Spanish Colonial Revival architecture
The Spanish Colonial Revival Style is an architectural stylistic movement arising in the early 20th century based on the Spanish Colonial architecture of the Spanish colonization of the Americas. The Panama-California Exposition of 1915 in San Diego, highlighting the work of architect Bertram Goodhue, is credited with giving the style national exposure. Embraced principally in California and Florida, the Spanish Colonial Revival movement enjoyed its greatest popularity between 1915 and 1931; the antecedents of the Spanish Colonial Revival Style can be traced to the Mediterranean Revival architectural style. For St. Augustine, three northeastern architects, New Yorkers John Carrère and Thomas Hastings of Carrère and Hastings and Bostonian Franklin W. Smith, designed grand, elaborately detailed hotels in the Mediterranean Revival and Spanish Revival styles in the 1880s. With the advent of the Ponce de Leon Hotel, the Alcazar Hotel and the Casa Monica Hotel thousands of winter visitors to'the Sunshine State' began to experience the charm and romance of Spanish influenced architecture.
These three hotels were influenced not only by the centuries-old buildings remaining from the Spanish rule in St. Augustine but by The Old City House, constructed in 1873 and still standing, an excellent example of early Spanish Colonial Revival architecture; the possibilities of the Spanish Colonial Revival Style were brought to the attention of architects attending late 19th and early 20th centuries international expositions. For example, California's Mission Revival style Pavilion in white stucco at the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago, the Mission Inn, along with the Electric Tower of the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo in 1900 introduced the potential of Spanish Colonial Revival, they integrated porticoes and colonnades influenced by Beaux Arts classicism as well. By the early years of the 1910s, architects in Florida had begun to work in a Spanish Colonial Revival style. Frederick H. Trimble's Farmer's Bank in Vero Beach, completed in 1914, is a mature early example of the style.
The city of St. Cloud, espoused the style both for homes and commercial structures and has a fine collection of subtle stucco buildings reminiscent of colonial Mexico. Many of these were designed by architectural partners Ida Annah Isabel Roberts; the major location of design and construction in the Spanish Colonial Revival style was California in the coastal cities. In 1915 the San Diego Panama-California Exposition, with architects Bertram Goodhue and Carleton Winslow Sr. popularized the style in the state and nation. It is built as the grand entrance to that Exposition. In the early 1920s, architect Lilian Jeannette Rice designed the style in the development of the town of Rancho Santa Fe in San Diego County; the city of Santa Barbara adopted the style to give it a unified Spanish character after widespread destruction in the 1925 Santa Barbara earthquake. The County Courthouse, designed by William Mooser III, is a prime example. Real estate developer Ole Hanson favored the Spanish Colonial Revival style in his founding and development of San Clemente, California in 1928.
The Pasadena City Hall by John Bakewell, Jr. and Arthur Brown, Jr. the Sonoma City Hall, the Beverly Hills City Hall by Harry G. Koerner and William J. Gage are other notable civic examples in California. Between 1922 and 1931, architect Robert H. Spurgeon constructed 32 Spanish colonial revival houses in Riverside and many of them have been preserved; the Spanish Colonial Revival of Mexico has a distinct origin from the style developed in the United States. Following the Mexican Revolution, there was a wave of nationalism that emphasized national culture, including in architecture; the neocolonial style arose as a response to European eclecticism. The 1915 book La patria y la arquitectura nacional by Federico Mariscal was influential in advocating viceregal architecture as integral to national identity. During the government of President Venustiano Carranza, tax exemptions were offered to those that built houses in a colonial style. In the early 1920s there was a surge of houses built with Plateresque elements.
Secretary of Education José Vasconcelos was an active promoter of neocolonial architecture. Traditional materials such as tezontle and Talavera tiles were incorporated into neocolonial buildings; the colonial-era National Palace was altered between 1926 and 1929: the addition of a third floor and changes to the facade. The modifications were done in a manner corresponding to the original style; the colonial Mexico City government building was remodeled in the 1920s and a neocolonial companion building was built in the 1940s. The style, as developed in the United States, came full circle to its geographic point of inspiration as in the late 1930s, single-family houses were built in Mexico City's then-new upscale neighborhoods in what is known in Mexico as colonial californiano; that is, a Mexican reinterpretation of the California interpretation of Spanish Colonial Revival. Many houses of this style can still be seen in the Colonia Nápoles, Condesa and Lomas de Chapultepec areas of Mexico City.
After colonial rule by Spain for over 300 years, for the most part being administered under the province of New Spain, the Philippines received Iberian and Latin-American influences in its architecture. By the time the
William Horatio Powell was an American actor. A major star at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, he was paired with Myrna Loy in 14 films, including the Thin Man series based on the Nick and Nora Charles characters created by Dashiell Hammett. Powell was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor three times: for The Thin Man, My Man Godfrey, Life with Father. An only child, Powell was born in Pittsburgh to Nettie Manila and Horatio Warren Powell, on July 29, 1892. In 1907, he moved with his family to Kansas City, where he graduated from Central High School in 1910; the Powells lived just a few blocks away from the Carpenters, whose daughter Harlean went to Hollywood under the name Jean Harlow, although he and she did not meet until both were established actors. After high school, he left home for New York and the American Academy of Dramatic Arts at the age of 18. In 1912, Powell graduated from the AADA, worked in some vaudeville and stock companies. After several successful experiences on the Broadway stage, he began his Hollywood career in 1922, playing a small role as an evil henchman of Professor Moriarty in a production of Sherlock Holmes with John Barrymore.
His most memorable role in silent movies was as a bitter film director opposite Emil Jannings' Academy Award-winning performance as a fallen general in The Last Command. This success, along with Powell's pleasant speaking voice, led to his first starring role as amateur detective Philo Vance in the "talkie" The Canary Murder Case. Powell was loved by many people in Hollywood. Actress Marion Shilling worked with him in Shadow of the Law, called him, "Self-effacing, exceedingly thoughtful of other people, he was one of the kindest human beings I have met, he sensed that I was in awe of him so, from the start, he did what he could to put me at ease."Powell's most famous role was that of Nick Charles in six Thin Man films, beginning with The Thin Man in 1934, based upon Dashiell Hammett's novel. The role provided a perfect opportunity for Powell, with his resonant speaking voice, to showcase his sophisticated charm and witty sense of humor, he received his first Academy Award nomination for The Thin Man.
Myrna Loy played Nora, in each of the Thin Man films. Their on-screen partnership, beginning alongside Clark Gable in 1934 with Manhattan Melodrama, was one of Hollywood's most prolific, they appeared in 14 films together. Loy and Powell starred in the Best Picture of 1936, The Great Ziegfeld, with Powell in the title role and Loy as Ziegfeld's wife Billie Burke; that same year, he received his second Academy Award nomination, for the comedy My Man Godfrey. In 1935, he starred with Jean Harlow in Reckless. A serious romance developed between them, in 1936, they were reunited on screen and with Loy and Spencer Tracy in the screwball comedy Libeled Lady. Harlow became ill soon after, died from uremia at the age of 26 in June 1937 before they could marry, his distress over her death, as well as a cancer diagnosis of his own, caused him to accept fewer acting roles. Powell's career slowed in the 1940s, although he received his third Academy Award nomination in 1947 for his role as the cantankerous Clarence Day, Sr. in Life with Father.
His last film was 1955's Mister Roberts. In 1915, he married Eileen Wilson, born Julia Tierney, by whom he had his only child, William David Powell, before an amicable divorce in 1930. Powell's son became a television writer and producer before a period of ill health led to his suicide in 1968. On June 26, 1931, Powell married actress Carole Lombard; the marriage lasted just over two years. They were divorced in 1933, though they, remained on good terms starring together in the screwball comedy My Man Godfrey three years later. Powell was devastated by her death in an airplane crash in 1942, he was engaged to marry Jean Harlow, his co-star in Reckless, until her sudden death in 1937. On January 6, 1940, three weeks after they met, Powell married his third wife, actress Diana Lewis, to whom he remained married until his death in 1984. In 1937, Powell was diagnosed with cancer, he underwent surgery and experimental radium treatment which put the disease in full remission within two years. Given his own health and sorrow over Jean Harlow's death, Powell did not undertake any film roles for over a year during this period.
Powell died in Palm Springs, California, on March 5, 1984, at the age of 91 from heart failure, nearly 30 years after his retirement. He is buried at the Desert Memorial Park in Cathedral City, near his third wife Diana Lewis, his only child, his son William David Powell. 1934 Best Actor – The Thin Man 1936 Best Actor – My Man Godfrey 1947 Best Actor – Life with Father New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor in 1947 for Life with Father and The Senator Was Indiscreet. William Powell has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1636 Vine Street. In 1992, a Golden Palm Star on the Palm Springs, Walk of Stars was dedicated to him. Screen Snapshots Hollywood on Parade No. A-12 Screen Snapshots: The Skolsky Party List of actors with Academy Award nominations Bryant, Roger. William Powell: The Life and Films. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Co. 2006. ISBN 0-7864-2602-0. Christensen, Lawrence O. et al. Dictionary of Missouri Biography. Columbia, Maryland: University of Missouri Press, 199.
ISBN 0-8262-1222-0. Francisco, Charles. Gentleman: The William Powell Story. New York: St Martins Press, 1985. ISBN 0-312-32103-1. William Powell William Powell on IMDb William Powell at the Internet Broadway Database William Powell at the TCM Movie Database In Loving Memory Of William Powell Photographs of William Powell FBI file on William Powell
A reservoir is, most an enlarged natural or artificial lake, pond or impoundment created using a dam or lock to store water. Reservoirs can be created in a number of ways, including controlling a watercourse that drains an existing body of water, interrupting a watercourse to form an embayment within it, through excavation, or building any number of retaining walls or levees. Defined as a storage space for fluids, reservoirs may hold gasses, including hydrocarbons. Tank reservoirs elevated, or buried tanks. Tank reservoirs for water are called cisterns. Most underground reservoirs are used to store liquids, principally either water or petroleum, below ground. Reservoir is most an enlarged natural or artificial lake. A dam constructed in a valley relies on the natural topography to provide most of the basin of the reservoir. Dams are located at a narrow part of a valley downstream of a natural basin; the valley sides act as natural walls, with the dam located at the narrowest practical point to provide strength and the lowest cost of construction.
In many reservoir construction projects, people have to be moved and re-housed, historical artifacts moved or rare environments relocated. Examples include the temples of Abu Simbel, the relocation of the village of Capel Celyn during the construction of Llyn Celyn, the relocation of Borgo San Pietro of Petrella Salto during the construction of Lake Salto. Construction of a reservoir in a valley will need the river to be diverted during part of the build through a temporary tunnel or by-pass channel. In hilly regions, reservoirs are constructed by enlarging existing lakes. Sometimes in such reservoirs, the new top water level exceeds the watershed height on one or more of the feeder streams such as at Llyn Clywedog in Mid Wales. In such cases additional side dams are required to contain the reservoir. Where the topography is poorly suited to a single large reservoir, a number of smaller reservoirs may be constructed in a chain, as in the River Taff valley where the Llwyn-on, Cantref and Beacons Reservoirs form a chain up the valley.
Coastal reservoirs are fresh water storage reservoirs located on the sea coast near the river mouth to store the flood water of a river. As the land based reservoir construction is fraught with substantial land submergence, coastal reservoir is preferred economically and technically since it does not use scarce land area. Many coastal reservoirs were constructed in Europe. Saemanguem in South Korea, Marina Barrage in Singapore and Plover Cove in China, etc are few existing coastal reservoirs. Where water is pumped or siphoned from a river of variable quality or size, bank-side reservoirs may be built to store the water; such reservoirs are formed by excavation and by building a complete encircling bund or embankment, which may exceed 6 km in circumference. Both the floor of the reservoir and the bund must have an impermeable lining or core: these were made of puddled clay, but this has been superseded by the modern use of rolled clay; the water stored in such reservoirs may stay there for several months, during which time normal biological processes may reduce many contaminants and eliminate any turbidity.
The use of bank-side reservoirs allows water abstraction to be stopped for some time, when the river is unacceptably polluted or when flow conditions are low due to drought. The London water supply system is one example of the use of bank-side storage: the water is taken from the River Thames and River Lee. Service reservoirs store treated potable water close to the point of distribution. Many service reservoirs are constructed as water towers as elevated structures on concrete pillars where the landscape is flat. Other service reservoirs can be entirely underground in more hilly or mountainous country. In the United Kingdom, Thames Water has many underground reservoirs, sometimes called cisterns, built in the 1800s, most of which are lined with brick. A good example is the Honor Oak Reservoir in London, constructed between 1901 and 1909; when it was completed it was said to be the largest brick built underground reservoir in the world and it is still one of the largest in Europe. This reservoir now forms part of the southern extension of the Thames Water Ring Main.
The top of the reservoir is now used by the Aquarius Golf Club. Service reservoirs perform several functions, including ensuring sufficient head of water in the water distribution system and providing water capacity to out peak demand from consumers, enabling the treatment plant to run at optimum efficiency. Large service reservoirs can be managed to reduce the cost of pumping, by refilling the reservoir at times of day when energy costs are low. Circa 3 000 BC, the craters of extinct volcanoes in Arabia were used as reservoirs by farmers for their irrigation water. Dry climate and water scarcity in India led to early development of stepwells and water resource management techniques, including the building of a reservoir at Girnar in 3000 BC. Artificial lakes dating to the 5th century BC have been found in ancient Greece; the artificial Bhojsagar lake in present-day Madhya Pradesh state of India, constructed in the 11th century, covered 650 square kilometres. In Sri Lanka large reservoirs were created by ancient Sinhalese kings in order to save the water for irrigation.
The famous Sri Lankan king Pa
Judy Garland was an American actress, singer and vaudevillian. During a career that spanned 45 years, she attained international stardom as an actress in both musical and dramatic roles, as a recording artist, on the concert stage. Respected for her versatility, she received a juvenile Academy Award, a Golden Globe Award, a Special Tony Award. Garland was the first woman to win the Grammy Award for Album of the Year for her live recording Judy at Carnegie Hall. Garland began performing in vaudeville as a child with her two older sisters, was signed to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer as a teenager. Although she appeared in more than two dozen films with MGM and received acclaim for many different roles, she is best remembered for her portrayal of Dorothy Gale in The Wizard of Oz. Garland was a frequent on-screen partner of both Mickey Rooney and Gene Kelly, collaborated with director and second husband Vincente Minnelli; some of her most notable film appearances during this period include roles in Meet Me in St. Louis, The Harvey Girls, Easter Parade, Summer Stock.
Garland was released from MGM in 1950, after 15 years with the studio, amid a series of personal struggles and erratic behavior that prevented her from fulfilling the terms of her contract. Although her film career diminished thereafter, two of Garland's most critically acclaimed performances came late in her career, she made record-breaking concert appearances, released eight studio albums, hosted her own Emmy-nominated television series, The Judy Garland Show. At age 39, Garland became the youngest and first female recipient of the Cecil B. DeMille Award for lifetime achievement in the film industry. In 1997, Garland was posthumously awarded a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. Several of her recordings have been inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame, in 1999, the American Film Institute placed her among the 10 greatest female stars of classic American cinema. Despite profound professional success, Garland struggled in her personal life from an early age; the pressures of early stardom affected her physical and mental health from the time she was a teenager.
Those same executives manipulated her onscreen physical appearance. Into her adulthood, she was plagued by alcohol and substance abuse, as well as financial instability, her lifelong addiction to drugs and alcohol led to her death in London from a barbiturate overdose at age 47. Garland was born Frances Ethel Gumm on June 10, 1922, in Minnesota, she was the youngest child of Francis Avent "Frank" Gumm. Her parents were vaudevillians who settled in Grand Rapids to run a movie theater that featured vaudeville acts, she was of Irish and Scottish ancestry, named after both of her parents and baptized at a local Episcopal church."Baby" shared her family's flair for song and dance. Her first appearance came at the age of two-and-a-half, when she joined her older sisters Mary Jane "Suzy/Suzanne" Gumm and Dorothy Virginia "Jimmie" Gumm on the stage of her father's movie theater during a Christmas show and sang a chorus of "Jingle Bells"; the Gumm Sisters performed there for the next few years, accompanied by their mother on piano.
The family relocated to Lancaster, California, in June 1926, following rumors that her father had made sexual advances towards male ushers. Frank purchased and operated another theater in Lancaster, Ethel began managing her daughters and working to get them into motion pictures. Garland attended Hollywood High School and graduated from University High School. In 1928, the Gumm Sisters enrolled in a dance school run by Ethel Meglin, proprietress of the Meglin Kiddies dance troupe, they appeared with the troupe at its annual Christmas show. Through the Meglin Kiddies, they made their film debut in a short subject called The Big Revue, where they performed a song-and-dance number called "That's the good old sunny south"; this was followed by appearances in two Vitaphone shorts the following year: A Holiday in Storyland and The Wedding of Jack and Jill. They next appeared together in Bubbles, their final on-screen appearance was in an MGM Technicolor short entitled La Fiesta de Santa Barbara. The trio had toured the vaudeville circuit as "The Gumm Sisters" for many years when they performed in Chicago at the Oriental Theater with George Jessel in 1934.
He encouraged the group to choose a more appealing name after "Gumm" was met with laughter from the audience. According to theater legend, their act was once erroneously billed at a Chicago theater as "The Glum Sisters". Several stories persist regarding the origin of their use of the name Garland. One is that it was originated by Jessel after Carole Lombard's character Lily Garland in the film Twentieth Century, playing at the Oriental in Chicago. Garland's daughter Lorna Luft stated that her mother selected the name when Jessel announced that the trio "looked prettier than a garland of flowers". A TV special was filmed in Hollywood at the Pantages Theatre premiere of A Star Is Born on September 29, 1954, in which Jessel stated: I think that I ought to tell the folks that it was I who named Judy
Single-family detached home
A stand-alone house is a free-standing residential building. Sometimes referred to as a single-family home, as opposed to a multi-family residential dwelling; the definition of this type of house may vary between statistical agencies. The definition, however includes two elements: a single-family means that the building is a structure maintained and used as a single dwelling unit. Though a dwelling unit shares one or more walls with another dwelling unit, it is a single family residence if it has direct access to a street or thoroughfare and does not share heating facilities, hot water equipment, nor any other essential facility or service with any other dwelling unit. In some jurisdictions, allowances are made for basement suites or mother-in-law suites without changing the description from "single family", it does exclude, any short-term accommodation, large-scale rental accommodation, or condominiums. Most single-family homes are built on lots larger than the structure itself, adding an area surrounding the house, called a yard in North American English or a garden in British English.
Garages can be found on most lots. Houses with an attached front entry garage, closer to the street than any other part of the house is derisively called a snout house. Terms corresponding to single-family detached home in common use are single-family home, single-detached dwelling, detached house, separate house. In the United Kingdom, the term single-family home is unknown, except through Internet exposure to U. S. media. Whereas in the U. S. housing is divided into "single-family homes", "multi-family dwellings", "condo/townhouse", etc. the primary division of residential property in British terminology is between "houses" and "flats". In pre-industrial societies, most people lived in multi-family dwellings for most of their lives. A child lived with their parents from birth until marriage, generally moved in with the parents of the man or the woman, so that the grandparents could help raise the young children and so the middle generation could care for their aging parents; this type of arrangement saved some of the effort and materials used for construction and, in colder climates, heating.
If people had to move to a new place or were wealthy enough, they could build or buy a home for their own family, but this was not the norm. The idea of a nuclear family living separately from their relatives as the norm is a recent development related to rising living standards in North America and Europe during the early modern and modern eras. In the New World, where land was plentiful, settlement patterns were quite different from the close-knit villages of Europe, meaning many more people lived in large farms separated from their neighbors; this has produced a cultural preference in settler societies for space. A countervailing trend has been industrialization and urbanization, which has seen more and more people around the world move into multi-story apartment blocks. In the New World, this type of densification was halted and reversed following the Second World War when increased automobile ownership and cheaper building and heating costs produced suburbanization instead. Single-family homes are now common in rural and suburban and some urban areas across the New World and Europe, as well as wealthier enclaves within the Third World.
They are most common in high-income regions. For example, in Canada, according to the 2006 census, 55.3% of the population lived single-detached houses but this varied by region. In the ville of Montreal, Canada's second-most populous municipality, only 7.5% of the population lived in single-detached homes, while in the city of Calgary, the third most populous, 57.8% did. Note that this includes the "city limits" populations only, not the wider region; the term "single-family detached" describes who lives in it. It does not indicate shape, or location; because they are not surrounded by other buildings, the potential size of a single-family house is limited only by the budget of the builder and local law. They can range from a tiny country cottage or cabin or a small suburban prefabricated home to a large mansion, aristocratic estate or stately home. Sizes in real estate advertising are given in area, or by the number of bedrooms or bathrooms/toilets; the choice in materials used or the shape chosen will depend on what is common to the vernacular architecture of that region, or the lasting trends in professionally designed tract housing.
A traditional log and plaster hut, a timber frame and drywall North American starter home, or a European-style concrete-and-slate house are all varieties of single-family detached housing. Single-detached homes have both disadvantages; the entire space around the building is private to the owner and family, in most cases, one can add onto the existing house if more room is needed. They typically have no property management fees, such as the ones associated with condominia and townhomes; these are considered advantages. Since single detached homes are built in places where land is more plentiful, there is a distinct cost advantage per square foot (although this varies based
Hollywood Boulevard is a major east–west street in Los Angeles, California. It begins in the west as a winding residential street at Sunset Plaza Drive in the Hollywood Hills West district. After crossing Laurel Canyon Boulevard, it proceeds due east as a major thoroughfare through Hollywood, Little Armenia and Thai Town to Vermont Avenue, it runs southeast to its eastern terminus at Sunset Boulevard in the Los Feliz district. Parts of the boulevard are popular tourist destinations the fifteen blocks between La Brea Avenue east to Gower Street where the Hollywood Walk of Fame is located. Hollywood boulevard was named Prospect Avenue until 1910, when the town of Hollywood, created by H. J. Whitley, was annexed by the neighboring City of Los Angeles. After annexation, the street numbers changed from 100 Prospect Avenue, at Vermont Avenue, to 6400 Hollywood Boulevard. In the early 1920s, real estate developer Charles E. Toberman envisioned a thriving Hollywood theatre district. Toberman was involved in 36 projects while building the Max Factor Building, Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel and the Hollywood Masonic Temple.
With Sid Grauman, he opened the three themed theatres: Egyptian, El Capitan, Chinese. In 1946, Gene Autry, while riding his horse in the Hollywood Christmas Parade — which passes down Hollywood Boulevard each year on the Sunday after Thanksgiving — heard young parade watchers yelling, "Here comes Santa Claus, here comes Santa Claus!" and was inspired to write "Here Comes Santa Claus" with Oakley Haldeman. In 1958, the Hollywood Walk of Fame, which runs from La Brea Avenue east to Gower Street, was created as a tribute to artists working in the entertainment industry. In 1985, a portion of Hollywood Boulevard in Hollywood was listed in the National Register of Historic Places as part of the "Hollywood Boulevard Commercial and Entertainment District". In 1992, the street was paved with glittery asphalt between La Brea Boulevard; the El Capitan Theatre was refurbished in 1991 damaged in the 1994 Northridge earthquake. The full El Capitan building was restored and upgraded in December 1997; the Hollywood Entertainment District, a self-taxing business improvement district, was formed for the properties from La Brea to McCadden on the boulevard.
The Hollywood extension of the Metro Red Line subway was opened in June 1999, running from Downtown Los Angeles to the San Fernando Valley. Stops on Hollywood Boulevard are located at Western Avenue, Vine Street, Highland Avenue. Metro Local lines 180, 181, 217, Metro Rapid line 780 serve Hollywood Boulevard. An anti-cruising ordinance prohibits driving on parts of the boulevard more than twice in four hours. Beginning in 1995 Los Angeles City Council member Jackie Goldberg initiated efforts to clean up Hollywood Boulevard and reverse its decades-long slide into disrepute. Central to these efforts was the construction of the Hollywood and Highland Center and adjacent Dolby Theatre in 2001. In early 2006, the city made revamping plans on Hollywood Boulevard for future tourists; the three-part plan was to exchange the original streetlights with red stars into two-headed old-fashioned streetlights, put in new palm trees, put in new stoplights. The renovations were completed in late 2006. In the few years leading up to 2007, more than $2 billion was spent on projects in the neighborhood, including mixed-use retail and apartment complexes and new schools and museums.
Advocates promote the idea of closing Hollywood Boulevard to traffic and create a Pedestrian zone from La Brea Avenue to Highland Avenue citing an increase in tourism, movie premier and award shows show closures, including 10 days for the Academy Award ceremony at the Dolby Theater. Similar to Third Street Promenade, Fremont Street or similar to some street closures in Times Squares Pedestrian Plaza's created in 2015. A popular event that takes place on the Boulevard is the complete transformation of the street to a Christmas theme. Shops and department stores attract customers by lighting their stores and the entire street with decorated Christmas trees and Christmas lights; the street becomes "Santa Claus Lane." List of Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments in Hollywood Hollywood Chamber of Commerce