Middle Irish is the Goidelic language, spoken in Ireland, most of Scotland and the Isle of Man from circa 900–1200 AD. The modern Goidelic languages—Irish, Scottish Gaelic and Manx—are all descendants of Middle Irish; the Lebor Bretnach, the "Irish Nennius", survives only from manuscripts preserved in Ireland. Middle Irish is a VSO, nominative-accusative language. Nouns decline for two genders: masculine, though traces of neuter declension persist. Adjectives agree with nouns in gender and case. Verbs conjugate for three tenses: past, future. Verbs conjugate for an impersonal, agentless form. There are a number of preverbal particles marking the negative, subjunctive, relative clauses, etc. Prepositions inflect for number. Different prepositions govern different cases, depending on intended semantics; the following is a poem in Middle Irish about King of Connacht. Dún Eogain Bél forsind loch forsrala ilar tréntroch, ní mair Eogan forsind múr ocus maraid in sendún. Maraid inad a thige irraibe' na chrólige, ní mair in rígan re cair nobíd.
Cairptech in rí robúi and, innsaigthech oirgnech Érenn, ní dechaid coll cána ar goil, rocroch tríchait im óenboin. Roloisc Life co ba shecht, rooirg Mumain tríchait fecht, nír dál do Leith Núadat nair co nár dámair immarbáig. Doluid fecht im-Mumain móir do chuinchid argait is óir, d’iaraid sét ocus móine do gabail gíall dagdóine. Trían a shlúaig dar Lúachair síar co Cnoc mBrénainn isin slíab, a trían aile úad fo dess co Carn Húi Néit na n-éces. Sé fodéin oc Druimm Abrat co trían a shlúaig, nísdermat, oc loscud Muman maisse, ba subach don degaisse. Atchím a chomarba ind ríg a mét dorigne d’anfhír, nenaid ocus tromm ’malle, conid é fonn a dúine. Dún Eogain. MacManus, Damian. "A chronology of the Latin loan words in early Irish". Ériu. 34: 21–71. McCone, Kim. "The dative singular of Old Irish consonant stems". Ériu. 29: 26–38. McCone, Kim. "Final /t/ to /d/ after unstressed vowels, an Old Irish sound law". Ériu. 31: 29–44. McCone, Kim. "Prehistoric and Middle Irish". Progress in medieval Irish studies. Pp. 7–53.
McCone, Kim. A First Old Irish Reader, Including an Introduction to Middle Irish. Maynooth Medieval Irish Texts 3. Maynooth. Dictionary of the Irish Language
William Edward Hartpole Lecky
William Edward Hartpole Lecky, was an Irish historian and political theorist with Whig proclivities. His major work was an eight-volume History of England during the Eighteenth Century. Born at Newtown Park, near Dublin, he was the eldest son of a landowner, he was educated at Kingstown, Armagh, at Cheltenham College, at Trinity College, where he graduated BA in 1859 and MA in 1863, where he studied divinity with a view to becoming a priest in the Church of Ireland. In 1860, Lecky published anonymously a small book entitled The Religious Tendencies of the Age, but on leaving college he turned to historiography. In 1861 he published Leaders of Public Opinion in Ireland, containing brief sketches of Jonathan Swift, Henry Flood, Henry Grattan and Daniel O'Connell anonymous, republished in 1871. Two surveys followed: A History of the Rise and Influence of Rationalism in Europe, A History of European Morals from Augustus to Charlemagne; the latter aroused criticism, with its opening dissertation on "the natural history of morals."
Lecky's History of European Morals was one of Mark Twain's favorite books, influenced the writing of A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court. Lecky concentrated on his major work, A History of England during the Eighteenth Century, Vols. i. and ii. of which appeared in 1878, Vols. v. and vi in 1887, Vols. vii. and viii. which completed the work, in 1890. In the "cabinet" edition of 1892, in 12 volumes, A History of Ireland in the Eighteenth Century is separated out. A volume of Poems was less successful. In 1896, he published two volumes entitled Democracy and Liberty, in which he considered modern democracy; the pessimistic conclusions at which he arrived provoked criticism both in the UK and USA, renewed when he published in a new edition his low estimate of William Ewart Gladstone recently dead. In The Map of Life Lecky discussed in a popular style ethical problems of everyday life. In 1903 he published a revised and enlarged edition of Leaders of Public Opinion in Ireland, in two volumes, with the essay on Swift omitted and that on O'Connell was expanded into a complete biography.
A critic of the methods by which the Act of Union was passed, who grew up as a moderate Liberal, was opposed to Gladstone's policy of Home Rule and, in 1895, he was returned to parliament as Unionist member for Dublin University in a by-election. In 1897, he was made a privy councillor. In the 1902 Coronation Honours list published on 26 June 1902 he was nominated an original member of the new Order of Merit, he was invested as such by King Edward VII at Buckingham Palace on 24 October 1902, his university honours included the degree of LL. D. from Dublin, St Andrews and Glasgow, the degree of D. C. L. from Oxford and the degree of Litt. D. From Cambridge. In 1894 he was elected corresponding member of the Institute of France, he contributed to periodical literature, two of his addresses, The Political Value of History and The Empire, its Value and its Growth, were published. After his father died when Lecky was 14, he was raised as a member of the family of the 8th Earl of Carnwath, his stepmother's husband.
He was married in 1871 to Elizabeth van Dedem, a lady-in-waiting to Queen Sophie of the Netherlands and member of the aristocratic van Dedem family. The couple had no children. Elizabeth, herself a writer and historian, contributed articles, chiefly on historical and political subjects, to various reviews. In 1904, money for a memorial was raised by subscription and a statue by Goscombe John was erected in Trinity College, Dublin. A volume of Lecky's Historical and Political Essays was published posthumously and introduced by his wife; the Lecky Chair of History at Trinity College, was endowed by his widow in 1913. In 1978, part of the college's humanities library complex was named in his honour. Lecky was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1891. History of the Rise and Influence of the Spirit of Rationalism in Europe: online History of European Morals from Augustus to Charlemagne: volume one of two. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1,3, 5 Bond Street). Includes all chapters, Preface and Index.
"Democracy and Liberty" Map of Life: online Introduction to Edward Gibbon's The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire: online Historical and Political Essays: online. "Lecky, William Edward Hartpole". Encyclopædia Britannica. 16. Cambridge University Press. P. 354. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by William Edward Hartpole Lecky Works by William Edward Hartpole Lecky at Project Gutenberg Works by or about William Edward Hartpole Lecky at Internet Archive History of the Rise and Influence of the Spirit of Rationalism in Europe, vol. 1 History of the Rise and Influence of the Spirit of Rationalism in Europe, vol. 2
John O'Donovan (scholar)
John O'Donovan, from Atateemore, in the parish of Kilcolumb, County Kilkenny, educated at Hunt's Academy, was an Irish language scholar from Ireland. He was Eleanor Hoberlin of Rochestown, his early career may have been inspired by his uncle Parick O'Donovan. He worked for antiquarian James Hardiman researching state papers and traditional sources at the Public Records Office, he taught Irish to Thomas Larcom for a short period in 1828 and worked for Myles John O'Reilly, a collector of Irish manuscripts. Following the death of Edward O'Reilly in August 1830, he was recruited to the Topographical Department of the first Ordnance Survey of Ireland under George Petrie in October 1830. Apart from a brief period in 1833, he worked for the Survey on place-name researches until 1842, unearthing and preserving many manuscripts. After that date, O'Donovan's work with the Survey tailed off, although he was called upon from time to time to undertake place-name research on a day-to-day basis, he researched maps and manuscripts at many libraries and archives in Ireland and England, with a view to establishing the correct origin of as many of Ireland's 63,000 townland names as possible.
His letters to Larcom are regarded as an important record of the ancient lore of Ireland for those counties he documented during his years of travel throughout much of Ireland. By 1845, O'Donovan was corresponding with the younger scholar William Reeves, much of their correspondence to 1860 survives. O'Donovan became professor of Celtic Languages at Queen's University, was called to the Bar in 1847, his work on linguistics was recognised in 1848 by the Royal Irish Academy, who awarded him their prestigious Cunningham Medal. On the recommendation of Grimm, he was elected a corresponding member of the Royal Academy of Prussia in 1856. Never in great health, he died shortly after midnight on 10 December 1861 at his residence, 36 Upper Buckingham Street, Dublin, he was buried on 13 December 1861 in Glasnevin Cemetery, where his tombstone inscription has wrong dates of both birth and death. He was father of nine children, his wife received a small state pension after his death. In a letter to Jeremiah O'Donovan Rossa of 29 May 1856 John O'Donovan gave his lineage as follows: From the senior branch of Clann-Cahill, descended from the elder son Donnell II O'Donovan, married Joanna MacCarthy Reagh of Castle Donovan and who died 1638 Edmond, married Catherine de Burgo, killed 1643.
Conor, married Rose Kavanagh. William, married Mary Oberlin, a Puritan, died 1749. Edmond, married to Mary Archdeacon, died 1798. Edmond, married Mary Oberlin, died 1817. John O'Donovan, L. L. D. Married to Mary Ann Broughton, a descendant of Cromwellian settlers. Edmond 1840 d. 1842, John 1842, Edmond 1844 War Correspondent 1882, William 1846, Richard 1846, Henry dead 1850, Henry 1852, Daniel 1856, Morgan Kavanaugh O'C 1859 d.1860. See Edmund O'Donovan. *O'Donovan Road in the Tenters area of Dublin 8 is named in his honour. An interesting feature of John O'Donovan's works is that he found himself unable to resist asserting the claims of the O'Donovan family to ancient glory, in numerous footnotes and appendices. Thankfully for Irish scholarship, this small, personal failing does not affect the overall quality of O'Donovan's pioneering research. While it has not been possible to prove the great scholar's descent from the Lords of Clancahill, not from another O'Donovan sept, it was nonetheless something in which he stoutly believed.
O'Donovan was undecided and in other notes contended Edmond was a son of Donal II by his first wife Helena de Barry. A Grammar of the Irish Language for St. Columba's College, Dublin Leabhar na gCeart Translations of the Annals of the Four Masters Translation of the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland Translation of the Martyrology of Donegal: A Calendar of the Saints of Ireland by Mícheál Ó Cléirigh Peregrine Ó Duibhgeannain Lughaidh Ó Cléirigh Mícheál Ó Cléirigh James Ussher Dubhaltach Mac Fhirbhisigh Encyclopaedia of Ireland, Brian Lalor, P. 813, 2003, Gill and MacMillan ISBN 0-7171-3000-2 A Paper Landscape, the Ordnance Survey in Nineteenth-Century Ireland, J. H. Andrews, 1993, Four Courts press, ISBN 1-85182-664-5 Iris Mhuintir Uì Dhonnabháin, O'Donovan History 2000, Published by the O'Donovan Clan, Ireland. Article by Michael R. O'Donovan John O'Donovan: A Biography, Patricia Boyne, 1987, Kilkenny: Boethius, ISBN 0-86314-139-0 De hÓir É. Seán Ó Donnabháin agus Eoghan Ó Comhraí. Baile Átha Cliath, 1962 MacSweeney P.
A Group of Nation-Builders: O’Donovan — O’Curry — Petrie. Dublin, 1913 Ó Muráile N. Seán Ó Donnabháin, «An Cúigiú Máistir» // Scoláirí Gaeilge: Léchtaí Cholm Cille XXVII / Eag. R. Ó hUiginn. Maigh Nuad, 1997. Lch. 11–82. Rossa's Recollections 1838 to 1898: Memoirs of an Irish Revolutionary by O'Donovan Rossa p. 332–377 relate to John O'Donovan. Published by Globe Pequot, 2004. ISBN 1-59228-362-4 Ordnance Survey of Ireland: Letters Catholic Encyclopaedia Irish Roots John O'Donovan/William Reeves Correspondence Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "John O'Donovan". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Online booksO'Donovan, John, ed; the Banquet of Dun Na n-Gedh and The Battle of Magh Rath, An Ancient Historical Tale, Dublin: The Irish Archaeological Society, retrieved 9 August 2008 O'Donovan, John, ed. (1843
Sir William Anson, 3rd Baronet
Sir William Reynell Anson, 3rd Baronet, was a British jurist and Liberal Unionist politician from the Anson family. Anson was born at Walberton, the eldest son of Sir John William Hamilton Anson, 2nd Baronet, his wife Elizabeth Catherine. Educated at Eton, 1857–62, Balliol College, Oxford, 1862–66, he took a first class in both Classical Moderations, 1863, Literae Humaniores, 1866, he was elected to a fellowship of All Souls in the following year. In 1869, he was called to the Bar, went on the home circuit until 1873, when he succeeded to the baronetcy. In 1874, he became Vinerian reader in English law at Oxford, a post attached to a Fellowship of All Souls College, which he held until he became, in 1881, Warden of All Souls. Anson identified himself both with local and university interests. In that year he was returned, without opposition, as Member of Parliament for Oxford University in the Liberal Unionist interest, resigned the vice-chancellorship. In Parliament, Anson preserved an active interest in education, being a member of the newly created consultative committee of the Board of Education in 1900, in August 1902 he became the first Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Education, a post he held until 1905.
He was made a Privy Counsellor in 1911. Anson took an active part in the foundation of a school of law at Oxford, taught law to undergraduates of Trinity College, from 1886 to 1898, his volumes on The Principles of the English Law of Contract, on The Law and Custom of the Constitution in two parts, "The Parliament" and "The Crown", are standard works. He received the honorary degree Doctor of Laws from the Victoria University of Manchester in February 1902, in connection with the 50th jubilee celebrations of the establishment of the university, he was on the governing body of Abingdon School from 1900 until his death in 1914. Anson died in June 1914, aged 70, he never was succeeded in the baronetcy by his nephew, Denis. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography English contract law Anson's Law of Contract now edited by J Beatson, A Burrows and J Cartwright. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Sir William Anson, Bt Pictures in the National Portrait Gallery
John Morley, 1st Viscount Morley of Blackburn, was a British Liberal statesman and newspaper editor. A journalist, he was elected a Member of Parliament in 1883, he was Chief Secretary for Ireland in 1886 and between 1892 and 1895, Secretary of State for India between 1905 and 1910 and again in 1911 and Lord President of the Council between 1910 and 1914. Morley was a distinguished political commentator, biographer of his hero, William Gladstone. Morley is best known for his writings and for his "reputation as the last of the great nineteenth-century Liberals", he opposed the Boer War. He supported Home Rule for Ireland, his opposition to British entry into the First World War as an ally of Russia led him to leave government in August 1914. Morley was born in Blackburn, the son of Jonathan Morley, a surgeon, of Priscilla Mary, he was educated at Queen Elizabeth Grammar School, Hoole's Academy, University College School, Cheltenham College, Lincoln College, Oxford. While at Oxford, he quarrelled with his father over religion, had to leave the University early without an honours degree.
He wrote, in obvious allusion On Compromise. Morley was called to the bar by Lincoln's Inn in 1873, before deciding to pursue a career in journalism, he described his decision to abandon the law "my long enduring regret". He was the editor of the Fortnightly Review from 1867 to 1882 and of the Pall Mall Gazette from 1880 to 1883 before going into politics. Morley first stood for Parliament at the Blackburn by-election in 1869, a rare double by-election held after an election petition led to the results of the 1868 general election in Blackburn being voided, he was unsuccessful in Blackburn, failed to win a seat when he contested the City of Westminster at the 1880 general election. Morley was elected as Liberal Member of Parliament for Newcastle upon Tyne at a by-election in February 1883. Morley was a prominent Gladstonian Liberal. In Newcastle, his constituency association chairman was the effective Robert Spence Watson, a leader of the National Liberal Federation and its chairman from 1890 to 1902.
Newcastle, was a dual member constituency and Morley's parliamentary colleague, Joseph Cowen, was a radical in perpetual conflict with the Liberal Party, who owned the Newcastle Chronicle. Cowen attacked Morley from the left, sponsored working men candidates on his retirement from the seat, showing favour to the local Tory candidate, Charles Frederic Hamond. Morley, with Watson's machine, withstood the Cowen challenge until the 1895 general election, when the tactics caused the ejection of Morley and the loss of Newcastle to the Tories. In February 1886, he was sworn to the Privy Council and made Chief Secretary for Ireland, only to be turned out when Gladstone's government fell over Home Rule in July of the same year and Lord Salisbury became Prime Minister. After the severe defeat of the Gladstonian party at the 1886 general election, Morley divided his life between politics and letters until Gladstone's return to power at the 1892 general election, when he resumed as Chief Secretary for Ireland.
He had during the interval taken a leading part in parliament, but his tenure of the chief secretaryship of Ireland was hardly a success. The Irish gentry made things as difficult for him as possible, the path of an avowed Home Ruler installed in office at Dublin Castle was beset with pitfalls. In the internecine disputes that agitated the Liberal party during Lord Rosebery's administration and afterwards, Morley sided with Sir William Harcourt and was the recipient and co-signatory of his letter resigning the Liberal leadership in December 1898, he lost his seat in the 1895 general election but soon found another in Scotland, when he was elected at a by-election in February 1896 for the Montrose Burghs. From 1889 onwards, Morley resisted the pressure from labour leaders in Newcastle to support a maximum working day of eight hours enforced by law. Morley objected to this, it would be "thrusting an Act of Parliament like a ramrod into all the delicate and complex machinery of British industry".
For example, an Eight Hours Bill for miners would impose on an industry with great diversity in local and natural conditions a universal regulation. He further argued that it would be wrong to "enable the Legislature, ignorant of these things, biased in these things—to give the Legislature the power of saying how many hours a day a man shall or shall not work". Morley told trade unionists that the only right way to limit working hours was through voluntary action from them, his outspokenness against any eight hours bill, rare among politicians, brought him the hostility of labour leaders. In September 1891, two mass meetings saw labour leaders such as John Burns, Keir Hardie and Robert Blatchford all called for action against Morley. In the election of 1892, Morley did not face a labour candidate but the Eight Hours League and the Social Democratic Federation supported the Unionist candidate. Morley came second to the Unionist candidate; when Morley was appointed to the government and the necessary by-election ensued and other socialists advised working men to vote for the Unionist candidate, but the Irish vote in Newcastle rallied to Morley and he comfortably kept his seat.
After a vote on an Eight Hours Bill in the Commons in March 1892, Morley wrote: "That has taken place which I apprehended. The Labour party—that is, the most headstrong and unscrupulous and shallow of those who speak for labour—has captured the Liberal party. W
University of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Founded in 1209 and granted a Royal Charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's fourth-oldest surviving university; the university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople. The two'ancient universities' share many common features and are referred to jointly as'Oxbridge'; the history and influence of the University of Cambridge has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent Colleges and over 100 academic departments organised into six schools. Cambridge University Press, a department of the university, is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world; the university operates eight cultural and scientific museums, including the Fitzwilliam Museum, as well as a botanic garden.
Cambridge's libraries hold a total of around 15 million books, eight million of which are in Cambridge University Library, a legal deposit library. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £1.965 billion, of which £515.5 million was from research grants and contracts. In the financial year ending 2017, the central university and colleges had combined net assets of around £11.8 billion, the largest of any university in the country. However, the true extent of Cambridge's wealth is much higher as many colleges hold their historic main sites, which date as far back as the 13th century, at depreceated valuations. Furthermore, many of the wealthiest colleges do not account for “heritage assets” such as works of art, libraries or artefacts, whose value many college accounts describe as “immaterial”; the university is linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as'Silicon Fen'. It is a member of numerous associations and forms part of the'golden triangle' of English universities and Cambridge University Health Partners, an academic health science centre.
As of 2018, Cambridge is the top-ranked university in the United Kingdom according to all major league tables. As of September 2017, Cambridge is ranked the world's second best university by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, is ranked 3rd worldwide by Academic Ranking of World Universities, 6th by QS, 7th by US News. According to the Times Higher Education ranking, no other institution in the world ranks in the top 10 for as many subjects; the university has educated many notable alumni, including eminent mathematicians, politicians, philosophers, writers and foreign Heads of State. As of March 2019, 118 Nobel Laureates, 11 Fields Medalists, 7 Turing Award winners and 15 British Prime Ministers have been affiliated with Cambridge as students, faculty or research staff. By the late 12th century, the Cambridge area had a scholarly and ecclesiastical reputation, due to monks from the nearby bishopric church of Ely. However, it was an incident at Oxford, most to have led to the establishment of the university: two Oxford scholars were hanged by the town authorities for the death of a woman, without consulting the ecclesiastical authorities, who would take precedence in such a case, but were at that time in conflict with King John.
The University of Oxford went into suspension in protest, most scholars moved to cities such as Paris and Cambridge. After the University of Oxford reformed several years enough scholars remained in Cambridge to form the nucleus of the new university. In order to claim precedence, it is common for Cambridge to trace its founding to the 1231 charter from King Henry III granting it the right to discipline its own members and an exemption from some taxes. A bull in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX gave graduates from Cambridge the right to teach "everywhere in Christendom". After Cambridge was described as a studium generale in a letter from Pope Nicholas IV in 1290, confirmed as such in a bull by Pope John XXII in 1318, it became common for researchers from other European medieval universities to visit Cambridge to study or to give lecture courses; the colleges at the University of Cambridge were an incidental feature of the system. No college is as old as the university itself; the colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars.
There were institutions without endowments, called hostels. The hostels were absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some traces, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane. Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse, Cambridge's first college, in 1284. Many colleges were founded during the 14th and 15th centuries, but colleges continued to be established until modern times, although there was a gap of 204 years between the founding of Sidney Sussex in 1596 and that of Downing in 1800; the most established college is Robinson, built in the late 1970s. However, Homerton College only achieved full university college status in March 2010, making it the newest full college. In medieval times, many colleges were founded so that their members would pray for the souls of the founders, were associated with chapels or abbeys; the colleges' focus changed in 1536 with the Dissolution of the Monasteries. King Henry VIII ordered the university to disband its Faculty of Canon Law and to stop teaching "scholastic philosophy".
In response, colleges changed
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources. Philology is more defined as the study of literary texts as well as oral and written records, the establishment of their authenticity and their original form, the determination of their meaning. A person who pursues this kind of study is known as a philologist. In older usage British, philology is more general, covering comparative and historical linguistics. Classical philology studies classical languages. Classical philology principally originated from the Library of Pergamum and the Library of Alexandria around the fourth century BCE, continued by Greeks and Romans throughout the Roman/Byzantine Empire, it was preserved and promoted during the Islamic Golden Age, resumed by European scholars of the Renaissance, where it was soon joined by philologies of other non-Asian and Asian languages. Indo-European studies involves the comparative philology of all Indo-European languages. Philology, with its focus on historical development, is contrasted with linguistics due to Ferdinand de Saussure's insistence on the importance of synchronic analysis.
The contrast continued with the emergence of structuralism and Chomskyan linguistics alongside its emphasis on syntax. The term "philology" is derived from the Greek φιλολογία, from the terms φίλος "love, loved, dear, friend" and λόγος "word, reason", describing a love of learning, of literature, as well as of argument and reasoning, reflecting the range of activities included under the notion of λόγος; the term changed little with the Latin philologia, entered the English language in the 16th century, from the Middle French philologie, in the sense of "love of literature". The adjective φιλόλογος meant "fond of discussion or argument, talkative", in Hellenistic Greek implying an excessive preference of argument over the love of true wisdom, φιλόσοφος; as an allegory of literary erudition, philologia appears in fifth-century postclassical literature, an idea revived in Late Medieval literature. The meaning of "love of learning and literature" was narrowed to "the study of the historical development of languages" in 19th-century usage of the term.
Due to the rapid progress made in understanding sound laws and language change, the "golden age of philology" lasted throughout the 19th century, or "from Giacomo Leopardi and Friedrich Schlegel to Nietzsche". In the Anglo-Saxon world, the term philology to describe work on languages and literatures, which had become synonymous with the practices of German scholars, was abandoned as a consequence of anti-German feeling following World War I. Most continental European countries still maintain the term to designate departments, position titles, journals. J. R. R. Tolkien opposed the nationalist reaction against philological practices, claiming that "the philological instinct" was "universal as is the use of language". In British English usage, in British academia, "philology" remains synonymous with "historical linguistics", while in US English, US academia, the wider meaning of "study of a language's grammar and literary tradition" remains more widespread. Based on the harsh critique of Friedrich Nietzsche, US scholars since the 1980s have viewed philology as responsible for a narrowly scientistic study of language and literature.
The comparative linguistics branch of philology studies the relationship between languages. Similarities between Sanskrit and European languages were first noted in the early 16th century and led to speculation of a common ancestor language from which all these descended, it is now named Proto-Indo-European. Philology's interest in ancient languages led to the study of what were, in the 18th century, "exotic" languages, for the light they could cast on problems in understanding and deciphering the origins of older texts. Philology includes the study of texts and their history, it includes elements of textual criticism, trying to reconstruct an author's original text based on variant copies of manuscripts. This branch of research arose among Ancient scholars in the 4th century BC Greek-speaking world, who desired to establish a standard text of popular authors for the purposes of both sound interpretation and secure transmission. Since that time, the original principles of textual criticism have been improved and applied to other distributed texts such as the Bible.
Scholars have tried to reconstruct the original readings of the Bible from the manuscript variants. This method was applied to Classical Studies and to medieval texts as a way to reconstruct the author's original work; the method produced so-called "critical editions", which provided a reconstructed text accompanied by a "critical apparatus", i.e. footnotes that listed the various manuscript variants available, enabling scholars to gain insight into the entire manuscript tradition and argue about the variants. A related study method known as higher criticism studies the authorship and provenance of text to place such text in historical context; as these philological issues are inseparable from issues of interpretation, there is no clear-cut boundary between philology and hermeneutics. When text has a significant political or religious influence, scholars have difficulty reaching objective conclusions; some scholars avoid all critical methods of textual philology