Minimalism (visual arts)
Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design visual art and music, where the work is set out to expose the essence, essentials or identity of a subject through eliminating all non-essential forms, features or concepts. As a specific movement in the arts it is identified with developments in post–World War II Western Art, most with American visual arts in the 1960s and early 1970s. Prominent artists associated with this movement include Ad Reinhardt, Tony Smith, Donald Judd, John McCracken, Agnes Martin, Dan Flavin, Robert Morris, Larry Bell, Anne Truitt, Yves Klein and Frank Stella. Artists themselves have sometimes reacted against the label due to the negative implication of the work being simplistic. Minimalism is interpreted as a reaction against Abstract expressionism and a bridge to Postminimal art practices. Minimalism in visual art referred to as "minimal art", literalist art and ABC Art emerged in New York in the early 1960s. Minimal art appeared in New York in the 60s as new and older artists moved toward geometric abstraction.
Judd's sculpture was showcased in 1964 at the Green Gallery in Manhattan as were Flavin's first fluorescent light works, while other leading Manhattan galleries like the Leo Castelli Gallery and the Pace Gallery began to showcase artists focused on geometric abstraction. In addition there were two seminal and influential museum exhibitions: Primary Structures: Younger American and British Sculpture' shown from April 27 - June 12, 1966 at the Jewish Museum in New York, organized by the museum's Curator of Painting and Sculpture, Kynaston McShine and Systemic Painting, at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum curated by Lawrence Alloway in 1966 that showcased Geometric abstraction in the American art world via Shaped canvas, Color Field, Hard-edge painting. In the wake of those exhibitions and a few others the art movement called. Jean Metzinger, following the Succès de scandale created from the Cubist showing at the 1911 Salon des Indépendants, in an interview with Cyril Berger published in Paris-Journal 29 May 1911, stated: We cubists have only done our duty by creating a new rhythm for the benefit of humanity.
Others will come after us. What will they find? That is the tremendous secret of the future. Who knows if someday, a great painter, looking with scorn on the brutal game of supposed colorists and taking the seven colors back to the primordial white unity that encompasses them all, will not exhibit white canvases, with nothing nothing on them. Metzinger's audacious prediction that artists would take abstraction to its logical conclusion by vacating representational subject matter and returning to what Metzinger calls the "primordial white unity", a "completely white canvas" would be realized two years later; the writer of a satirical manifesto Francis Picabia, in a publication entitled Evolution de l'art: Vers l'amorphisme, in Les Hommes du Jour, may have had Metzinger's vision in mind when the author justified amorphism's blank canvases by claiming'light is enough for us'. With perspective, writes art historian Jeffery S. Weiss, "Vers Amorphisme may be gibberish, but it was enough of a foundational language to anticipate the extreme reductivist implications of non-objectivity".
Monochrome painting was initiated at the first Incoherent arts' exhibition in 1882 in Paris, with a black painting by poet Paul Bilhaud entitled "Combat de Nègres dans un tunnel". In the subsequent exhibitions of the Incoherent arts the writer Alphonse Allais proposed seven other monochrome paintings, such as "Première communion de jeunes filles chlorotiques par un temps de neige", or "Récolte de la tomate par des cardinaux apoplectiques au bord de la Mer Rouge". However, this kind of activity bears more similarity to 20th century Dada, or Neo-Dada, the works of the Fluxus group of the 1960s, than to 20th century monochrome painting since Malevich. In a broad and general sense, one finds European roots of minimalism in the geometric abstractions of painters associated with the Bauhaus, in the works of Kazimir Malevich, Piet Mondrian and other artists associated with the De Stijl movement, the Russian Constructivist movement, in the work of the Romanian sculptor Constantin Brâncuși. Minimal art is inspired in part by the paintings of Barnett Newman, Ad Reinhardt, Josef Albers, the works of artists as diverse as Pablo Picasso, Marcel Duchamp, Giorgio Morandi, others.
Minimalism was a reaction against the painterly subjectivity of Abstract Expressionism, dominant in the New York School during the 1940s and 1950s. The wide range of possibilities of interpretation of monochrome paintings is arguably why the monochrome is so engaging to so many artists and writers. Although the monochrome has never become dominant and few artists have committed themselves to it, it has never gone away, it reappears as though a spectre haunting high modernism, or as a symbol of it, appearing during times of aesthetic and sociopolitical upheavals. In France between 1947 and 1948, Yves Klein conceived his Monotone Symphony that consisted of a single 20-minute sustained chord follo
Aesthetics is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of art and taste and with the creation or appreciation of beauty. In its more technical epistemological perspective, it is defined as the study of subjective and sensori-emotional values, or sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. Aesthetics studies how artists imagine and perform works of art, it studies how they feel about art—why they like some works and not others, how art can affect their moods and attitude toward life. The phrase was coined in English in the 18th century. More broadly, scholars in the field define aesthetics as "critical reflection on art and nature". In modern English, the term aesthetic can refer to a set of principles underlying the works of a particular art movement or theory: one speaks, for example, of the Cubist aesthetic; the word aesthetic is derived from the Greek αἰσθητικός, which in turn was derived from αἰσθάνομαι (aisthanomai, meaning "I perceive, sense" and related to αἴσθησις. Aesthetics in this central sense has been said to start with the series of articles on “The Pleasures of the Imagination” which the journalist Joseph Addison wrote in the early issues of the magazine The Spectator in 1712.
The term "aesthetics" was appropriated and coined with new meaning by the German philosopher Alexander Baumgarten in his dissertation Meditationes philosophicae de nonnullis ad poema pertinentibus in 1735. Aesthetics, a not tidy intellectual discipline, is a heterogeneous collection of problems that concern the arts but relate to nature. Even though his definition in the fragment Aesthetica is more referred to as the first definition of modern aesthetics. Aesthetics is for the artist; some separate aesthetics and philosophy of art, claiming that the former is the study of beauty while the latter is the study of works of art. However, most Aesthetics encompasses both questions around beauty as well as questions about art, it examines topics such as aesthetic objects, aesthetic experience, aesthetic judgments. For some, aesthetics is considered a synonym for the philosophy of art since Hegel, while others insist that there is a significant distinction between these related fields. In practice, aesthetic judgement refers to the sensory contemplation or appreciation of an object, while artistic judgement refers to the recognition, appreciation or criticism of art or an art work.
Philosophical aesthetics has not only to speak about art and to produce judgments about art works, but has to give a definition of what art is. Art is an autonomous entity for philosophy, because art deals with the senses and art is as such free of any moral or political purpose. Hence, there are two different conceptions of art in aesthetics: art as knowledge or art as action, but aesthetics is neither epistemology nor ethics. Aestheticians compare historical developments with theoretical approaches to the arts of many periods, they study the varieties of art in relation to their physical and culture environments. Aestheticians use psychology to understand how people see, imagine, think and act in relation to the materials and problems of art. Aesthetic psychology studies the creative process and the aesthetic experience. Aesthetics examines our affective domain response to an object or phenomenon Judgments of aesthetic value rely on our ability to discriminate at a sensory level. However, aesthetic judgments go beyond sensory discrimination.
For David Hume, delicacy of taste is not "the ability to detect all the ingredients in a composition", but our sensitivity "to pains as well as pleasures, which escape the rest of mankind." Thus, the sensory discrimination is linked to capacity for pleasure. For Immanuel Kant, "enjoyment" is the result when pleasure arises from sensation, but judging something to be "beautiful" has a third requirement: sensation must give rise to pleasure by engaging our capacities of reflective contemplation. Judgments of beauty are sensory and intellectual all at once. Kant observed of a man "If he says that canary wine is agreeable he is quite content if someone else corrects his terms and reminds him to say instead: It is agreeable to me," because "Everyone has his own taste"; the case of "beauty" is different from mere "agreeableness" because, "If he proclaims something to be beautiful he requires the same liking from others. Roger Scruton has argued similarly. Viewer interpretations of beauty may on occasion be observed to possess two concepts of value: aesthetics and taste.
Aesthetics is the philosophical notion of beauty. Taste is a result of an education process and awareness of elite cultural values learned through exposure to mass culture. Bourdieu examined how the elite in society define the aesthetic values like taste and how varying levels of exposure to these values can result in variations by class, cultural background, education. According to Kant, beauty is universal. In the opinion of Władysław Tatarkiewicz, there are
Page layout is the part of graphic design that deals in the arrangement of visual elements on a page. It involves organizational principles of composition to achieve specific communication objectives; the high-level page layout involves deciding on the overall arrangement of text and images, on the size or shape of the medium. It requires intelligence and creativity, is informed by culture and what the document authors and editors wish to communicate and emphasize. Low-level pagination and typesetting are more mechanical processes. Given certain parameters - boundaries of text areas, the typeface, font size, justification preference can be done in a straightforward way; until desktop publishing became dominant, these processes were still done by people, but in modern publishing they are always automated. The result might be tweaked by a graphic designer. Beginning from early illuminated pages in hand-copied books of the Middle Ages and proceeding down to intricate modern magazine and catalog layouts, proper page design has long been a consideration in printed material.
With print media, elements consist of type and place-holder graphics for elements that are not printed with ink such as die/laser cutting, foil stamping or blind embossing. With manuscripts, all of the elements are added by hand, so the creator can determine the layout directly as they create the work with an advance sketch as a guide. With ancient woodblock printing, all elements of the page were carved directly into wood, though layout decisions might need to be made if the printing was transferred onto a larger work, such as a large piece of fabric with multiple block impressions. With the Renaissance invention of letterpress printing and cold-metal moveable type, typesetting was accomplished by physically assembling characters using a composing stick into a galley—a long tray. Any images would be created by engraving; the original document would be a hand-written manuscript. After the first round of typesetting, a galley proof might be printed in order for proofreading to be performed, either to correct errors in the original, or to make sure that the typesetter had copied the manuscript properly, interpreted the markup.
The final layout would be constructed in a "form" or "forme" using pieces of wood or metal to space out the text and images as desired, a frame known as a chase, objects which lock down the frame known as quoins. This process is called imposition, includes arranging multiple pages to be printed on the same sheet of paper which will be folded and trimmed. An "imposition proof" might be created to check the final placement; the invention of hot metal typesetting in 1884 sped up the typesetting process by allowing workers to produce slugs—entire lines of text—using a keyboard. The slugs were the result of molten metal being poured into molds temporarily assembled by the typesetting machine; the layout process remained the same as with cold metal type, however: assembly into physical galleys. Offset lithography allows the bright and dark areas of an image to control ink placement on the printing press; this means that if a single copy of the page can be created on paper and photographed any number of copies could be printed.
Type could be set with a typewriter, or to achieve professional results comparable to letterpress, a specialized typesetting machine. The IBM Selectric Composer, for example, could produce type of different size, different fonts, with text justification. With photoengraving and halftone, physical photographs could be transferred into print directly, rather than relying on hand-made engravings; the layout process became the task of creating the paste up, so named because rubber cement or other adhesive would be used to physically paste images and columns of text onto a rigid sheet of paper. Completed pages become known as camera-ready, "mechanical" or "mechanical art". Phototypesetting was invented in 1945; these machines became sophisticated, with computer-driven models able to store text on magnetic tape. As the graphics capabilities of computers matured, they began to be used to render characters, columns and multi-page signatures directly, rather than summoning a photographic template from a pre-supplied set.
In addition to being used as display devices for computer operators, cathode ray tubes were used to render text for phototypesetting. The curved nature of the CRT display however, led to distortions of text and art on the screen towards the outer edges of the screens; the advent of "flat screen" monitors in early 2010 eliminated the distortion problems caused by older CRT displays. As of 2016 flat panel displays have completely replaced CRT displays. Printers attached directly to computers allowed them to print documents directly, in multiple copies or as an original which could be copied on a ditto machine or photocopier. WYSIWYG word processors made it possible for general off
Ma (negative space)
Ma is a Japanese word which can be translated as "gap", "space", "pause" or "the space between two structural parts." The spatial concept is experienced progressively through intervals of spatial designation. In Japanese, ma, the word for space, suggests interval, it is best described as a consciousness of place, not in the sense of an enclosed three-dimensional entity, but rather the simultaneous awareness of form and non-form deriving from an intensification of vision. Ma is not something, created by compositional elements. Therefore, ma can be defined as experiential place understood with emphasis on interval. Ma has been described as "an emptiness full of possibilities, like a promise yet to be fulfilled", as "the silence between the notes which make the music". Other illustrations appear in this old poem: Thirty spokes meet in the hub, though the space between them is the essence of the wheel. Among English loanwords of Japanese origin, both Ma and Ken are written with the same character 間.
This Japanese kanji "Chinese character" 間 graphically combines 門 "door" and 日 "sun". The earlier variant character 閒 was written with 月 "moon" rather than "sun", depicting "A 門 door through the crevice of which the 月 moonshine peeps in"; the diverse Japanese pronunciations of 間 include on'yomi Sino-Chinese readings of kan "interval. In his 2001 book The Art of Looking Sideways, Alan Fletcher discusses the importance of exemplifying "space" as a substance: Space is substance. Cézanne modelled space. Giacometti sculpted by "taking the fat off space". Mallarmé conceived poems with absences as well as words. Ralph Richardson asserted that acting lay in pauses... Isaac Stern described music as "that little bit between each note - silences which give the form"... The Japanese have a word for this interval. In the West we have neither term. A serious omission. Derrick de Kerckhove described Ma as: “the complex network of relationships between people and objects” Maai Mind the gap, warning phrase issued to London Underground passengers Mu Wu wei, a term in Chinese philosophy Negative space Liminality The Void "Negative Spac e" - discussing photographic techniques
Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions. It is one of the plastic arts. Durable sculptural processes used carving and modelling, in stone, ceramics and other materials but, since Modernism, there has been an complete freedom of materials and process. A wide variety of materials may be worked by removal such as carving, assembled by welding or modelling, or molded or cast. Sculpture in stone survives far better than works of art in perishable materials, represents the majority of the surviving works from ancient cultures, though conversely traditions of sculpture in wood may have vanished entirely. However, most ancient sculpture was brightly painted, this has been lost. Sculpture has been central in religious devotion in many cultures, until recent centuries large sculptures, too expensive for private individuals to create, were an expression of religion or politics; those cultures whose sculptures have survived in quantities include the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean and China, as well as many in Central and South America and Africa.
The Western tradition of sculpture began in ancient Greece, Greece is seen as producing great masterpieces in the classical period. During the Middle Ages, Gothic sculpture represented the agonies and passions of the Christian faith; the revival of classical models in the Renaissance produced famous sculptures such as Michelangelo's David. Modernist sculpture moved away from traditional processes and the emphasis on the depiction of the human body, with the making of constructed sculpture, the presentation of found objects as finished art works. A basic distinction is between sculpture in the round, free-standing sculpture, such as statues, not attached to any other surface, the various types of relief, which are at least attached to a background surface. Relief is classified by the degree of projection from the wall into low or bas-relief, high relief, sometimes an intermediate mid-relief. Sunk-relief is a technique restricted to ancient Egypt. Relief is the usual sculptural medium for large figure groups and narrative subjects, which are difficult to accomplish in the round, is the typical technique used both for architectural sculpture, attached to buildings, for small-scale sculpture decorating other objects, as in much pottery and jewellery.
Relief sculpture may decorate steles, upright slabs of stone also containing inscriptions. Another basic distinction is between subtractive carving techniques, which remove material from an existing block or lump, for example of stone or wood, modelling techniques which shape or build up the work from the material. Techniques such as casting and moulding use an intermediate matrix containing the design to produce the work; the term "sculpture" is used to describe large works, which are sometimes called monumental sculpture, meaning either or both of sculpture, large, or, attached to a building. But the term properly covers many types of small works in three dimensions using the same techniques, including coins and medals, hardstone carvings, a term for small carvings in stone that can take detailed work; the large or "colossal" statue has had an enduring appeal since antiquity. Another grand form of portrait sculpture is the equestrian statue of a rider on horse, which has become rare in recent decades.
The smallest forms of life-size portrait sculpture are the "head", showing just that, or the bust, a representation of a person from the chest up. Small forms of sculpture include the figurine a statue, no more than 18 inches tall, for reliefs the plaquette, medal or coin. Modern and contemporary art have added a number of non-traditional forms of sculpture, including sound sculpture, light sculpture, environmental art, environmental sculpture, street art sculpture, kinetic sculpture, land art, site-specific art. Sculpture is an important form of public art. A collection of sculpture in a garden setting can be called a sculpture garden. One of the most common purposes of sculpture is in some form of association with religion. Cult images are common in many cultures, though they are not the colossal statues of deities which characterized ancient Greek art, like the Statue of Zeus at Olympia; the actual cult images in the innermost sanctuaries of Egyptian temples, of which none have survived, were evidently rather small in the largest temples.
The same is true in Hinduism, where the simple and ancient form of the lingam is the most common. Buddhism brought the sculpture of religious figures to East Asia, where there seems to have been no earlier equivalent tradition, though again simple shapes like the bi and cong had religious significance. Small sculptures as personal possessions go back to the earliest prehistoric art, the use of large sculpture as public art to impress the viewer with the power of a ruler, goes back at least to the Great Sphinx of some 4,500 years ago. In archaeology and art history the appearance, sometimes disappearance, of large or monumental sculpture in a culture is regarded as of great significance, though tracing the emergence is complicated by the presumed existence of sculpture in wood and other perishable materials of which no record remains; the ability to s
Type color is an element of typography that describes how dense or heavy the text appears on the page. Finding the correct balance of type color and white space can make text more readable; the term type color should not be confused with the usual meaning of color, instead it has more to do with the blackness or boldness of the text on the page. A bold font creates more contrast on the page, therefore creates more emphasis. Using a bold font is therefore one way that type color can be adjusted. There are four different decisions; these are the letter spacing, the way the specific font or type is designed, word spacing, line spacing. Text will appear darker or blacker if the letters are kerned more or if there is less spacing between the lines of text. Other elements that affect type color can be harder to grasp, such as the rhythm of the type, the contrast, the texture. Type color should be consistent throughout a piece of text, with possible slight changes for emphasis. Type color of text is affected by the weight of the strokes on a page.
Similar to when writing with a pen on paper, the more layers of strokes, the darker the text. At smaller sizes, darker colored text does not mean that text will be more legible; the boldness and weight at this smaller size can make a piece of text more difficult to read. For this reason, the fonts that are used to type large blocks of text are not overly dark or heavy on the page, they create a good balance of white space. This balance is important for an legible piece of text. There are differences between acceptable and legible levels of type color between body text and headings or titles. Type color extends to refer to the overall blackness of a page of text. A paragraph or page of text, more dense or bolder will have an overall blacker effect when viewed as a whole. A finer font or less dense text will have more white space, making the overall effect less dark. White space
In typography, a column is one or more vertical blocks of content positioned on a page, separated by gutters or rules. Columns are most used to break up large bodies of text that cannot fit in a single block of text on a page. Additionally, columns are used to improve page readability. Newspapers frequently use complex multi-column layouts to break up different stories and longer bodies of texts within a story. Column can more refer to the vertical delineations created by a typographic grid system which type and image may be positioned. In page layout, the whitespace on the outside of the page are known as margins. Column width is traditionally called measure by typesetters. For best legibility, typographic manuals suggest that columns should be wide enough to contain 60 characters per line. One formula suggests multiplying the point size of the font by 2 to reach how wide a column should be in picas — in effect a column width of 24 ems. Following these guidelines results in multiple narrow columns being favored over a single wide column.
Books containing predominantly text have around 40 lines per column. However, this rule of thumb does not apply to more complex text that contain multiple images or illustrations, running heads and captions. Column contrast refers to the overall color or greyness established by the column, can be adjusted in a number of ways. One way is to adjust the relationship between the height of the column. Another way is to make adjustments to the typeface, from choosing a specific font, to adjusting weight, style and leading. Column contrast can be used to establish hierarchy, to balance the page composition, to visually activate areas of the page. In web design, columns are used to separate primary content from secondary and tertiary content. For example, a common two column layout may include a left column with navigation links, a right column for body text. One method of creating columns for the web is to place text within an HTML table element with the border set to zero. However, this method is considered inaccessible to some.
Another method includes using CSS to either position the corresponding text. These methods were not as straightforward as using HTML tables, which made a tableless three column layout a sort of holy grail once these techniques were discovered in the early 2000s. More recent levels of CSS have addressed column behaviors, web browser support for these behaviors continues to improve. Column inch stick 1⁄10 of a column Characters per line, referring to monospaced text Line length