Eucalyptus microcorys, tallowwood or tallowood, is a Eucalypt species native to and common in New South Wales and Queensland, Australia. It grows in forests near the coast on moderate to fertile soils in a protected, sunny position. Tallowwood is frost tender. Tallowwood is a medium to tall evergreen tree growing to 40 metres, to 70 m, with rough, stringy or fibrous, red-brown, orange or brown-grey bark throughout, it has long and narrow adult leaves of lanceolate, ovate or falcate shape, 6 to 15 centimetres long by 1.5 to 3.5 centimetres wide, glossy green on the upper surface and dull green beneath, with prominent, well-spaced side veins having an angle greater than 45° to the leaf mid-rib. Its white to lemon coloured flowers are located at the ends of the branchlets in groups of 7 to 11 buds per umbel; the mature buds are small, club-shaped, 0.3 to 0.6 centimetres long by 0.2 to 0.3 centimetres wide. The fruit are obconical in shape, 0.5 to 0.9 centimetres long by 0.4 to 0.6 centimetres wide, with 3 or 4 valves near the level of, or raised above, the open-end rim.
Propagation is by seed. Its botanical name originates from Greek micro-: small, corys: cap or helmet, referring to the small shape of the flower bud cap; the Tallowwood name is believed to refer to the greasy feel of the wood. The timber is oily with a high tannin content and is used for decking and garden furniture, it has a distinct yellowish-brown to olive-green colour. The leaves can be used to dye silk, it is one of the species. It flowers most years, something, unusual amongst the Eucalypts it does not yield nectar or pollen in quantities that are useful for beekeepers
A landfill site is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial. It is the oldest form of waste treatment. Landfills have been the most common method of organized waste disposal and remain so in many places around the world; some landfills are used for waste management purposes, such as the temporary storage and transfer, or processing of waste material. Unless they are stabilized, these areas may experience severe shaking or soil liquefaction of the ground during a large earthquake. Operators of well-run landfills for non-hazardous waste meet predefined specifications by applying techniques to: confine waste to as small an area as possible compact waste to reduce volumeThey can cover waste with layers of soil or other types of material such as woodchips and fine particles. During landfill operations, a scale or weighbridge may weigh waste collection vehicles on arrival and personnel may inspect loads for wastes that do not accord with the landfill's waste-acceptance criteria. Afterward, the waste collection vehicles use the existing road network on their way to the tipping face or working front, where they unload their contents.
After loads are deposited, compactors or bulldozers can spread and compact the waste on the working face. Before leaving the landfill boundaries, the waste collection vehicles may pass through a wheel-cleaning facility. If necessary, they return to the weighbridge for re-weighing without their load; the weighing process can assemble statistics on the daily incoming waste tonnage, which databases can retain for record keeping. In addition to trucks, some landfills may have equipment to handle railroad containers; the use of "rail-haul" permits landfills to be located at more remote sites, without the problems associated with many truck trips. In the working face, the compacted waste is covered with soil or alternative materials daily. Alternative waste-cover materials include chipped wood or other "green waste", several sprayed-on foam products, chemically "fixed" bio-solids, temporary blankets. Blankets can be lifted into place at night and removed the following day prior to waste placement; the space, occupied daily by the compacted waste and the cover material is called a daily cell.
Waste compaction is critical to extending the life of the landfill. Factors such as waste compressibility, waste-layer thickness and the number of passes of the compactor over the waste affect the waste densities; the term landfill is shorthand for a municipal landfill or sanitary landfill. These facilities were first introduced early in the 20th century, but gained wide use in the 1960s and'70s, in an effort to eliminate open dumps and other "unsanitary" waste disposal practices; the sanitary landfill is an engineered facility that confines waste. But, not all it does, it is a biological reactor in which microbes break down complex organic waste into simpler, less toxic compounds over time. These reactors must be operated according to regulatory standards and guidelines. Aerobic decomposition is the first stage by which wastes are broken down in a landfill; these are followed by four stages of anaerobic degradation. Solid organic material in solid phase decays as larger organic molecules degrade into smaller molecules.
These smaller organic molecules begin to dissolve and move to the liquid phase, followed by hydrolysis of these organic molecules, the hydrolyzed compounds undergo transformation and volatilization as carbon dioxide and methane, with rest of the waste remaining in solid and liquid phases. During the early phases, little material volume reaches the leachate, as the biodegradable organic matter of the waste undergoes a rapid decrease in volume. Meanwhile, the leachate's chemical oxygen demand increases with increasing concentrations of the more recalcitrant compounds compared to the more reactive compounds in the leachate. Successful conversion and stabilization of the waste depends on how well microbial populations function in syntrophy, i.e. an interaction of different populations to provide each other's nutritional needs.: The life cycle of a municipal landfill undergoes five distinct phases: Phase I - Initial adjustment: As the waste is placed in the landfill, the void spaces contain high volumes of molecular oxygen.
With added and compacted wastes, the O2 content of the landfill bioreactor strata decreases. Microbial populations grow, density increases. Aerobic biodegradation dominates, i.e. the primary electron acceptor is O2. Phase II - Transition: The O2 is degraded by the existing microbial populations; the decreasing O2 leads to more anaerobic conditions in the layers. The primary electron acceptors during transition are nitrates and sulphates, since O2 is displaced by CO2 in the effluent gas. Phase III - Acid formation: Hydrolysis of the biodegradable fraction of the solid waste begins in the acid formation phase, which leads to rapid accumulation of volatile fatty acids in the leachate; the increased organic acid content decreases the leachate pH from 7.5 to 5.6. During this phase, the decomposition intermediate compounds like the VFAs contribute much COD. Long-chain volatile organic acids are converted to acetic acid, CO2, hydrogen gas. High concentrations of VFAs increase both the biochemical oxygen demand and VOA concentrations, which initiates H2 production by fermentative ba
Lophostemon confertus, is an evergreen tree native to Australia, though it is cultivated in the United States and elsewhere. Common names include brush box, Queensland box, Brisbane box, pink box, box scrub, vinegartree, its natural range in Australia is north-east New South Wales and coastal Queensland but it is used as a street tree in Sydney, Melbourne and other cities in eastern Australia. In the wild its habitat ranges from moist open forest and rainforest ecotones, where it might reach heights of 40 metres or more, to coastal headlands where it acquires a stunted, wind-sheared habit. Dome-like in shape, it has a denser foliage with dark green, leathery leaves and hence provides more shade than eucalyptus trees. Moreover, it is considered safer than eucalypts because it sheds limbs, it is considered useful as a street tree, due to its disease and pest resilience, its high tolerance for smog and poor drainage, the fact that it needs only moderate-to-light upkeep. It requires lopping to accommodate overhead power lines, but survives pruning quite well.
In form it is used as a replacement for the weedy Camphor Laurel while having a low potential for being weedy itself. The tree is most successful street trees within wider Sydney and elsewhere; the species was formally described in 1812 by Scottish botanist Robert Brown, based on plant material collected from the Hunter River region in New South Wales. Brown named the species Tristania confertia; the species was transferred to the genus Lophostemon in 1982
The koala is an arboreal herbivorous marsupial native to Australia. It is the only extant representative of the family Phascolarctidae and its closest living relatives are the wombats, which comprise the family Vombatidae.. The koala is found in coastal areas of the mainland's eastern and southern regions, inhabiting Queensland, New South Wales and South Australia, it is recognisable by its stout, tailless body and large head with round, fluffy ears and large, spoon-shaped nose. The koala weighs 4 -- 15 kg. Pelage colour ranges from silver grey to chocolate brown. Koalas from the northern populations are smaller and lighter in colour than their counterparts further south; these populations are separate subspecies, but this is disputed. Koalas inhabit open eucalypt woodlands, the leaves of these trees make up most of their diet; because this eucalypt diet has limited nutritional and caloric content, koalas are sedentary and sleep up to 20 hours a day. They are asocial animals, bonding exists only between mothers and dependent offspring.
Adult males attract mates. Males mark their presence with secretions from scent glands located on their chests. Being marsupials, koalas give birth to underdeveloped young that crawl into their mothers' pouches, where they stay for the first six to seven months of their lives; these young koalas, known as joeys, are weaned around a year old. Koalas have few natural predators and parasites, but are threatened by various pathogens, such as Chlamydiaceae bacteria and the koala retrovirus, as well as by bushfires and droughts. Koalas were depicted in myths and cave art for millennia; the first recorded encounter between a European and a koala was in 1798, an image of the animal was published in 1810 by naturalist George Perry. Botanist Robert Brown wrote the first detailed scientific description of the koala in 1814, although his work remained unpublished for 180 years. Popular artist John Gould illustrated and described the koala, introducing the species to the general British public. Further details about the animal's biology were revealed in the 19th century by several English scientists.
Because of its distinctive appearance, the koala is recognised worldwide as a symbol of Australia. Koalas are listed as Vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature; the Australian government lists specific populations in Queensland and New South Wales as Vulnerable. The animal was hunted in the early 20th century for its fur, large-scale cullings in Queensland resulted in a public outcry that initiated a movement to protect the species. Sanctuaries were established, translocation efforts moved to new regions koalas whose habitat had become fragmented or reduced; the biggest threat to their existence is habitat destruction caused by urbanisation. The word koala comes from the Dharug gula. Although the vowel'u' was written in the English orthography as "oo", it was changed to "oa" in error; because of the koala's supposed resemblance to a bear, it was miscalled the koala bear by early settlers. The generic name, Phascolarctos, is derived from the Greek words phaskolos "pouch" and arktos "bear".
The specific name, cinereus, is Latin for "ash coloured". The koala was given its generic name Phascolarctos in 1816 by French zoologist Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville, who would not give it a specific name until further review. In 1819, German zoologist Georg August Goldfuss gave it the binomial Lipurus cinereus; because Phascolarctos was published first, according to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, it has priority as the official name of the genus. French naturalist Anselme Gaëtan Desmarest proposed the name Phascolartos fuscus in 1820, suggesting that the brown-coloured versions were a different species than the grey ones. Other names suggested by European authors included Marodactylus cinereus by Goldfuss in 1820, P. flindersii by René Primevère Lesson in 1827, P. koala by John Edward Gray in 1827. The koala is classified with wombats and several extinct families in the suborder Vombatiformes within the order Diprotodontia; the Vombatiformes are a sister group to a clade that includes possums.
The ancestors of vombatiforms were arboreal, the koala's lineage was the first to branch off around 40 million years ago during the Eocene. The modern koala is the only extant member of Phascolarctidae, a family that once included several genera and species. During the Oligocene and Miocene, koalas had less specialised diets; some species, such as the Riversleigh rainforest koala and some species of Perikoala, were around the same size as the modern koala, while others, such as species of Litokoala, were one-half to two-thirds its size. Like the modern species, prehistoric koalas had well developed ear structures which suggests that long-distance vocalising and sedentism developed early. During the Miocene, the Australian continent began drying out, leading to the decline of rainforests and the spread of open Eucalyptus woodlands; the genus Phascolarctos split from Litokoala in the late Miocene and had several adaptations that allowed it to live on a specialised eucalyptus diet: a shifting of the palate towards the front of the skull.
During the Pliocene an
Bulimba Creek known as Doboy Creek, ia a perennial stream, a tributary of the Brisbane River, located in suburban Brisbane in the South East region of Queensland, Australia. The Bulimba Creek catchment has it sources in the low plateaus and marshy parts of the suburbs of Sunnybank and Runcorn and Kuraby in the south of Brisbane, it flows in a northerly direction through the suburbs of Mansfield, Carindale and Lytton, before meeting the Brisbane River via the Aquarium Passage along the Lytton Reach. The creek has six tributaries: Mimosa Creek, Spring Creek, Salvin Creek, Phillips Creek, Tingalpa Creek and Lindum Creek. There are a number of significant wetlands systems in the catchment, including Runcorn Wetlands in the upper catchment and Numgubbah, Tingalpa and Lindum Wetlands in the lower catchment; the creek is impacted by urban and industrial development. In the past the creek corridor was extensively cleared for cropping and grazing in the early part of the last century with some remnant vegetation remaining.
In some areas the reduction in rural industries has allowed riparian vegetation to regrow. The catchment has a nature reserve network of protected hills, including Karawatha Forest, Toohey Forest Conservation Park and Mt Gravatt Outlook, Belmont Hills, Whites Hill and Pine Mountain, Seven Hills and Oates Hill; the creek feeds the Runcorn Water Reserve, Tingalpa Wetlands, Nungubba Swamp, Dairy Swamp, Lyndon Wetlands, Iona Wetlands, The Bulimba Creek Oxbow and Minnippi Parklands. The invasive fish species tilapia is present in the waterway; the creek suffers from the introduction of the waterway weed called salvinia first identified in the catchment in 1953. Many of the nature reserves have threatened species. For example, is Whites Hill the powerful owl, grey-headed flying fox, velvet gecko and grey goshawk are all threatened. Flora at risk includes Macadamia integrifolia. Karawatha Forest is the reserve with the highest number of species and has five different species of glider possums, it has a fauna overpass constructed over the four lane road, along with underpasses, rope ladders and exclusion funnelling fencing.
The project was undertaken by Dr Darryl Jones. The indigenous clans of the Yuggera and Turrbal people lived in or traversed parts of the Bulimba Creek catchment for at least twenty thousand years, it is believed that a locality on the creek was called boolimbah, meaning a place of the magpie lark and thought to refer to what is now known as Whites Hill. The first recorded use of the name Bulimba Creek occurred in 1888. In the late 1860s the Walrus, a large paddle steamer built at Cleveland, was converted to Australia's first floating distillery with the addition of a steam driven sugar mill on board; the Walrus navigated the lower reaches of Bulimba Creek and the Brisbane River before servicing areas along the Nerang and the Logan Rivers to the south. In August 2008 the Bulimba Creek valley was polluted by a vast 100,000-litre oil leak from the 1964-laid Santos-owned Moomba to Brisbane pipeline adjacent to Bulimba Creek at Carindale, requiring the removal of hundreds of truckloads of contaminated soil from the suburb's recreation reserve.
The Bulimba Creek Catchment Coordinating Committee is associated with the Landcare Group and is run by volunteers. Formed in 1997 and incorporated in 1999, it supports smaller groups and individuals involved in Bushcare, Catchment Care, Nature conservation and environmental education and awareness. Known as the B4C, the group is involved in protecting and rehabilitating waterways, remnant bushlands and wetlands, it was the first urban Queensland group to win a State Landcare award in 2000. In 2005 the B4C won the prestigious Thiess National Riverprize. Recent successes in protecting the environment by the B4C include securing the Weekes Road, Carindale Bushlands and Oates Hill Reserve from the Queensland Government, saving the Wishart Bushlands from development, saving the Bulimba Creek Oxbow and negotiating a major rehabilitation project to restore this 30-hectare saline wetland; the B4C has its own foundation "the Bulimba Creek Environment Fund", which provides small grants to members of the community to get involved in environmental issues and training.
B4C has its own catchment community nursery. It is in the process of developing a 2-hectare site together with its corporate partner, into a sustainability centre, inclusive of a sustainable home,community nursery, with waterwise gardens and through the use of permaculture methods and sustainable technologies. Brisbane native plants List of rivers of Queensland Bulimba Creek Catchment Map. Bulimba Creek Catchment Coordinating Committee
Eucalyptus tereticornis is a species of tree native to eastern Australia. E. tereticornis has several common names, including forest red gum, blue gum, flooded gum, grey gum, mountain gum, Queensland blue gum, red gum, bastard box, red ironbark, red irongum and slaty gum. The tree grows to a height of 20 to 50 metres with a girth of up to 2 metres dbh; the trunk is straight and is un-branched for more than half of the total height of the tree. Thereafter, limbs are unusually steeply inclined for a Eucalyptus species; the bark is shed in irregular sheets, resulting in a smooth trunk surface coloured in patches of white and blue, corresponding to areas that shed their bark at different times. It has narrow, lanceolate green leaves, from 10 to 20 centimetres long, one to nearly three centimetres wide. Flowers occur in inflorescences of 7 to 11 flowers; the species has a wide distribution, occurring over the widest range of latitudes of any Eucalyptus species: from southern Papua New Guinea at latitude 15°S, to southeastern Victoria at latitude 38°S.
The forest red gum is one of the key canopy species of the threatened Cumberland Plain Woodlands. Specimens of E. tereticornis were first collected in 1793 by First Fleet surgeon and naturalist John White from Port Jackson. White's findings were published that year by James Edward Smith in Zoology and Botany of New Holland, it was republished by Smith in his 1795 edition of A Specimen of the Botany of New Holland. Smith gave it the specific epithet tereticornis from the Latin teretus and cornu, in reference to the horn-shaped bud cap. Eucalyptus tereticornis has had a complex taxonomic history. Synonyms include: Eucalyptus tereticornis var. pruiniflora Cameron Eucalyptus insignis Naudin Eucalyptus populifolia Desf. Eucalyptus subulata Schauer Eucalyptus umbellata Domin nom. illeg. Eucalyptus umbellata var. pruiniflora Blakely Leptospermum umbellatum Gaertn. There have been evidence of numerous subspecies and varieties published, but the only ones remaining current are E. tereticornis subsp. Mediana and the autonym E. tereticornis subsp.
Tereticornis. Some hybrids have been reported; the tree has a strong and durable heartwood, with a density of about 1100 kg m−3. It is used for construction such as for railway sleepers; the leaves of E. tereticornis are used in the production of cineole based eucalyptus oil. Features of the forest red gum List of Eucalyptus species