Fayetteville is the third-largest city in Arkansas and county seat of Washington County. The city is centrally located within the county and has been home of the University of Arkansas since the institution's founding in 1871. Fayetteville is on the outskirts of the Boston Mountains, deep within the Ozarks. Known as Washington until 1829, the city was named after Fayetteville, from which many of the settlers had come, it was incorporated on November 3, 1836 and was rechartered in 1867. The four-county Northwest Arkansas Metropolitan Statistical Area is ranked 105th in terms of population in the United States with 463,204 in 2010 according to the United States Census Bureau; the city had a population of 73,580 at the 2010 Census. Fayetteville is home to the University of the state's largest university; when classes are in session, thousands of students on campus change the city's demographics. Thousands of Arkansas Razorbacks alumni and fans travel to Fayetteville to attend football and baseball games.
The University's men's track and field program has won 41 national championships to date. Fayetteville was named the third best place to live in the United States in the 2016 U. S. News Best Places To Live Rankings, one of the best places to retire in the South. Forbes ranked Fayetteville as the 24th-best city for business and careers in 2016. Lonely Planet named Fayetteville among its top 20 places to visit in the South in 2016; the city hosts the Walmart Shareholders Meetings each year at the Bud Walton Arena. In 1828, George McGarrah settled at Big Spring with his family on the modern day corner of Spring and Willow, founding the town of Washington, starting work on the courthouse. On October 17, Washington County was established, Washington chosen as the county seat; the Washington Courthouse was finished in 1829, contained the post office. In the year Postmaster Larkin Newton changed the name to the Fayetteville Courthouse, to avoid confusing with Washington, Hempstead County. Two councilmen selected to name the city were from Fayetteville, itself named for Fayetteville, North Carolina.
That original Fayetteville was named for General Lafayette, a French general who helped the colonies gain independence in the American Revolutionary War. The first store in Fayetteville was opened by John Nye in a small building constructed by James Holmsley. In 1832 David Walker, Chief Justice of the Arkansas supreme court, built a double log cabin on what is now Center Street. In 1822 Archibald Yell, the second Governor of Arkansas, built a house and called it "Waxhaw" after his home in North Carolina; this was on the outskirts of town but now is a street named after him that connects College and School streets. The first hotels were the Onstott House. Fayetteville was incorporated as a town on November 3, 1836. In 1859, a city charter was obtained from the Legislature. During the Civil War the municipal government was suspended and was not reinstated until 1867. P. V. Rhea was the president of the town trustees in 1836. W. Walker was the first mayor under the charter of 1859, M. L. Harrison was the first mayor when the government was reorganized in 1867.
The telegraph came to Fayetteville in 1860, strung along the Military Road from St. Louis, Missouri to Little Rock. During the American Civil War, the Union General Samuel Ryan Curtis occupied Fayetteville on February 18, 1862 and the following week, the Battle of Pea Ridge took place northeast of Fayetteville; the city housed wounded soldiers from the Battle of Prairie Grove in December 1862, housed injured troops on Dickson Street. Confederate troops besieged Union soldiers in Fayetteville on April 18, 1863 at the present-day intersection of College Avenue and Dickson Street, at their headquarters. Union soldiers held the city against cannon fire and cavalry attacks, although their headquarters sustained damage; the building was restored and is operated as the Headquarters House, a museum of the Washington County Historical Society. Fayetteville was occupied from December 1862 until May 1865 by the First Arkansas Union Cavalry, a regiment of Union men from Northwest Arkansas. Union forces repelled a Confederate attack in October 1864.
After the war, the United States government established the Fayetteville National Cemetery in 1867. A cemetery for Confederate dead was founded in 1873. Newspapers were established early; the Fayetteville Weekly Democrat began publishing in 1868. It developed as the Northwest Arkansas Times, is still in print today; the Fayetteville Schools District was founded on March 20, 1871 as the first independent school district in Arkansas. The public school system was established by the Reconstruction era legislature. Arkansas had struggled with a state banking crisis, resulting in the illegality of banking until 1868. Following the reinstatement, the Stark Bank became the first bank in the state in 1872, becoming the William McIlroy Bank four years later; this institution remains today as Arvest Bank. In 1954, a few days after Charleston, Fayetteville was the second school district in the southern United States to implement school integration in response to Brown v. Board of Education. Fayetteville is located in the Boston Mountains, a subset of The Ozarks which run through Northwest Arkansas, southern Missouri, Eastern Oklahoma.
The rocks of the Boston Mountains were formed when sandstones and shales were deposited on top of the Springfield Plateau during the Pennsylvanian Period. In the Fayettevill
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
Arkansas is a state in the southern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2018. Its name is of Siouan derivation from the language of the Osage denoting their related kin, the Quapaw Indians; the state's diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U. S. Interior Highlands, to the densely forested land in the south known as the Arkansas Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River and the Arkansas Delta. Arkansas is the 33rd most populous of the 50 United States; the capital and most populous city is Little Rock, located in the central portion of the state, a hub for transportation, business and government. The northwestern corner of the state, such as the Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Area and Fort Smith metropolitan area, is a population and economic center; the largest city in the state's eastern part is Jonesboro. The largest city in the state's southeastern part is Pine Bluff.
The Territory of Arkansas was admitted to the Union as the 25th state on June 15, 1836. In 1861, Arkansas withdrew from the United States and joined the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. On returning to the Union in 1868, the state continued to suffer due to its earlier reliance on slavery and the plantation economy, causing the state to fall behind economically and socially. White rural interests continued to dominate the state's politics until the civil rights movement. Arkansas began to diversify its economy following World War II and relies on its service industry, poultry, tourism and rice; the culture of Arkansas is observable in museums, novels, television shows and athletic venues across the state. People such as politician and educational advocate William Fulbright; the name Arkansas was applied to the Arkansas River and derives from a French term, the plural term for Quapaws, a Dhegiha Siouan-speaking Native American people who settled in Arkansas around the 13th century.
This comes from an Algonquian term, /akansa/, for the Quapaws, is also the root term for Kansas. The name has been spelled in a variety of fashions. In 1881, the pronunciation of Arkansas with the final "s" being silent was made official by an act of the state legislature after a dispute arose between Arkansas's two U. S. senators as one favored the pronunciation as AR-kən-saw while the other favored ar-KAN-zəs. In 2007, the state legislature passed a non-binding resolution declaring that the possessive form of the state's name is Arkansas's, followed by the state government. Arkansas borders Louisiana to the south, Texas to the southwest, Oklahoma to the west, Missouri to the north, Tennessee and Mississippi to the east; the United States Census Bureau classifies Arkansas as a southern state, sub-categorized among the West South Central States. The Mississippi River forms most of Arkansas's eastern border, except in Clay and Greene, counties where the St. Francis River forms the western boundary of the Missouri Bootheel, in many places where the channel of the Mississippi has meandered from its original 1836 course.
Arkansas can be split into two halves, the highlands in the northwest half and the lowlands of the southeastern half. The highlands are part of the Southern Interior Highlands, including The Ozarks and the Ouachita Mountains; the southern lowlands include the Arkansas Delta. This dual split can yield to general regions named northwest, northeast, southeast, or central Arkansas; these directionally named regions are broad and not defined along county lines. Arkansas has seven distinct natural regions: the Ozark Mountains, Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas River Valley, Gulf Coastal Plain, Crowley's Ridge, the Arkansas Delta, with Central Arkansas sometimes included as a blend of multiple regions; the southeastern part of Arkansas along the Mississippi Alluvial Plain is sometimes called the Arkansas Delta. This region is a flat landscape of rich alluvial soils formed by repeated flooding of the adjacent Mississippi. Farther away from the river, in the southeast portion of the state, the Grand Prairie consists of a more undulating landscape.
Both are fertile agricultural areas. The Delta region is bisected by a geological formation known as Crowley's Ridge. A narrow band of rolling hills, Crowley's Ridge rises from 250 to 500 feet above the surrounding alluvial plain and underlies many of the major towns of eastern Arkansas. Northwest Arkansas is part of the Ozark Plateau including the Ozark Mountains, to the south are the Ouachita Mountains, these regions are divided by the Arkansas River; these mountain ranges are part of the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains; the highest point in the state is Mount Magazine in the Ouachita Mountains, which rises to 2,753 feet above sea level. Arkansas has many rivers and reservoirs within or along its borders. Major tributaries of the Mississippi River include the Arkansas River, the White River, the St. Francis River; the Arkansas is fed by the Mulberry River and the Fou
Greenland Township, Washington County, Arkansas
Greenland Township is one of thirty-seven townships in Washington County, Arkansas, USA. As of the 2000 census, its total population was 2,114. According to the United States Census Bureau, Greenland Township covers an area of 23.2 square miles, with 23.1 square miles of land and 0.1 square miles of water. Greenland The township contains Boone Cemetery, Rieff Chapel Cemetery, Shaeffer Cemetery, Baptist Ford Cemetery, Wilson Cemetery. Interstate 49 U. S. Route 71 Arkansas Highway 265 United States Census Bureau 2008 TIGER/Line Shapefiles United States Board on Geographic Names United States National Atlas US-Counties.com City-Data.com
Lincoln is a city in Washington County, United States. The population was 1,752 at the 2000 census, it is part of the Northwest Arkansas metro area. Lincoln was called "Georgetown", under the latter name a post office was established in 1884; the present name of Lincoln was adopted in 1885. The city of Lincoln was incorporated in 1907. Lincoln is located at 35°56′54″N 94°25′26″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.87 square miles. Lincoln Lake is 400 acres, 90 of, water, it offers pristine water recreation, rock climbing, mountain biking, hiking and stunning photographic opportunities at Lincoln Lake. Lincoln is about 25 miles southwest of Fayetteville and eight miles east of the Arkansas-Oklahoma border; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,752 people, 723 households, 472 families residing in the city. The population density was 983.2 people per square mile. There were 798 housing units at an average density of 447.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 91.78% White, 2.57% Native American, 0.06% Asian, 2.57% from other races, 3.03% from two or more races.
5.08% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 723 households out of which 29.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.2% were married couples living together, 12.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.7% were non-families. 30.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 3.00. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 26.7% under the age of 18, 8.6% from 18 to 24, 26.7% from 25 to 44, 21.3% from 45 to 64, 16.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,639, the median income for a family was $37,102. Males had a median income of $26,860 versus $18,958 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,232.
About 12.7% of families and 15.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.5% of those under age 18 and 11.8% of those age 65 or over. Lincoln Elementary School, Lincoln Middle School, Lincoln High School, Lincoln Academic Center of Excellence make up the Lincoln School District. Lincoln completed a large, state-of-the-art, multimillion-dollar high school; the school mascot is the Wolf. The school colors are white; the middle school houses the Lincoln Youth Adventure Club. This afterschool enrichment program focuses on exposing children to outdoor activities such as rock climbing, mountain biking, canoeing and disc golf; the middle school has an awarding winning chess club. In 2015, the group had a 6th grader win first place in the unrated division at the United States Chess Championship in Nashville, Tennessee. In addition, the club won the first place team trophy in the unrated division. Lincoln Public Library was demolished and rebuilt Lincoln Library thanks to a bond, in-kind services.
It is 10,200+ square feet, features 108 computers and laptops. The public library has two meetings rooms, a demonstration kitchen, genealogy section and free internet extending into the square; the library hosts multiple services including Ancestry.com, Social Security resource site, GED and Continuation of Education courses. The library has a linguistics center featuring 20 languages. Lincoln is home to the Arkansas Country Doctor Museum, which includes a collection of medical instruments and personal artifacts from the 1930s to 1980s. Lincoln is home to the Annual Arkansas Apple Festival, held every year the first weekend of October. For many years, it has attracted visitors to the area who come to see the arts and crafts of the Ozarks. Apple growing was once a major agricultural industry in Lincoln which has declined due to changing climate conditions and high costs of upkeep. In spite of the decline, Lincoln still hosts a successful Apple Festival that welcomes visitors and vendors from all over the nation.
Serving free apple slices and a swig of Apple Cider to sightseers. Local Apple farmers developed the following in the Area. Collins’ Red —found by chance in a field near Lincoln; the team is part of the Central Football League and plays their season from March through June each year. Lincoln South Park was established in 1970 with a Fun Park grant with the City of Lincoln and the State of Arkansas Parks and Tourism, it is located on the south side of town and hosts playground equipment, basketball hoops and a walking trail and other. Historic 62 Roadside Park is located on the northeast side of US 62 as you are coming into the east side of town in Lincoln; the site is scheduled to be upgraded into a veterans' park in the near future. It is the location of a historic cemetery, attached to the north side of the park. Landscaping and focus groups on the park's future were formed in 2014 and a list of veterans is being compiled
Winslow is a city in Washington County, United States. The population was 391 at the 2010 census, it is part of the Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers Metropolitan Area. A stagecoach stop for many years, the community now known as Winslow first received a post office on December 11, 1876, known as Summit Home; the town grew upon completion of the Winslow Tunnel, which allowed the St. Louis – San Francisco Railway to run through the steep Boston Mountains of south Washington County; the town was renamed to Winslow on August 3, 1881 in honor of Edward F. Winslow, president of the Frisco Railroad; the town became a somewhat resort town for its picturesque peaks at the end of the 19th century, drawing many wealthy from the Fort Smith area to summer there. It was incorporated on February 17, 1905. Winslow is located at 35°47′55″N 94°7′53″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.9 square miles, all land. Winslow is 12 miles east of Devil's Den State Park, along Arkansas Highway 74.
As of the census of 2010, there were 391 people, 146 households, 105 families residing in the city. The population density was 205.8 people per square mile. There were 180 housing units at an average density of 94.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.9% White, 0.3% Black or African American, 0.5% Native American, 0.8% from other races, 2.6% from two or more races. 2.0% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 146 households out of which 24.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.2% were married couples living together, 12.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 28.1% were non-families. 24.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.15. The distribution of age in Winslow reflects a change in the population that has occurred between 2000 and 2010 as the percentage of individuals under the age of 18 has dropped from 28.6% to 21.5% and individuals 24-44 dropped from 23.3% to 20.2%.
All other age categories have in turn risen, those 18 to 24 have risen from 8.0% to 9.7%, those age 45 to 64 rose 25.8 to 33.5%, those who were 65 years of age or older rose from 14.3% to 22.4%. This population shift is a result of the closure of the Winslow Public School district, as families with children left the area and new families have not replaced them; the median age was 43.6 years. For every 100 females, there were 109.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $32,692, the median income for a family was $45,000. Males had a median income of $31,389 versus $41,719 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,415. About 11.5% of families and 23.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.9% of those under age 18 and 13.7% of those age 65 or over. It is within the Greenland School District, served by Greenland High School in Greenland. For many years, Winslow had the Winslow School District, it served nearby rural areas in the southern portion of Washington County.
By most counts, enrollment for grades K-12 was in the mid-20s per grade. The district became part of the Greenland school district on July 1, 2004, after the Arkansas Legislature passed a state law that mandated districts with less than 350 students consolidate; the high school, which served grades 7-12, closed at the end of the 2004-2005 school year. The graduating class at the 2005 spring ceremony had 14 seniors. Winslow Elementary for grades K-6 was retained for a time following the high school closure. However, in November 2006, the Greenland School Board voted to close that school at the end of the 2006-2007 school year after two years with an enrollment of about 90 students; the mascot of Winslow Public Schools was the Squirrels. The majority of the student body did not go to Greenland, they instead opted to transfer to the West Fork school district. The voters of Winslow are petitioning the Arkansas Department of Education and Arkansas Legislature to change Winslow's former district from Greenland to West Fork.
The Winslow campus now houses the Winslow Public Library, Friends of the Library Bookstore, Internet Cafe in the old High school building. The Elementary School and other buildings have been demolished, or boarded up with the doors, except the main doors, welded shut. There have been two movies. John Joshua Webb, Old West gunman died while living in Winslow in 1882 during a smallpox epidemic Douglas C. Jones, Western historical writer, born in Winslow Maude Duncan Kevin Carson, research associate with the Center for a Stateless Society and author of several books about mutualism, individualist anarchism, left-libertarianism, anarchism Devil's Den State Park Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture entry: Winslow
Greenland is a city in Washington County, United States. The community is located in the Boston Mountains, deep in the Ozark Mountains. Early settlers found prosperity by growing fruit, including apples and a variety of berries, raising chickens; the completion of the St. Louis–San Francisco Railway through the mountains in 1882 further grew the local economy, leading Greenland to incorporate in 1910. Located south of Fayetteville in the Northwest Arkansas metropolitan statistical area, Greenland has been experiencing a population boom in recent years, as indicated by a 39% growth in population between the 2000 and 2010 censuses. Greenland is located at 35°59′41″N 94°10′51″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.7 square miles, of which 2.7 square miles is land and 0.37% is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 907 people, 335 households, 259 families residing in the city; the population density was 331.9 people per square mile. There were 361 housing units at an average density of 132.1/sq mi.
The racial makeup of the city was 95.48% White, 1.10% Black or African American, 1.21% Native American, 0.44% Asian, 0.55% from other races, 1.21% from two or more races. 2.21% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 335 households out of which 38.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.2% were married couples living together, 18.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.4% were non-families. 19.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.08. In the city, 78% were indicated to have received a high school diploma, 13% to have received a bachelor's degree exclusively from U of A. In the city, the population was spread out with 28.6% under the age of 18, 8.3% from 18 to 24, 31.2% from 25 to 44, 21.7% from 45 to 64, 10.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.5 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,643, the median income for a family was $33,875. Males had a median income of $23,750 versus $14,750 for females, indicative of the large income disparity among males and females living in the region; the per capita income for the city was $16,127. About 57.9% of families and 33.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 39.2% of those under age 18 and 41.3% of those age 65 or over. Greenland School District operates area public schools including Greenland High School. Located south of Fayetteville, the city is served by Interstate 49 along the western edge and by US Highway 71 through central Greenland. Together, these routes form the Boston Mountains Scenic Loop, one of eleven scenic byways in the state. Highway 265 runs in extreme western Greenland as the Butterfield Overland Mail Arkansas Heritage Trail. Drake Field and operated by the City of Fayetteville, is located north of Greenland.
Northwest Arkansas's primary aviation facility until the construction of Northwest Arkansas Regional Airport, Drake Field provides general aviation service to the residents and organization around the area. The facility saw 35,267 operations in 2009; the climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and cool to cold winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Greenland has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. City of Greenland, Arkansas official website