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White sugar

White sugar called table sugar, granulated sugar or regular sugar, is the sugar used in North America and Europe, made either of beet sugar or cane sugar, which has undergone a refining process. White sugar produced from sugar cane may still be refined using bone char by a few sugar cane refiners. For this reason white sugar from sugar cane may not be vegan. Beet sugar is vegan; the refining removes the molasses and makes the white sugar sucrose, whose molecular formula is C12H22O11. The origin of the sugar thus produced is therefore chemically indistinguishable: it is possible, however, to identify its origin through a carbon-13 analysis. From a chemical and nutritional point of view, white sugar does not contain - in comparison to brown sugar - some minerals present in molasses if the quantities contained in brown sugar are not significant; the only detectable differences are, the white color and the less intense flavor. Brown sugar

Quantum Sports Cars

Quantum Sports Cars was founded by Mark and Harvey Wooldridge in 1987. Quantum's first car was the Mark 1 hatchback, based on the Ford Fiesta Mark 1, it reused all of the donor's mechanical and trim components in more rounded shape. Due to its reduced weight over the donor vehicle, performance was improved; the Coupé is unusual for low-volume car manufacturer in that it has a glass-reinforced plastic monocoque rather than a separate metal chassis. This approach relied upon the use of computer analysis to ensure that structural rigidity would not be compromised, offering the strength of a steel chassis but without the weight penalty; the first Mark 1 Quantum, bearing chassis number 001, was a development mule and was subject to so much adjustment that the Wooldridge brothers decided the car would be too dangerous to keep on the road. This car was therefore disposed of in landfill. Chassis 002 was believed to have been damaged beyond repair in a head-on collision, so chassis 003 is now the oldest surviving example of a Quantum model and the first to be sold, after a short period being used for magazine tests and promotional materials.

To ensure this historic car survives, the Quantum Owners Club has acquired this car and are in the process of restoring it. The club owns the last Mark 1 Coupé produced, chassis number 017. In 2015 a club member claimed to own chassis 002, believed to have been exported to the Isle of Man, hence removed from the DVLA records. At the National Kit Car Motor Show in 2017 chassis number was validated by the Committee Members in the Quantum Owners Club who can now confirm this is the oldest surviving Quantum. In 1991 a restyled version was introduced, now based on the Ford Fiesta Mark 2 with the rear-end shape changed from a hatchback to a saloon; this and other styling revisions led to far greater sales success: a total of 215 saloon models were produced before that model ceased production. By 1993 the firm was offering a 2+2 convertible based on the Ford Fiesta Mark 2, Quantum's most successful model with 431 examples built to date. Since the previous model had evolved, at the time the Wooldridges considered this to be their second model: numbering therefore began "Q2-001", now owned by a long term club member.

One 2+2, with a two-litre engine rather than the more common Fiesta XR2 one, was featured in magazine articles and loaned to the BBC's Top Gear for testing. Jeremy Clarkson and his wife drove the car and compared it favourably with mass-market alternatives such as the Mazda MX-5 during the test; the only criticism was based on the smell of new fibreglass. The 2+2 is a practical open top sports tourer, with a large boot and spacious interior, while remaining light and sporty; the prototype, a handful of early customer cars, had round headlights but the alternative nose with the drop down flaps was offered as production started and proved far more popular. Another 2+2, number 013, built by its owner in Pinner, Middlesex in 1993, the only one outside Europe, is now in New Zealand. A Ford 1800cc diesel was substituted for the original XR2 petrol engine, a turbocharger has been added; the vehicle is in daily use, both as a family car and – with or without a trailer – for some of the parcel carrying trade of Allbays Transport, an Auckland North Shore passenger and courier goods transport business.

A handful of 2+2 LHD cars are in The Netherlands and one is in Germany. One owner has converting his to full electric drive using HPEVS AC50 motor with Curtis 1238 controller with Li battery pack front and rear, it has power steering, Mk4 fiesta dash, electric heating and many other upgrades. The 2+2 is no longer made but plans had been mooted by the previous owners of QSC to further revise the design to offer more spacious rear seats, although to date this has not happened. About 455 2+2 cars were built. By the time this model emerged, Harvey Wooldridge now considered this to be the fourth car he had designed, hence the name H4; the H4 was based on the Mark3 Fiesta and used what is erroneously referred to as a "surrey top" roof panel and a rear section which could rotate into the bodywork to make a full convertible. At the beginning of development the curved glass for this rear section proved hard to source but an Italian supplier was found; the completed H4 was reviewed by Top Gear magazine in March 1999.

The H4 was produced from 1998 until 2003, when the Wooldridge brothers announced that they were looking to sell the rights to manufacture Quantum cars. As part of the sale, the H4's moulds were sold to Iranian speciality vehicle manufacturers Renus; the company meant to produce the car as the "Renus Anna H4," equipped with various Ford Zetec engines of 105 to 130 hp. The car was shown at the third International Auto Show in Tehran in 2002 and was advertised by being used in the 2002 movie The Lucky Bride, but the company was unable to get the requisite licenses and production never started. Rights to build the H4 outside the Middle East were retained by Quantum, but without the costly moulds it is unlikely that production will be resumed in the UK. Only 215 H4 cars were made. There was a change of ownership and a move to Devon in 2001, around the same time the Sunrunner and XTreme models were introduced; the Sunrunner was a beach-buggy style of car based on the Mk 3 Fiesta and brought in to add to the Quantum portfolio rather than designed in-house.

It was rear wheel drive. It is still in production as Quantum Sports Cars showed a revis

R-12 Dvina

The R-12 was a theatre ballistic missile developed and deployed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War. Its GRAU designation was 8K63, it was given the NATO reporting name of SS-4 Sandal; the R-12 rocket provided the Soviet Union with the capability to attack targets at medium ranges with a megaton-class thermonuclear warhead and constituted the bulk of the Soviet offensive missile threat to Western Europe. Deployments of the R-12 missile in Cuba caused the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962. A total of 2335 missiles were produced. OKB-586 formed from a spin-off of portions of Sergei Korolev's OKB-1 production infrastructure under the direction of Mikhail Yangel in the early 1950s. Soon after, he started the development of an improved strategic missile that would outperform the R-5, SS-3 Shyster, that Korolev was in the process of bringing into production. Yangel's design was based on combining the basic airframe from the R-5 with an engine developed from the R-11 Zemlya; the R-11 was a short-range missile that used nitric acid as an oxidizer and kerosene as a fuel and could be stored for extended periods of time.

Valentin Glushko had long advocated using storable propellants, proposed developing a new engine for the project. Earlier designs like the R-5 and R-7 used liquid oxygen as the oxidizer, therefore had to be fueled before launch, as the oxygen would "boil off" over time, he developed the RD-214 for the R-12, which consisted of four combustion chambers sharing a common turbopump assembly. The pumps were powered by decomposing the hydrogen peroxide, like earlier designs, to generate an exhaust; the new engine was too large to fit in the existing R-5 airframe, so a conical tail section was added to hold the engine. Nikolay Pilyugin, head of the leading control system bureau, convinced Yangel to introduce a autonomous control system in the R-12 instead of the traditional radio control, used on earlier missiles; the R-5, for instance, used an inertial guidance system that had to be "fine tuned" by commands from ground radio stations that it passed over during its flight. Pilyugin felt that newer inertial systems would have the accuracy needed to hit targets at 2,000 km without the mid-course updates.

According to the official Yuzhnoye history, Yangel's design was approved on 13 February 1953 by the Council of Ministers of the USSR. However, another source reports that the approval was granted on 13 August 1955; the first test was conducted at Kapustin Yar on 22 June 1957. In September 1958, Nikita Khrushchev visited Kapustin Yar to witness the launch of R-12, as well as its competitor, the R-5M; the latter had been accepted into deployment at the time. The R-12 launch was a success and the next month, mass production of the vehicle started in Dnepropetrovsk. Test launches demonstrated a maximum error of 2.3 km. For the work on R-12, on 1 July 1959, OKB-586 received the Order of Lenin, while the Hero of Socialist Labor was awarded to Yangel and Budnik; the R-12 missile was introduced into the inventory on 4 March 1959 according to Russian sources, though Western intelligence believed that an initial operational capability was reached in late 1958. The first public display of this system was in November 1960, they were deployed to Cuba in October 1962 during the Cuban Missile Crisis.

The first five regiments with surface-based R-12 missiles were put on alert in May 1960, while the first regiment of silo-based missiles was placed on alert in January 1963. Their reaction time was assessed by the West at one to three hours in the normal soft-site readiness condition, five to fifteen minutes in the normal hard-site readiness condition; the allowable hold time in a alert condition was long—many hours for soft sites, days for hard sites. The R-12 and R-12U missiles reached their maximum operational launcher inventory of 608 in 1964–66; some soft-site phase-out began in 1968, with some hard-site phase-out beginning in 1972. In 1978 their phase out and replacement with mobile ground-launched SS-20 "Pioneer" missiles began. Efforts to create a railway based version of the R-12 missile were suspended, but work started on a silo-launched version. An underground launch complex, code-named Mayak-2, was constructed in Kapustin Yar. In September 1959 the R-12 took off from the silo complex for the first time.

In May 1960 the development of a new R-12 missile designated as R-12U was begun. The R-12U was designed to be used with both surface silos; the silo-launch complex of the R-12U missile comprised four launchers and was designated as "Dvina"". The testing phase of the missile and the launch complex lasted from December 1961 through December 1963; the R-12 was used during the development of the V-1000 anti-ballistic missile, serving as a target. During a series of tests two R-12s detonated their warheads in the upper atmosphere in order to test radar systems. A follow-on test planned to launch an R-12 from Kapustin Yar while two R-9s from Tyuratam would fly into the area, but only the R-12 launched successfully. In 1961, an upper stage using LOX and UDMH propellants was added to the R-12 to create the Kosmos 63S1 booster. Since there were no surface pads for the R-12, all launches took place from the Mayak silo at Kapustin Yar. However, as silos were not designed for repeated use, this arrangement proved impractical and necessitated their refurbishment after every few launches.

The first two launch attempts of the 63S1 took place in October and December 1961 and both failed. On March 16, 1962, Kosmos 1, a naviga

Liam Noble (musician)

Liam Noble is a British jazz pianist, composer and educator. Noble was born in London on 15 November 1968, he studied music at the University of Oxford and at postgraduate level at the Guildhall School of Music. After his studies, Noble played with saxophonist Stan Sulzmann in quartet performances, he played in several bands, including those led by Harry Beckett, John Stevens and Anita Wardell. In 1997, Noble joined Bobby Wellins' band. In 2002, he received a commission from Birmingham Jazz to write a song cycle. Noble's 2004 recording Romance Among the Fishes was a quartet album, with Phil Robson, Drew Gress and Tom Rainey. Noble and Robson had played together, but the four had been put together earlier the same year for an appearance at the Cheltenham Jazz Festival. Noble's 2009 trio album, was described by the dedicatee, Dave Brubeck, as "an inspiration and a challenge for me to carry on in the avenues that you have opened". In 2010, Noble accompanied vocalist Christine Tobin on the album Tapestry Unravelled, a reworking of Carole King's Tapestry from four decades earlier.

In 2015, Noble will release the solo piano album A Room Somewhere. Noble teaches at the Royal Academy of Music, Trinity Laban, the Birmingham Conservatoire and the University of Kent. Critic John Fordham, writing in 2005, commented that "Noble likes a mixture of staccato, drily witty themes that suggest a collision of Steve Coleman and Django Bates with Wayne Shorter – and with Canadian piano guru Paul Bley in the quieter episodes". An asterisk indicates. Main source: Noble's blog

Kenmore-Town of Tonawanda School District

The Kenmore-Town of Tonawanda Union Free School District called the Ken-Ton School District, or Ken-Ton Schools, serves Kenmore and a majority of the Town of Tonawanda in New York State. It is one of the largest in Western New York; this school district includes Edison Elementary School, Franklin Elementary School, Holmes Elementary School, Hoover Elementary School, Lindbergh Elementary School, Franklin Middle School, Hoover Middle School, Kenmore East High School, Kenmore West High School, as well as a High School Equivalency program for students 17 and older. At its enrollment peak the district housed 22,000 students in 23 school buildings; the district now operates 9 schools with an enrollment of 6,875. As of 2016, Elementary schools for grades Pre-K to 4th Grade, Middle schools for grades 5th Grade to 7th Grade and High schools for 8th Grade to 12th Grade. Kenmore East High School Kenmore West Senior High School Benjamin Franklin Middle School Herbert Hoover Middle School Thomas A. Edison Elementary School Benjamin Franklin Elementary School Oliver Wendell Holmes Elementary School Herbert Hoover Elementary School Charles E. Lindbergh Elementary School Dewitt Clinton Elementary School close 1974 now New Covenant Tabernacle Horace Mann Elementary School closed 1976 now Westchester Park Apartments for Seniors Robert Frost Elementary School closed 1977 now Town of Tonawanda Senior Citizens Center Jane Addams Elementary School closed 1978 demolished to build Center Court Commons 28residential homes Betsy Ross Elementary School closed 1980 now owned by Village of Kenmore and operates as a Community Center Longfellow Elementary School closed 1981 now operates as School District use Abraham Lincoln Elementary School Opened 1924, closed 1981 now a Stanley G. Falk School Green Acres Elementary School closed 1981 now owned by Heritage Centers Brighton Elementary School closed 1978 and demolished to build Brighton Senior Square Apartments Philip Sheridan Elementary School closed 1982, used by school district programs from 1982-2018, sold to CMS rentals for Senior Housing.

Sheridan Parkside Elementary School Opened 1944, closed 1982 now owned by Town of Tonawanda and operates as a Community Center George Washington Elementary School closed 1982 converted to luxury apartments Jefferson Elementary School Opened 1956, closed 2013 Alexander Hamilton Elementary School Closed in 2016. Theodore Roosevelt Elementary School closed in 2016, now owned by Stanley G. Falk School Kenmore Middle School closed in 2016, now home of the Big Picture High School program and Community Education, the District PreK program, Staff Development Center, more. Ken-Ton School District Website

Pseudorhaphitoma informis

Pseudorhaphitoma informis is a small sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Mangeliidae. The length of the shell attains its diameter 2 mm; the small, rather solid shell is broader and shorter than usual. Its colour is a uniform pale buff externally, stained with orange inside the aperture; the shell contains 6 whorls. Sculpture:—The ribs are six to a whorl, rather low, round-backed, perpendicular; the spirals are fine and close threads, which become coarser and more spaced on the aperture. The aperture is rather wide; the varix is of the same calibre as the ribs. The sinus is shallow. Within the outer lip are four small denticules, the uppermost largest; the siphonal canal is short, re-curved. This marine genus occurs in the Gulf of Carpentaria and off Queensland and New South Wales, Australia Laseron, C. 1954. Revision of the New South Wales Turridae. Australian Zoological Handbook. Sydney: Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales pp. 56, pls 1–12. Tucker, J. K.. "Catalog of recent and fossil turrids".

Zootaxa. 682: 1–1295