General Aviation represents the'private transport' and recreational flying component of aviation. General aviation is the name or term given to all civil aviation aircraft operations with the exception of commercial air transport or aerial work, they are flight activities not involving commercial air transportation of passengers, cargo or mail for remuneration or hire, or an aerial work operation such as agriculture, photography, surveying and patrol, search and rescue, aerial advertisement, etc. It covers certain commercial and private flights that can be carried out under both visual flight and instrument flight rules, such as light aircraft and private jets or helicopters. General aviation thus represents the'private transport' component of aviation; the International Civil Aviation Organization defines civil aviation aircraft operations in three categories: General Aviation, Aerial Work and Commercial Air Transport. The International Council of Aircraft Owner and Pilot Associations includes the following definitions for General Aviation aircraft activities: Corporate Aviation: Company own-use flight operations Fractional Ownership Operations: aircraft operated by a specialized company on behalf of two or more co-owners Business Aviation: self-flown for business purposes Personal/Private Travel: travel for personal reasons/personal transport Air Tourism: self-flown incoming/outgoing tourism Recreational Flying: powered/powerless leisure flying activities Air Sports: Aerobatics, Air Races, Rallies etc.
In 2003 the European Aviation Safety Agency was established as the central EU regulator, taking over responsibility for legislating airworthiness and environmental regulation from the national authorities. Of the 21,000 civil aircraft registered in the UK, 96 percent are engaged in GA operations, annually the GA fleet accounts for between 1.25 and 1.35 million hours flown. There are 28,000 Private Pilot Licence holders, 10,000 certified glider pilots; some of the 19,000 pilots who hold professional licences are engaged in GA activities. GA operates from more than 1,800 airports and landing sites or aerodromes, ranging in size from large regional airports to farm strips. GA is regulated by the Civil Aviation Authority, although regulatory powers are being transferred to the European Aviation Safety Agency; the main focus is on standards of airworthiness and pilot licensing, the objective is to promote high standards of safety. General aviation is popular in North America, with over 6,300 airports available for public use by pilots of general aviation aircraft.
In comparison, scheduled flights operate from around 560 airports in the U. S. According to the U. S. Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association, general aviation provides more than one percent of the United States' GDP, accounting for 1.3 million jobs in professional services and manufacturing. Most countries have authorities that oversee all civil aviation, including general aviation, adhering to the standardized codes of the International Civil Aviation Organization. Examples include the Federal Aviation Administration in the United States, the Civil Aviation Authority in the United Kingdom, Civil Aviation Authority of Zimbabwe in Zimbabwe, the Luftfahrt-Bundesamt in Germany, the Bundesamt für Zivilluftfahrt in Switzerland, Transport Canada in Canada, the Civil Aviation Safety Authority in Australia, the Directorate General of Civil Aviation in India and Iran Civil Aviation Organization in Iran. Aviation accident rate statistics are estimates. According to the U. S. National Transportation Safety Board, in 2005 general aviation in the United States suffered 1.31 fatal accidents for every 100,000 hours of flying in that country, compared to 0.016 for scheduled airline flights.
In Canada, recreational flying accounted for 0.7 fatal accidents for every 1000 aircraft, while air taxi accounted for 1.1 fatal accidents for every 100,000 hours. More experienced GA pilots appear safer, although the relations between flight hours, accident frequency, accident rates are complex and difficult to assess. Environmental impact of aviation List of current production certified light aircraftAssociationsAircraft Owners and Pilots Association Canadian Owners and Pilots Association Experimental Aircraft Association General Aviation Manufacturers Association National Business Aviation Association International Aircraft Owners and Pilots Associations European General Aviation Safety Team "No Plane No Gain" website about business aviation Save-GA.org website concerned with General Aviation in the United States "GA price index". Flight International. 13 Oct 1979
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
United States Air Force Plant 42
United States Air Force Plant 42 is a classified United States Government aircraft manufacturing plant, used by the United States Air Force. It is used by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Plant 42 and Palmdale Regional Airport are separate facilities that share a common runway at the site; the facility is located in the Antelope Valley 60 miles from downtown Los Angeles. Plant 42 is a United States Air Force facility, it is the Antelope Valley's second-largest employer, is owned by Wright-Patterson AFB but operated as a component of Edwards Air Force Base, 23 miles northeast of the airport. Most of the facilities are operated by private contractors and serve as a manufacturing plant for aircraft used by the United States and their allies' militaries. Plant 42 has a replacement value of $1.1 billion. Some of the plant's work involves production of spare parts for military aircraft, with other projects including maintenance and modification of aircraft such as the B-2 Spirit bomber and production of the Global Hawk and other unmanned craft.
Aerospace contractors at Air Force Plant 42 share a common runway complex, either lease building space from the Air Force or own their own buildings outright. There are eight production sites specially suited for advanced technology and/or "black" programs; the most well-known contractors at Plant 42 are Boeing, Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman. The facilities were operated by IT&T. Plant 42 remains a GOCO, but now includes AF operations. Contractually operated for the Air Force since 1954, the Air Force under the Obama administration chose to in-source the contracted operations of the plant; the airfield is now operated by DoD, with 412 TW/Operating Location, Air Force Test Center in command. Plant 42 controls over 5,800 acres of Mojave Desert land north of Avenue P and south of Columbia Way; the western border is Sierra Highway, the plant extends east to around 40th Street East, south of Avenue N to Avenue P, 50th Street East north of Avenue N to Columbia Way. Northrop Grumman's B-2 final assembly and modification facility is at Palmdale.
The Department of Defense, in February 1995, announced its plan for providing depot support for the B-2. The plan includes a mix of commercial and organic sources for providing various functions and/or maintaining various components. For example, the engines are to be maintained by the Air Force, software support is to be provided by commercial sources, airframe maintenance is to be provided by Northrop Grumman at Palmdale, California. Rockwell's Palmdale assembly facility is where all the individual parts and systems of the Space Shuttle came together and were assembled and tested. Upon completion, the spacecraft was turned over to NASA for transport overland from Palmdale to Edwards Air Force Base, California. NASA's Dryden Flight Research Facility at Edwards Air Force Base was the site of the mate-demate facility for mating or demating the spacecraft and the shuttle carrier aircraft. 250 major subcontractors supplied various systems and components to Rockwell's Palmdale assembly facility.
The structures of the orbiter were manufactured at various companies under contract to Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Calif. The upper and lower forward fuselage, crew compartment, forward reaction control system and aft fuselage were manufactured at Rockwell's Space Transportation Systems Division facility in Downey and were transported overland from Downey to Rockwell's Palmdale, Calif. assembly facility. The midfuselage was manufactured by General Dynamics, San Diego, Calif. and transported overland to Rockwell's Palmdale assembly facility. The wings were manufactured by Grumman, Long Island, N. Y. and transported by ship from New York via the Panama Canal to Long Beach, Calif. and transported overland to Rockwell's Palmdale assembly facility. The vertical tail were manufactured by Fairchild Republic, Long Island, N. Y. and transported overland to Rockwell's Palmdale assembly facility. The payload bay doors were manufactured at Rockwell International's Tulsa, Okla. facility and transported overland to Rockwell's Palmdale assembly facility.
The body flap was manufactured at Rockwell International's Columbus, Ohio and transported overland to Rockwell's Palmdale assembly facility. The aft orbital maneuvering system/reaction control system pods were manufactured by McDonnell Douglas, St. Louis, Mo. and transported by aircraft to Rockwell's Palmdale assembly facility. They were transported by aircraft from Rockwell's Palmdale assembly facility to the Kennedy Space Center; the National Aeronautics and Space Administration had been paying the Air Force for use of Plant 42 facilities for the shuttle work. NASA decided in February 2002 to shift space shuttle overhaul and modification work from Palmdale to Florida. Current projects include design, pre-production, modification, flight testing and repair mission related activities to the following: B-2 Spirit F-22 Raptor F-35 Lightning II U-2 Boeing B-52 Stratofortress RQ-4 Global Hawk MQ-4C Triton SOFIA - NASA 747SP RQ-170 X-47B Northrop Grumman B-21 Raider The Blackbird Airpark Museum part of Air Force Flight Test Museum and the ad
The Inland Empire is a metropolitan area and region in Southern California. The term may be used to refer to the cities of western Riverside County and southwestern San Bernardino County, sometimes including the desert communities of Palm Springs and the rest of the Coachella Valley; the U. S. Census Bureau-defined Riverside–San Bernardino–Ontario metropolitan area, which comprises Riverside County and San Bernardino County, covers more than 27,000 sq mi and has a population of 4 million. Most of the area's population is located in southwestern San Bernardino County and northwestern Riverside County. At the end of the nineteenth century, the Inland Empire was a major center of agriculture, including citrus and winemaking. However, agriculture declined through the twentieth century, since the 1970s a growing population, fed by families migrating in search of affordable housing, has led to more residential and commercial development; the term "Inland Empire" is documented to have been used by the Riverside Enterprise newspaper as early as April 1914.
Developers in the area introduced the term to promote the region and to highlight the area's unique features. The "Inland" part of the name is derived from the region's location, about 60 miles inland from Los Angeles and the Pacific Ocean; this area was called the Orange Empire due to the acres of citrus groves that once extended from Pasadena to Redlands during the first half of the twentieth century. The Inland Empire is a nebulous region, but is defined as the cities of western Riverside County and the cities of southwestern San Bernardino County. A broader definition will include the desert community of Palm Springs and its surrounding area, a much larger definition will include all of San Bernardino and Riverside counties. What is now known as the Inland Empire was inhabited for thousands of years, prior to the late eighteenth century, by the Tongva and Cahuilla Native Americans. With Spanish colonization and the subsequent Mexican era the area was sparsely populated at the land grant Ranchos, considering it unsuitable for missions.
The first American settlers, a group of Mormon pioneers, arrived over the Cajon Pass in 1851. Although the Mormons left a scant six years recalled to Salt Lake City by Brigham Young during the church's Utah War with the US government, other settlers soon followed; the entire landmass of Southern California was subdivided according to the San Bernardino Meridian, first plotted as part of the Public Land Survey System in November 1852, by Col. Henry Washington. Base Line road, a major thoroughfare, today runs from Highland to San Dimas, intermittently along the absolute baseline coordinates plotted by Col. Washington. San Bernardino County was first formed out of parts of Los Angeles County on April 26, 1853. While the partition once included what is today most of Riverside County, the region is not as monolithic as it may sound. Rivalries between Colton, Redlands and San Bernardino over the location of the county seat in the 1890s caused each of them to form their own civic communities, each with their own newspapers.
On August 14, 1893, the state Senate allowed Riverside County to form out of land in San Bernardino and San Diego counties, after rejecting a bill for Pomona to split from L. A. County and become the seat of; the arrival of rail and the importation of navel and Valencia orange trees in the 1870s touched off explosive growth, with the area becoming a major center for citrus production. This agricultural boom continued with the arrival of water from the Colorado River and the rapid growth of Los Angeles in the early twentieth century, with dairy farming becoming another staple industry. In 1926, Route 66 came through the northern parts of the area, bringing a stream of tourists and migrants to the region. Still, the region endured as the key part of the Southern California "citrus belt" until the end of World War II, when a new generation of real-estate developers bulldozed acres of agricultural land to build suburbs; the precursor to the San Bernardino Freeway, the Ramona Expressway, was built in 1944, further development of the freeway system in the area facilitated the expansion of suburbs and human migration throughout the Inland Empire and Southern California.
The region experienced significant economic and population growth through most of the latter half of the twentieth century. In the early 1990s, the loss of the region's military bases and reduction of nearby defense industries due to the end of the Cold War led to a local economic downturn; the region as a whole had recovered from this downturn by the start of the twenty-first century through the development of warehousing, shipping and retail industries centered around Ontario. However, these industries have been affected by the Great Recession. Physical boundaries between Los Angeles and the Inland Empire from west to east are the San Jose Hills splitting the San Gabriel Valley from the Pomona Valley, leading to the urban populations centered in the San Bernardino Valley. From the south to north, the Santa Ana Mountains physically divide Orange County from San Bernardino and Riverside Counties; the Santa Rosa Mountains, as well as the Southern California portion of the Sonoran Desert, physically divide Riverside County from San Diego County.
Some definitions for the IE consist of the Chino Valley, Coachella Valley, Cucamonga Valley, Menifee Valley, Murrieta Valley, Perris V
Greater Los Angeles
Greater Los Angeles is the second-largest urban region in the United States, encompassing five counties in southern California, extending from Ventura County in the west to San Bernardino County and Riverside County on the east, with Los Angeles County in the center and Orange County to the southeast. It consists of three metropolitan areas in Southern California. Throughout the 20th century, it was one of the fastest-growing regions in the United States, although growth has slowed since 2000; as of the 2010 U. S. Census, the Los Angeles Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of nearly 13 million residents. Meanwhile, the larger metropolitan region's population at the 2010 census was estimated to be over 17.8 million residents, a 2015 estimate reported a population of about 18.7 million. Either definition makes it the second largest metropolitan region in the country, behind the New York metropolitan area, as well as one of the largest urban agglomerations in the world; the agglomeration of the urbanized Greater Los Angeles area surrounds the urban core of Los Angeles County.
The regional term is defined to refer to the more-or-less continuously urbanized area stretching from Ventura County to the southern border of Orange County and from the Pacific Ocean to the Coachella Valley in the Inland Empire. The US Census Bureau defines the Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA Combined Statistical Area as including the entire Los Angeles County, Ventura County, Orange County and the two counties of the Inland Empire. However, this Census definition includes large, sparsely populated and desert swaths of Los Angeles, San Bernardino and Riverside counties that are not part of the urbanized region; the term "Greater Los Angeles" does not include San Diego County, whose urbanized area is separated from San Clemente, the southernmost contiguous urbanized area south of Los Angeles, by a 16.4-mile stretch of the Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a total area of 4,850 square miles, while the wider combined statistical area covers 33,954 square miles, making it the largest metropolitan region in the United States by land area.
However, more than half of this area lies in the sparsely populated eastern areas of Riverside and San Bernardino counties. In addition to being the nexus of the world's largest entertainment industry, Greater Los Angeles is a global center of business, international trade, media, tourism and technology, transportation. Los Angeles has a long-standing reputation for sprawl; the area is in fact sprawling, but according to the 2000 census, the "Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim" Urbanized Area had a population density of 7,068 inhabitants per square mile, covering 1,668 square miles of land area, making it the most densely populated Urbanized Area in the United States. For comparison, the "New York–Newark" Urbanized Area as a whole had a population density of 5,309 per square mile, covering 3,353 square miles of land area. Los Angeles' sprawl may originate in the region's decentralized structure, its major commercial and cultural institutions are geographically dispersed rather than being concentrated in a single downtown or central area.
The population density of Los Angeles proper is low when compared to some other large American cities such as New York, San Francisco and Chicago. Densities are high within a 5-mile radius of downtown, where some neighborhoods exceed 20,000 people per square mile. What gives the entire Los Angeles metro region a high density is the fact that many of the city's suburbs and satellites cities have high density rates. Within its urbanized areas, Los Angeles is noted for having small lot sizes and low-rise buildings. Buildings in the area are low when compared to other large cities due to zoning regulations. Los Angeles became a major city just as the Pacific Electric Railway spread population to smaller cities much as interurbans did in East Coast cities. In the first decades of the twentieth century, the area was marked by a network of dense but separate cities linked by rail; the ascendance of the automobile helped fill in the gaps between these commuter towns with lower-density settlements. Starting in the early twentieth century, there was a large growth in population on the western edges of the city moving to the San Fernando Valley and out into the Conejo Valley in eastern Ventura County.
Many working class whites migrated to this area during the 1960s and 1970s out of East and Central Los Angeles. As a result, there was a large growth in population into the Conejo Valley and into Ventura County through the US 101 corridor. Making the US 101 a full freeway in the 1960s and expansions that followed helped make commuting to Los Angeles easier and opened the way for development westward. Development in Ventura County and along the US 101 corridor remains controversial, with open-space advocates battling those who feel business development is necessary to economic growth. Although the area still has abundant amount of open space and land all of it was put aside and mandated never to be developed as part of the master plan of each city; because of this, the area, once a inexpensive area to buy real estate, saw rising real estate prices well into the 2000s. Median home prices in the Conejo Valley for instance, ranged from $700,000 to
Grand Central Airport (California)
Grand Central Airport, California known as Grand Central Air Terminal, was an important facility for the growing Los Angeles suburb of Glendale in the 1920s. It was a key element in the development of United States aviation; the terminal, located at 1310 Air Way, was built in 1928 and still exists, owned since 1997 by The Walt Disney Company as a part of its Grand Central Creative Campus. Three hangars remain standing; the location of the single concrete 3,800-foot runway has been preserved, but is now a public street as the runway was dug up and converted into Grand Central Avenue. The concept for the airport began with Leslie Coombs Brand, a major figure in the settlement and economic growth of the Glendale area, he had purchased land on the lower slopes of Mount Verdugo overlooking the city, in 1904 built an imposing residence that became known as Brand Castle. Just across the dry Los Angeles River he could see the Griffith Park Aerodrome's grass field, built in 1912. Just three years he decided to build his own grass airstrip below his mansion.
He built his first hangar in 1916 and put together a fleet of planes, held fly-in parties. The only requirement was that guests had to bring passengers. From this modest beginning, plans were soon hatched by local entrepreneurs to establish an airport with commercial possibilities a little further down below his field. In 1923 the 112-acre Glendale Municipal Airport opened with a 100 ft -wide paved runway 3,800 ft long, came to be renamed "Grand Central Air Terminal" when it was purchased by other venture capitalists, who expanded it to 175 acres. On February 22, 1929, a terminal with a control tower had been built, was opened to much fanfare. Designed by Henry L. Gogerty, the intention was to construct an air terminal along the lines of a classic railroad terminal, it combined a style consisting of Spanish Colonial Revival with Zig-zag Moderne influences. GCAT became a major airport of entry to Los Angeles and provided the first paved runway west of the Rocky Mountains. Within a year, the entire enterprise was sold to a group calling itself the Curtiss-Wright Flying Service, managed by Major C. C.
Moseley, a co-founder of the future Western Airlines. It became the city's largest employer, it was at Grand Central that Major Moseley established the first of his private flying schools, Curtiss-Wright Technical Institute. Many famous aviation pioneers made their home and their mark at GCAT, as pilots, mechanics, teachers and airplane/power-plant builders serving in some combination, including: Charles Lindbergh, who piloted the nation's first scheduled coast to coast flight from Grand Central's runway as organizer of Transcontinental Air Transport which, after merging with Western Air Express, came to be Transcontinental and Western Air TWA. Amelia Earhart bought her first plane there. Wiley Post used the airport. Laura Ingalls became the first woman to fly solo across the country when she landed at Glendale in 1930. Albert Forsythe and Charles Anderson were the first African American pilots who made the transcontinental flight, completed at Glendale in 1933, their achievement paved the way for the black Tuskegee Airmen who fought in World War II.
Thomas Benton Slate built an all-metal dirigible and hangar in 1925. It was 212 ft. long, fireproof. He named it "City of Glendale", it left the ground in 1929, popped some rivets, crashed. Howard Hughes built his record-setting H-1 Racer in a small building at 911 Air Way in 1935, thus beginning the Hughes Aircraft Company; the building burned to the ground in the late 1990s. Jack Northrop started his'Avion Aviation' company on the field in 1927, where he built multi-cellular metal structures. William Boeing bought the business from Northrop, moved it to Burbank's United Airport. W. B. Kinner built the Kinner Airster, he was the inventor of the compound folding wing. Major C. C. Moseley established overhaul facilities there, operated a flight academy whose pilot and mechanic graduates traveled to Europe as the all-volunteer Eagle Squadron who flew against Hitler at the Battle of Britain before America entered the war. Actor Robert Cummings was an active flight instructor who used this airport. In addition, airlines originating at GCA included TWA, Varney and Pickwick Airlines.
The airport was the setting of several films, including Howard Hughes' Hell's Angels, Shirley Temple's Bright Eyes, Lady Killer starring James Cagney, Sky Giant with Joan Fontaine, Hats Off with John Payne, the musical Hollywood Hotel with Dick Powell, the adventure film Secret Service of the Air starring Ronald Reagan. Episodes of the 1941 movie serial, Sky Raiders, show the terminal and other GCAT structures; the terminal was a favorite shooting location. The airport was known for stunt flying, supplying planes for use in the movie industry by people like Paul Mantz. Just about every airplane design flying during the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s could be seen at GCAT for use in movies, or there to be serviced; when Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941, Grand Central Airport was closed to private aviation. The government moved in camouflaged the place, converted it into an important defense base for Los Angeles. In 1942 the runway, which ended at Sonora Avenue, was extended North to Western