise Mormons that it was "cheaper to feed Indians than fight them." Young established three farm reserves for local tribes, which became more like feeding stations after the Utes worked the farms for disappointing harvests and because it kept them from hunting, which they needed to sustain themselves. In the fall of 1853, there were a number of conflicts between emigrants to the area and the Pahvant Utes; the Utes raided several towns, killed some settlers, stole cattle. About October 1853, some pioneers had passed through Pahvant land and were having peaceful communication until they tried to take bows and arrows away from the Utes. A scuffle ensured and the settlers killed the father of Chief Moshoquop and wounded or killed other members of the band. Captain John Williams Gunnison had come to the area to survey the land for a transcontinental railroad, he heard of the conflict, but believed the issues had been resolved and set up camp on Sevier Lake to explore and survey the area.
On the morning of October 26, 1853, a group of Pahvant Utes attacked the camp. They killed seven men with bows and arrows and rifles. Following negotiations with U. S. military and the Mormons, in February 1855 Kanosh arranged for one woman and six men to stand trial for the murder of Gunnison and his men. They were found guilt of Murder in the Second Degree, with three of the tried to be sentenced to three years hard labor and a fine, they escaped five days later. It was reported. Mormon settlement had reduced access to Ute gathering grounds. Fish and native plants were reduced in number; the Mormons brought diseases to which Utes had no immunity and their population was depleted. Grasshoppers and drought destroyed the Mormon's crops, so they did not have extra food to share. River water had been diverted for irrigation by the Mormons, resulting in reduced water levels at Lake Sevier and the rivers; the Pahvants and the Moanunts were absorbed into the Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah, some of whom lived at the Kanosh reservation, a community of a few houses located north of Kanosh, Utah, or lived off-reservation near Kanosh.
Others relocated to the Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation and were classified as members of the Uintah tribe by the U. S. government. Kanosh, leader of the Pahvant band Walker War, resulting from tension between the Mormon settlers and the Ute Indians Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah, official website