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White Ruthenia

White Ruthenia, alternatively known as Russia Alba, White Rus' or White Russia, is an archaism for the eastern part of present-day Belarus, including the cities of Polotsk and Mogilev. Many other variants of this name appeared in ancient maps: for instance, Russia Alba, Russija Alba, Wit Rusland, Weiß Reußen, White Russia, Hviterussland, Hvíta Rússland, Weiß Russland, Ruthenia Alba, Ruthénie Blanche and Weiß Ruthenien, assigned to various territories quite distant from that of present Belarus. For example, at one time the term was applied to Novgorod; the 16th century chronicler Alexander Guagnini book Sarmatiae Europeae descriptio popular in Europe, but in fact plagiarized from Maciej Stryjkowski, wrote that Rus' was divided in three parts. The first part, under the rule of the Moscovite Grand Duke, was called White Russia; the second one, under the rule of Polish king, was called Black Russia. And the rest was Red Russia, he said Moscow was the center of White Russia and Russian metropolitanate, that Grand Duke of Moscow was called the White Czar by his subjects.

Only by the late 16th century did it sometimes mention as a name for the area of the present Belarus. The origins of the name, attested from the 14th century, are unclear. Vasmer's dictionary mentions the dichotomy of "white" land and "taxed" land in Domostroi and speculates that "white" Russia may have referred to the parts of Russia that were not subject to Tatar rule. Another speculation in Vasmer is that the color of the clothes of the White Russians may have contributed to the name. Oleg Trubachyov calls both theories "complete fantasies". Black Ruthenia Red RutheniaLittle Russia Great Russia New Russia Why is the Russia White


Aibel is a service company within the oil and offshore wind industries. They company provides engineering, construction and maintenance through a project's life cycle. Aibel’s more than 4000 workforce engineers, builds and upgrades oil and gas production facilities; the company works with existing facilities onshore and offshore. Aibel is present at approx. Half of the offshore installations on the Norwegian Continental Shelf, at three onshore facilities in Norway and delivers a wide range of services to operators all over the world. Aibel’s headquarter is situated in Stavanger; the company has engineering offices in Asker, Harstad and Haugesund. The company has two major yards. About half of Aibel’s employees are engaged with maintenance and operating services at existing oil and gas facilities on the Norwegian Continental Shelf; the company has modification frame agreements. It delivers stand-alone Modification projects involving installation of new modules. Aibel has a wide range of services within Field Development.

The company develop concepts for FPSOs and fixed platforms. Being a turnkey supplier, Aibel offers its clients the full range of services, including studies, project management, procurement, installation and completion. In August 2011, Aibel was awarded a major contract with ABB for the design and development of the DolWin Beta platform for a major offshore wind park off the coast of Germany; the platform will receive alternating current from wind parks and convert it into direct current before sending it onshore via subsea cables. The platform left Aibel’s yard in Haugesund August 2014. In February 2015, Aibel won the contract for the engineering and construction of the drilling platform for the Johan Sverdrup field; the construction work is now underway at the company’s yards in Haugesund and Thailand and at partner Nymo's yard at Grimstad, Norway. Today, Aibel is an independent company owned by investor companies Ferd, Ratos and Sjätte AP-fonden. In November 2008, Aibel Group Ltd, the United Kingdom subsidiary of Aibel, agreed to pay a criminal fine of USD 4.2 million to the US Department of Justice for violations of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.

Aibel admitted to paying bribes to government officials at the Nigeria Customs Service, in exchange for preferential treatment which allowed the company to secure an improper advantage with respect to the importation of its goods and equipment into Nigeria which were needed for a deepwater oil drilling operation. Aibel admitted it had failed to comply with its obligations to implement an enhanced compliance programme and effective FCPA monitors, after it had entered into a deferred prosecution agreement with the DOJ in 2007 for separate violations of the anti-bribery provisions of the FCPA with respect to its operations in Nigeria. List of oilfield service companies

Marvin Keller

Marvin V. Keller was an American politician from Pennsylvania who served as a Republican member of the Pennsylvania Senate for the 10th district from 1959 to 1970, he served in the Pennsylvania House of Representatives for the Bucks County district from 1948 to 1957. Keller was born in Pennsylvania to Walter H. and Bertha V. Keller, he was graduated from Rider College. He was a building contractor, he worked as a director of the Newtown Title & Trust Company and as a director for the Langhorne Federal Saving and Loan Association. In 1943, he was elected Register of Wills, he served in the Pennsylvania House of Representatives for the Bucks County district from 1948 to 1957 and the Pennsylvania Senate for the 10th district from 1959 to 1970. He died after a long illness in 1976 and is interred at the Newtown Cemetery in Newtown, Pennsylvania

Carl Baudenbacher

Carl Baudenbacher is a Swiss jurist. He has served as a Judge of the EFTA Court from September 1995 to April 2018 and was the Court's President from 2003 to 2017, he was a Full Professor at the University of St. Gallen from 1987 to 2013 and a Permanent Visiting professor at the University of Texas at Austin School of Law from 1993-2004. Carl Baudenbacher attended the School of Law and Economics of the University of Berne from 1967 until 1971, he received his doctorate from the University of Berne in 1978 and his habilitation from the University of Zurich in 1982. Baudenbacher was an Acting Law Professor at several prestigious German Universities and an Associate Professor at the University of Kaiserslautern, Germany, he held the Chair of Private and Economic law at the University of St Gallen HSG, Switzerland from 1987 to 2013. He was the Managing Director of the Institute of European and International Business Law at the University of St Gallen HSG from 1990 to 2014. From 1993 to 2004 Baudenbacher was a Permanent Visiting Professor for International and European Law at the University of Texas School of Law.

Baudenbacher founded directed the global postgraduate program Executive Master of European and International Business Law E. M. B. L.-HSG in 1995 and directed it until 2017. Carl Baudenbacher was the founder and Chairman of the St Gallen International Competition Law Forum ICF. From 1999 to 2007, Professor Baudenbacher co-chaired the Vienna Globalization Symposium together with the former Vice-Chancellor of the Republic of Austria, Dr Erhard Busek, he was a Visiting Professor at the University of Geneva and at the University of Iceland. Carl Baudenbacher served as a member of the Supreme Court of the Principality of Liechtenstein between 1994 and 1995. In 1995 he was appointed Judge of the EFTA Court upon a proposal of the Principality of Liechtenstein. From 2003 to 2017, he served as the Court's President; the EFTA Court hears cases originating from the EFTA States which are Contracting Parties to the EEA Agreement. The EEA Agreement has extended the EU single market to those EFTA States, it is based on a two pillar approach.

Both pillars, the EU pillar and the EFTA pillar, have their own surveillance authority and their own court. EEA law, implemented into the legal orders of the EEA/EFTA States is capable of having direct effect and takes precedence over conflicting national law; the EFTA Court has recognized EEA State liability. Moreover, EEA law must be interpreted in the light of fundamental rights; the EFTA Court is bound by homogeneity rules to follow or to take into account relevant ECJ case law. In the majority of its cases, it is, faced with novel legal questions and has to ‘go first.’ There are countless references to EFTA Court case law by the ECJ, its Advocates General, the General Court and high courts in Germany, the United Kingdom and Switzerland. In practice, the one-sided written homogeneity rules have been superseded by a "unique judicial dialogue". Described as a influential member of the Court, Baudenbacher acted as the Reporting Judge in a number of landmark cases including E-16/16 Fosen-Linjen.

On 16 April 2011, the leading Norwegian business paper Dagens Næringsliv referred to President Baudenbacher as "King Carl of the EEA" and as "one of Norway's most powerful men." On 21 August 2017, The Times wrote in the context of Brexit: "Carl Baudenbacher is not shy about plunging into international geopolitics. As it turns out this is a good thing." After his resignation from the EFTA Court bench, Baudenbacher has become an independent arbitrator and consultant. He is a member of Monckton Chambers, London. Baudenbacher is advising private clients including law firms, his specialties are coaching of lawyers' teams, writing legal opinions, acting as a mock trial judge. He was an expert witness in international arbitration cases. Baudenbacher was the principal expert advisor to the Government of the Principality of Liechtenstein during the multilateral negotiations on the establishment of a European Economic Area from 1990 until 1994, he advised the President, the Government and the Parliament of the Swiss Confederation on matters of European integration, competition law and copyright law, the Israeli Government on matters of unfair competition and trademark law and the Government of the Russian Federation on competition law, the UNCTAD and the OECD on matters of competition law, the British Government and the British Parliament on Brexit, the Icelandic Government on matters of EEA law.

Professor Baudenbacher has furthermore advised the Court of Justice of the Andean Community and the Government of the Republic of Chile on its project for a new constitution. In 2014, he has served as a member of the independent five member Commission of the Austrian Government which investigated the events around the Hypo Group Alpe Adria. Baudenbacher is a much sought-after speaker at international conferences in particular on competition law, EU/EEA Law, the law of international


Panagarh is the easternmost suburb of Durgapur, a small town in Kanksa CD block in Durgapur subdivision of Paschim Bardhaman district of West Bengal. Panagarh is located at 23.45°N 87.43°E / 23.45. It has an average elevation of 58 m; the Asansol-Durgapur region is composed of undulating laterite soil. This area lies between two mighty rivers -- the Ajay, they flow parallel to each other in the region – the average distance between the two rivers is around 30 km. The entire Durgapur-Kanksa-Faridpur-Ausgram area was densely forested in more recent times; the influx of refugees from East Pakistan and their rehabilitation in the area, irrigation facilities extended by Damodar Valley Corporation led to destruction of much of the forests in the area, but some still remain. As per the 2011 census, 79.22% of the population of Durgapur subdivision was urban and 20.78% was rural. The sole municipal corporation in Durgapur subdivision is located at Durgapur and the subdivision has 38 census towns. Panagarh Airport was constructed during the Second World War.

It serves as a base for the Indian Air Force. In 2016, it was renamed as Air Force Station Arjan Singh. One of the 62 cantonments in the country is located at Panagarh; as per the 2011 Census of India Panagar had a total population of 5,510, of which 2,796 were males and 2,714 were females. Population below 6 years was 650; the total number of literates in Panagar was 3,836. Panagarh is a station on the Bardhaman-Asansol section, a part of Howrah-Gaya-Delhi line, Howrah-Allahabad-Mumbai line and Howrah-Delhi main line. Earlier, NH 19 passed through Panagarh Bazar. A bypass was constructed in 2016; the old Grand Trunk Road continues to pass through the town. SH 14 passes through Panagarh; the Dubrajpur-Panagarh sector of SH 14 is part of Panagarh–Morgram Highway. Panagarh has five primary schools, Rama Krishna Ashrama Vidyapitha, the Kendriya Vidyalaya, Secondary School and two higher secondary schools. Panagarh has two engineering colleges viz. Aryabhatta Institute of Engineering & Management Durgapur and Techno India, Durgapur.

There is a block primary health centre at Panagarh

Meenambakkam bomb blast

The Meenambakkam bomb blast was the bomb blast that occurred on August 2, 1984 at Meenambakkam International Airport at Chennai in Tamil Nadu. 33 people were killed and 27 others were injured. Tamil Eelam Army was suspected in the bombing and a few of its members were convicted for it. TEA had about 1,300 volunteers. After a brief period of intense struggle and about 130 others had escaped to Tamil Nadu vowing to continue their struggle; the Meenambakkam blast, their first case of subversion, however had occurred by accident. The bombs were placed in a plane bound for Lanka aiming a blast at Lanka airport by the accused Kathiresan; the timer was set at around 11 PM when the Air Lanka flight UL-122 was scheduled to reach Colombo airport. The aircraft was to leave Chennai airport at 8:10 PM on that day. Again, their intention was to explode the bomb after the luggage were removed from the plane and dispatched to the cargo complex; the intensity of the blast would have destroyed at least six planes in the airport, police said.

The main accused, Kathiresan purchased the ticket for the Air Lanka flight but did not travel in the flight. He had, with the assistance of a Sri Lankan, Saravana Bhavan, Chandra Kumar and Vijayakumar tried to transmit the luggage through the conveyor for clearance by the Customs; the luggage instead of getting into the cargo for Air Lanka flight, had by mistake reached the luggage for a flight to London. But the Customs authorities detained the luggage as the passenger did not turn up for identification; the Air Lanka flight took off from the Meenambakkam airport around 8.15 PM As the plan did not succeed, the accused who were watching the whole incident from within the airport, went to Guindy and made repeated calls warning the airport authorities about the bombs in the luggage. Though the police tried to retrieve the luggage, a customs inspector had objected to handing over the baggage as he mistook it to be containing gold biscuits. Two calls were made by the TEA volunteers that the luggage contained explosives which would explode around 11 PM.

It was only when the third call was made, did the customs inspector concede to hand over the suitcase. But by it was too late; the blast occurred around 10.50 PM killing over 27 transit passengers bound for Sri Lanka and six airport security officials. Crime Branch CID police arrested 10 persons in the case while a Sri Lanka national Sree was absconding, but three accused- Kathiresan, Vigneswara Raja and Thambiraja jumped bail. The District Sessions Judge, convicted five accused - Saravana Bhavan, Vijay Kumar and Chandra Kumar - were convicted and sentenced for life