Mansion House tube station
Mansion House is a London Underground station in the City of London which takes its name from Mansion House, the residence of the Lord Mayor of London. It opened in 1871 as the eastern terminus of the Metropolitan District Railway. Today, Mansion House is served by the District lines, it is between Blackfriars and Cannon Street stations and it is in fare zone 1. The station is located at the junction of Queen Victoria Cannon Street. Mansion House is a sub-surface station with three platforms; the westbound platform, number 1, the eastbound platform, number 3, are shared by both the Circle and District lines. A third platform was used for terminating eastbound trains, however it is no longer used and the track removed as services continue and terminate at Tower Hill. Despite the station's name, it is not the nearest tube station to Mansion House itself, in fact directly opposite an entrance to Bank station. Moreover, two other stations on the same District and Circle lines are nearer to Mansion House than its namesake.
Mansion House station was opened on 3 July 1871 by the Metropolitan District Railway when the company extended its line eastwards from St. Paul's station. Mansion House became the new eastern terminus of the MDR; the MDR connected to the Metropolitan Railway at South Kensington and, although the two companies were rivals, each company operated its trains over the other's tracks in a joint service known as the "Inner Circle". On 1 February 1872, the MDR opened a northbound branch from its station at Earl's Court to connect to the West London Extension Joint Railway which it connected to at Addison Road station. From that date the "Outer Circle" service began running over the MDR's tracks; the service was run by the North London Railway from its terminus at Broad Street via the North London Line to Willesden Junction the West London Line to Addison Road and the MDR to Mansion House. From 1 August 1872, the "Middle Circle" service began operations through Westminster running from Moorgate along the MR's tracks on the north side of the Inner Circle to Paddington over the Hammersmith & City Railway track to Latimer Road via a now demolished link, to the West London Line to Addison Road and the MDR to Mansion House.
The service was operated jointly by the H&CR and the MDR. From 1 March 1883, the District operated a service between Mansion House and Windsor, using Great Western Railway tracks from a junction installed just east of Ealing Broadway station, but it was unremunerative and ceased on 30 September 1885. On 10 October 1884, the MDR and the MR jointly opened the line eastwards to Mark Lane station, thereby completing the "Inner Circle". In 1897 the MDR obtained parliamentary permission to construct a deep-level railway running between Gloucester Road and Mansion House, beneath the existing sub-surface line; this new line was to be an express route using electric trains to relieve congestion on the sub-surface tracks. Mansion House was to be the terminus of the express route, with platforms 71 feet below the sub-surface ones. No immediate work was carried out on the deep-level line, the subsequent take over of the MDR by the Underground Electric Railways Company of London and the resignalling and electrification of the MDR's routes between 1903 and 1905 meant that congestion was relieved without needing to construct the deep-level line.
The plan was dropped in 1908. On 30 June 1900, the "Middle Circle" service was withdrawn between Earl's Court and Mansion House. On 31 December 1908 the "Outer Circle" service was withdrawn. In the 1920s Mansion House station's entrance was rebuilt to a design by Charles Holden, it featured a tall glazed screen with the Underground roundel similar to his station designs for the extension to Morden of the City & South London Railway opened between 1924 and 1926. In 1949, the Metropolitan line-operated "Inner Circle" was given its own identity on the Tube map as the Circle line. On 29 October 1989 the station was closed for the construction of a new entrance and for further renovation, it reopened on 11 February 1991. During the weekend of 8-9 October 2016 the west-facing bay platform number 2 was decommissioned and the track removed; the hydraulic buffer at the east end of platform 2 is extant. London Buses routes 11, 15, 17, 23, 26, 76, 172, 521 as well as heritage route 15H and night routes N11, N15, N21, N26, N76, N199, N550 and N551 serve the station.
London Transport Museum Photographic Archive View of platforms, 1900 Subway entrance to station, 1923 A crowded platform, 1924 Ticket hall, 1939 Mansion House station, 1956 Mansion House station, 2001
A joint railway is a railway operating under the control of more than one railway company: those companies often supplying the traction over the railway. There are many examples of joint railway working in the United Kingdom; the more important ones included: Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway: Midland Railway and Great Northern Railway, latterly London and North Eastern Railway and London and Scottish Railway. This was the UK's biggest joint railway system at 183 miles and operated with its own locomotives and rolling stock; the system stretched east-west from Great Yarmouth via South Lynn to Bourne and Peterborough and thence via the parent companies' systems to Leicester and the Midlands and to London King's Cross. A north-south route ran from Norwich City to Cromer; the two routes crossed at the joint railway's main engineering centre. Cheshire Lines Committee: Great Northern, Great Central and Midland Railways, 140 miles operated with its own rolling stock. Great Northern and Great Eastern Joint Railway: the Great Northern and Great Eastern Railways.
From Huntingdon and Spalding to Doncaster, with a branch to Ramsey. 123 miles Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway: London and South Western Railway and Midland Railway. 101 miles operated, with its own locomotives and rolling stock until 1930. East London Railway: the Great Eastern, London and South Coast, South Eastern and Chatham and District Railways 7 miles Metropolitan and Great Central Joint Committee: the Metropolitan and Great Central Railways Manchester South Junction and Altrincham Railway: LNWR/GCR. 9 miles. Electrified in 1931 Portpatrick and Wigtownshire Joint Railway: the Caledonian and South Western and North Western and Midland Railways. 82 miles Preston and Wyre Joint Railway: L&YR/LNWR. 45 miles Great Western and Great Central Railways Joint Committee: the Great Western and Great Central Railways. 41 miles Severn and Wye Joint Railway: Great Western Railway and Midland Railway. 39 miles Shrewsbury and Hereford Railway: the Great Western and London and North Western Railways. 56 miles Shrewsbury and Wellington Railway: the Great Western and London and North Western Railways.
10.5 miles South Yorkshire Joint Railway: GCR/GNR/L&YR/MidR/NER. 20 miles Furness and Midland Joint Railway: 9 1⁄2 miles Metropolitan and Metropolitan District Joint Committee: Metropolitan and Metropolitan District Railway, Mansion House to Aldgate on the Circle Line. 1 mile Norfolk and Suffolk Joint Railway: the Midland and Great Northern and the Great Eastern Railway). There were two stretches of line: the most important ran along the East Anglian coast from Lowestoft to Yarmouth, while a much shorter stretch ran from Cromer to Mundesley on the North Norfolk coast; this line was a unique joint railway. Axholme Joint Railway: North Eastern and Lancashire and Yorkshire Railways 27.5 miles Forth Bridge Railway: the North British, Great Northern, North Eastern and Midland Railways. 2,765 yd County Donegal Railways Joint Committee: the Northern Counties Committee and Great Northern Railway. 111 miles of 3 ft narrow gauge track in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, with its own locomotives and rolling stock.
"Joint railways" are called terminal railroads in the United States. Most true example of joint railways are including union stations. Terminal railways are co-owned by the railroads that connect with them. Among the more prominent joint operations were: Belt Railway of Chicago, the largest terminal switching railroad in the U. S. co-owned by all the "Big Six" American Class I railroads: Union Pacific Railroad, CSX Transportation, Norfolk Southern Railway, BNSF Railway, Canadian National Railway and Canadian Pacific Railway. Terminal Railroad Association of St. Louis, with extensive operations in East St. Louis, Illinois and St. Louis, co-owned by all the Big Six except the Canadian Pacific. Conrail Shared Assets Operations, the last corporate remnant of Conrail, formed from the remains of several bankrupt railroads in 1976. Unlike the BRC and TRRA, CSAO uses crews and locomotives from its two parent companies, though the former Conrail paint scheme is still seen on numerous locomotives and freight cars that CSX and NS inherited.
The Powder River basin joint line, co-owned by BNSF and Union Pacific to serve the area's numerous coal mines. The concept of trackage rights is more common than joint railways in the United States; the railroad that owns the track permits trains from another railroad to use the line. The owner railroad charges a fee, but sometimes there is no charge because the arrangement results from a merger or sale of a line. For instance, when the Louisville and Nashville Railroad acquired the Monon Railroad a condition of the sale imposed by government regulators was a trackage rights arrangement over the southern part of the Monon for the Milwaukee Road, an agreement, handed down to successive owners of the Milwaukee Road and the Indiana Rail Road. Variations on trackage rights include "direction running" agreements between two railroads with parallel lines through an area done to facilitate greater traffic volume. For instance, CSX and NS have a directional-running agreement between downtown Cincinnati and nearby Hamilton, where northbound trai
East Ham tube station
East Ham is a London Underground station on High Street North in the East Ham neighbourhood of the London Borough of Newham in east London, England. The station is on Hammersmith & City line; the station was opened in 1858 by the London and Southend Railway on a new more direct route from Fenchurch Street to Barking. The large Edwardian station building was constructed to accommodate the electric District Railway services on an additional set of tracks opened in 1905, it has high and growing usage for a suburban station with 13.1 million entries and exits in 2010. It is in London fares zones 3 and 4; the London and Southend Railway direct line from Bow to Barking was constructed east to west through the middle of the Parish of East Ham in 1858. Prior to the building of the line trains took a longer route via Stratford and Forest Gate to the north; the new line also had stations at Bromley and Plaistow, with Upton Park added as the next station to the west of East Ham in 1877. District line known as the District Railway, service began in 1902.
The District line was electrified in 1905 over a second pair of tracks, the service was cut back from Upminster to East Ham. In 1936 the Metropolitan line service was introduced. In 1988 the station, along with other stations beyond Aldgate East, was transferred to the new Hammersmith & City line. A short spur line to Woodgrange Park was opened in 1894 and was closed in 1958. On 12 November 1959, a passenger train overran signals and was in a rear-end collision with another standing at the station. Thirteen people were injured. On 14 February 1990, an empty stock train formed of a Class 305 and a Class 308 electric multiple unit was derailed; the station has one for each direction. Much of the original Victorian station architecture has been retained and some restoration work was carried out during 2005; the disused platforms of the Fenchurch Street to Southend services, withdrawn in 1962, are to the south of the current platforms. A disused bay platform on the northern side of the station, closed in 1958, connected to the Tottenham and Forest Gate Railway via a curve.
The service frequency is 15 services per hour on the District line and 6 services per hour on the Hammersmith & City line. London Buses routes 101, 104, 147, 238, 300, 325, 376 and 474 serve the station. London Transport Museum Photographic Archive East Ham station, 1922
East London line
The East London line is part of the London Overground, running north to south through the East and South areas of London. It was a line of the London Underground. Built in 1869 by the East London Railway Company, which reused the Thames Tunnel intended for horse-drawn carriages, the line became part of the London Underground network in 1933. After nearly 75 years as part of that network, it closed on 22 December 2007 for an extensive refurbishment and expansion, reopening as part of the Overground network in April 2010. Phase 2, which links the line to the South London line with a terminus at Clapham Junction, opened on 9 December 2012, creating an orbital railway around inner London; the East London Railway was created by the East London Railway Company, a consortium of six railway companies: the Great Eastern Railway, the London and South Coast Railway, the London and Dover Railway, the South Eastern Railway, the Metropolitan Railway, the District Railway. The latter two operated what are now the Metropolitan, Circle and Hammersmith & City lines of the London Underground.
The incorporation of the ELR took place on 26 May 1865 with the aim of providing a link between the LB&SCR, GER and SER lines. The companies reused the Thames Tunnel, built by Marc and Isambard Kingdom Brunel between 1825 and 1843 for horse-drawn carriages; the tunnel, with generous headroom and two carriageways separated by arches, connected Wapping on the north bank of the Thames with Rotherhithe on the south bank. A triumph of civil engineering, it was a commercial failure and by the 1860s it had become an unpleasant and disreputable place; the tunnel was the most easterly land connection between the north and south banks of the Thames, close to the docks on both banks of the river, was not far from mainline railways at either end. Converting the tunnel for railway use thus offered a means of providing a cross-Thames rail link without having to go to the expense of boring a new tunnel. On 25 September 1865 the East London Railway Company took ownership of the tunnel at a cost of £800,000.
Over the next four years the company built a railway through the tunnel to connect with the existing lines. The company's engineer was Sir John Hawkshaw, responsible for the major re-design and completion of I K Brunel's long-abandoned Clifton Suspension Bridge at Bristol; the line opened in stages as financing became available: 7 December 1869: New Cross Gate to Wapping opened, operated by the London, Brighton & South Coast Railway, with intermediate stations at Deptford Road and Rotherhithe. 13 March 1871: A spur opened from just south of what is now Surrey Quays station to the South London line's Old Kent Road station. Passenger services were withdrawn from 1 June 1911 and freight last used the line in 1964; this alignment was relaid and restored to passenger service by London Overground in late 2012. 10 April 1876: Wapping to Shoreditch, through a cut-and-cover tunnel constructed in part along the bottom of an infilled dock. At Shoreditch a connection was made with the Great Eastern Railway to Liverpool Street.
Intermediate stations were at Whitechapel. 1 April 1880: A spur to New Cross opened. 3 March 1884: A spur to the Metropolitan and Metropolitan District Railways opened south of Whitechapel using St Mary's Curve. This enabled Metropolitan Railway and Metropolitan District Railway trains to commence through services to the East London Railway that year. Although passenger services via this spur ceased in 1941, it was retained to transfer empty trains to the rest of the sub-surface network; the East London Railway Company owned the infrastructure but it was operated by its controlling railways. Steam trains were operated by the GER, LB&SCR and the SER; the LB&SCR used its LBSCR A1 Class Terrier locomotives, which William Stroudley designed with this line in mind. It carried both passenger and goods trains. From March to September 1884 the SER service ran from Addiscombe to St Mary's. Metropolitan Railway services from St Mary's to New Cross and Metropolitan District Railway services from St Mary's to New Cross Gate commenced on 1 October 1884.
On 6 October through services started from Hammersmith to New Cross and from Hammersmith to New Cross. Before the development of the Kent coalfields in the early part of the 20th century, house coal from the north for distribution in south London and as far afield as Maidstone and Brighton was an important source of revenue. Access at the north end of the line was difficult: trains were limited to 26 wagons and had to be shunted into the Great Eastern's Liverpool Street station and drawn forward onto the ELR. To avoid this reversal, a line was planned from the ELR north of Whitechapel to the GER at Bethnal Green. Acts for this were passed in 1866 and 1868; when the GER route to Hackney Downs Junction, now Hackney Downs, was constructed in 1872, the route was altered to connect at Cambridge Heath, with an abandonment Act for the previous route in 1871 and two new Acts in 1876 and 1877. A short length of the latter tunnel was built, from October 1900 additional capacity was offered by a wagon lift, carrying two ten-ton wagons, from the Great Eastern coal depot at Spitalfields to a siding laid in the tunnel stub.
The surface junction was taken up in 1966 and the lift closed in 1967, after a fire at the Spitalfields depot. When the Metropolitan District Railway was electrified in 1905 it ceased using the ELR, the l
The Metropolitan District Railway was a passenger railway that served London from 1868 to 1933. Established in 1864 to complete the inner circle, an underground railway in London, the first part of the line opened using gas-lit wooden carriages hauled by steam locomotives; the Metropolitan Railway operated all services until the District introduced its own trains in 1871. The railway was soon extended westwards through Earl's Court to Fulham, Richmond and Hounslow. After completing the inner circle and reaching Whitechapel in 1884, it was extended to Upminster in Essex in 1902. To finance electrification at the beginning of the 20th century, American financier Charles Yerkes took it over and made it part of his Underground Electric Railways Company of London group. Electric propulsion was introduced in 1905, by the end of the year electric multiple units operated all of the services. On 1 July 1933, the District Railway and the other UERL railways were merged with the Metropolitan Railway and the capital's tramway and bus operators to form the London Passenger Transport Board.
Today, former District Railway tracks and stations are used by the London Underground's District and Circle lines. In 1863, the Metropolitan Railway opened the world's first underground railway; the line was built from Paddington beneath the New Road, connecting the main line railway termini at Paddington and King's Cross. It followed Farringdon Road to a station at Farringdon Street in Smithfield, near the capital's financial heart in the City; the Met's early success prompted a flurry of applications to parliament in 1863 for new railways in London, many competing for similar routes. The House of Lords established a select committee that recommended an "inner circuit of railway that should abut, if not join, nearly all of the principal railway termini in the Metropolis". For the 1864 parliamentary session, railway schemes were presented that met the recommendation in varying ways and a joint committee composed of members of both Houses of Parliament reviewed the options. Proposals to extend west and south from Paddington to South Kensington and east from Moorgate to Tower Hill were accepted and received Royal Assent on 29 July 1864.
To complete the circuit, the committee encouraged the amalgamation of two schemes proposed to run via different routes between Kensington and the City and a combined proposal under the name Metropolitan District Railway was agreed on the same day. The District and the Met were associated and it was intended that they would soon merge; the Met's chairman and three other directors were on the board of the District, John Fowler was the engineer of both companies and the construction works for all of the extensions were let as a single contract. The District was established as a separate company to enable funds to be raised independently of the Met. Unlike the Metropolitan, the route did not follow an easy alignment under existing roads and land values were higher, so compensation payments for property were much higher. To ensure ventilation, the line west of Gloucester Road was carried in open cuttings, the rest in a cut and cover tunnel 25 feet wide and 15 feet 9 inches deep. Construction costs and compensation payments were so high that the cost of the first section of the District from South Kensington to Westminster was £3 million three times the cost of the Met's original, longer line.
On 24 December 1868, the District opened its line from South Kensington to Westminster, with stations at South Kensington, Sloane Square, Victoria, St. James's Park and Westminster Bridge, the Met extending eastwards from Brompton to a shared station at South Kensington on the same day; the District had parliamentary permission to extend westward from Brompton station and, on 12 April 1869, it opened a single track line from there to West Brompton on the West London Railway. There were no intermediate stations and this service operated as a shuttle. By summer 1869 additional tracks had been laid between South Kensington to Brompton and from Kensington to a junction with the line to West Brompton. During the night of 5 July 1870 the District secretly built the disputed Cromwell curve connecting Brompton and Kensington. East of Westminster, the next section ran in the newly constructed Victoria Embankment built by the Metropolitan Board of Works along the north bank of the River Thames; the line was opened from Westminster to Blackfriars on 30 May 1870 with stations at Charing Cross, The Temple and Blackfriars.
The Met operated all services, receiving 55 per cent of the gross receipts for a fixed level of service. The District were charged for any extra trains and the District's share of the income dropped to about 40 per cent; the District's level of debt meant that merger was no longer attractive to the Met and its directors resigned from the District's board. To improve its finances, the District gave the Met notice to terminate the operating agreement. Struggling under the burden of high construction costs, the District was unable to continue with the original scheme to reach Tower Hill and made a final extension of its line one station further east from Blackfriars to a unplanned City terminus at Mansion House. On Saturday 1 July 1871, an opening banquet was attended by the Prime Minister William Gladstone, a shareholder; the following Monday, Mansion House opened and the District began running its own trains. From this date, the two companies operated a joint inner circle service between Mansion Hous
Bromley-by-Bow tube station
Bromley-by-Bow is a London Underground station in Bromley, Greater London, England. The station is below the Blackwall Tunnel Northern Approach Road and situated in the East End of London and lies between Bow Road and West Ham stations on the District and Hammersmith & City lines, is in both Travelcard Zones 2 and 3; the main station building is of unusual architecture for this part of the London Underground. It was opened as a railway station called Bromley by the London and Southend Railway in 1858, on its new line to Barking from the terminus at Fenchurch Street, a more direct route than the route hitherto used. On 17 May 1869 a spur opened from Bow railway station on the North London Railway line to Bromley Junction, just to the west of the station. A shuttle service operated between Bow and Plaistow until wartime economies saw the service withdrawn on 1 January 1915; the main reason for building this spur was however for freight use. Increasing use of the station to catch services provided by the LTSR, the NLR and Great Eastern Railway —which ran services from Fenchurch Street to North Woolwich—saw plans drawn up in 1892 to construct a new station.
A fire on 20 December of that year saw these plans brought forward and work was started early in 1893. Bromley Junction was moved 120 yards west to accommodate this work and a new 36 lever signal box was opened with the re-sited junction on 1 October 1893; the new station to the west of St. Leonards Street was opened on 1 March 1894 and the old station on the other side of the bridge was closed. In 1898 the goods yard was opened to the east of the station; the construction of the Whitechapel and Bow Railway allowed the District Railway to start serving the station in 1902, steam services operated through to East Ham with some operating as far as Upminster. The District Line joined the main line at Campbell Road Junction to the west of the station. Electrification of the system followed in 1905. Delayed by World War I, electrified tracks were extended by the London and Scottish Railway to Upminster and through services resumed in 1932. Congestion of the railway through Bromley saw additional tracks provided in 1905.
Two new Local Lines were added on the north side of the station along with two new platform faces and improved passenger facilities. The new lines, which stretched as far as Abbey Mills Junction, opened on 1 August 1905. In 1912 the LTSR was taken over by the Midland Railway, although on 1 January 1923 this was grouped into the London Midland & Scottish Railway. In 1927 the local lines were re-signalled with colour light signalling; the District Railway was incorporated into London Transport in 1933, became known as the District line. The Hammersmith & City line started operating services through Bromley on 4 May 1936; the 1947 timetable shows only a few services a day provided by the LMS and a frequent service provided by the District and a peak hours service of the Metropolitan line. After nationalisation of the railways in 1948 management of the station passed to British Railways London Midland region although it was transferred to the Eastern Region on 20 February 1949; the remaining Fenchurch Street–Southend services were withdrawn in 1962 when the main lines were electrified with 25 kV overhead lines.
On 13 September 1959 the spur between Bromley and Bow was closed and three years in 1962, the goods yard closed. The station was renamed to Bromley-by-Bow in 1967, to prevent confusion with Bromley station in the London Borough of Bromley; the continued management of the station by an organisation now providing none of the services became more of an anomaly and in 1969 ownership transferred to the London Underground which came under the authority of the London Transport Executive of the Greater London Council. Another fire in February 1970 led to the demolition of the station buildings and a new modern booking office opened on 11 June 1972. On 2 June 2008, an unexploded bomb from World War II was found near where the line crosses the Prescott Channel, not far from the station, causing disruption to trains; the station entrance is at a higher level than the platforms. There are no escalators; the station has four platforms, of which only two are in use. The remaining two platforms served the London and Southend Railway but are no longer in use.
Three ticket barriers and a gate control access to all platforms. In 2018, lifts were installed at the 73rd on the Underground to gain step free access. All these upgrades were funded by Transport for London in partnership with Tower Hamlets and London Legacy Development Corporation; the typical off-peak service in trains per hour is: 6 tph eastbound to Barking 6 tph westbound to Hammersmith via King's Cross and Wood Lane This is the typical off-peak service frequency. During peak times trains operate to Wimbledon. During off-peak times, 3 trains per hour from Wimbledon terminate at Barking. 12 tph eastbound to Upminster 3 tph eastbound to Barking 6 tph westbound to Ealing Broadway 6 tph we